Saturday, March 25, 2023
12:36 AM (GMT +5)

Go Back   CSS Forums > CSS Optional subjects > Group VII > Psychology

Reply Share Thread: Submit Thread to Facebook Facebook     Submit Thread to Twitter Twitter     Submit Thread to Google+ Google+    
LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread
Old Friday, December 12, 2014
Junior Member
Join Date: Dec 2014
Posts: 1
Thanks: 0
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
puzzlebubbe is on a distinguished road
Default Useful Notes on Some Common Diseases

Actinic Keratosis: Some Important Facts You Must Know

Introduction to Actinic Keratosis

This disease is also called solar Keratosis. It is a skin condition in which different scaly patches appear on our skin due to the sun exposure for many years. These patches are painless, but look quite ugly, and make patients feel uncomfortable. These scaly patches on skin can be in red, brown, or pink colors. The width of these patches is 0.5 -3cm. These patches mostly appear on nose, neck, and forehead. This skin condition is also common among the people with fair skin.

Causes of Actinic Keratosis

There is only one cause of Actinic Keratosis and that is prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet radiations of the sun. There are some risk factors of this disease. This disease can develop in anyone, but you have more chances of being attacked by this disease if
• Your age is over 40
• You work in sunshine
• You have pale skin
• Feel burning in sunlight exposure
• You have red hair
• Your immune system is not strong


The major symptoms of Actinic Keratosis are:
• Appearance of scaly patches on our skin
• Raised bumps on skin
• A hard surface
• Variation in skin color
• Feeling skin burning or skin itching

Signs of Actinic Keratosis

There are different signs of Actinic Keratosis. Some common signs of this disease are:
• Invisible rough patches appear on the skin.
• A person feels skin itching.
• If you go in the sun, you feel skin burning.
• You always have dry lips.
• Some type of painful growth appears on the skin.


It is necessary to remove Actinic Keratosis as these may turn into skin cancer. A skin test can be performed that is known as skin biopsy for diagnosing the disease. In this test, the skin sample is examined in a lab. For performing skin biopsy, a numbing injection is required first.
This disease can be diagnosed easily by carefully examining a skin sample under microscope. You can also diagnose the disease by keeping an eye on your skin conditions regularly.


If you will avoid being in sunlight, you will feel comfortable. With an early diagnose, it is easy to cure this disease before it transforms into skin cancer. Depending upon the skin damage, the recovery process may take from few weeks to months. Avoiding sunlight is the most important factor to remain protected from this disease. Proper care should be taken else this disease would develop into life threatening skin cancer.


It is very important to take preventive measures against this disease. You require sun safety for blocking the development of patches on your skin. You should take following preventive measures to remain protected from this disease.
• Avoid prolonged stay in sun. A longer stay in sun can cause sun burn or suntan. These two damages our skin and increase the chances of developing Actinic Keratosis.
• Whenever you go outside, do not forget to wear sunscreen. With regular use of sunscreen, development of Actinic Keratosis can be reduced. Always use a sunscreen that has a sun protection factor (SPF 15). Wear sunscreen 20 minutes before going outside in sun.
• For more protection, cover up yourself completely. Wear hats and full sleeve dresses.
• Avoid tanning beds as these are the emitters of UVA. These rays UVA are less dangerous than UVB, but these rays have more power of penetrating into our skin. With deep penetration into our skin, these rays cause skin cancer.
• You should examine your skin thoroughly daily. If you observe any changes in your skin condition, you should immediately consult a skin specialist.

Types of Actinic Keratosis

There are two major types of this skin disease.
• Cancerous Actinic Keratosis
This type Actinic Keratosis can develop into skin cancer. Bleeding and growing patches on the skin are the major indications of Actinic Keratosis.
• Non-cancerous Actinic Keratosis
This type of Actinic Keratosis causes skin burning and skin itching, but it does not transform into skin cancer.


With an early diagnose, this disease can be treated properly before it transforms into skin cancer. If the disease is not treated properly, it would develop into Quamous cell carcinoma. Quamous cell carcinoma is a life threatening skin cancer.

Home Remedies

The only home treatment of this disease is to remain protected from the sun exposure. Always use sunscreen before going outside. In summer months, always wear a hat on your head.


This disease resolves automatically, but in case of exposure to sun, it develops again. Mostly surgical treatments are recommended to cure this disease. The most common treatments for this disease include:
• Photodynamic Therapy
In this method, a medicine is used. This medicine makes the damaged cells of our skin sunlight sensitive. With an intense exposure of laser light, these damaged cells are destroyed then. This therapy also has some side effects, i.e. skin redness, skin swelling, and skin swelling.

• Freezing
In this treatment, skin is exposed to any cold substance, i.e. liquid nitrogen. This exposure freezes the surface of the skin, thus, peeling the skin. With skin healing, patches slough off, and a new layer of skin appears. This is the most commonly used treatment. This treatment also has many side effects, i.e. changes in skin textures, skin scaring, darkening of the skin, and blisters.
• Scraping
In this method, a device called curette is used by the surgeon. This method involves scraping off the damaged cells of the skin. After scrapping off the damaged cells, electro surgery is performed. In this surgical method, affected tissues are cut down using electric current with the help of a pencil shaped instrument. Local anesthesia is required in this procedure. This method also has many side effects, i.e. changes in skin color, scarring, and skin infections.

When to seek Medical Care?

You should immediately consult your medical advisor if
• Patches are cancerous
• The size of patch is larger than 1 cm
• You observe skin changes
• A patch bleeds
• A patch grows
• You take immunosuppressant drugs.

2. Acromegaly: Some Important Facts You Must Know

Introduction to Acromegaly

This disease is also known as gigantism. Acromegaly is a Greek Work. Its meaning is expansion of the extremities. This disease is indeed a form of hormonal disorder. It is caused because of the excessive production of the growth hormones. A pea sized gland known as pituitary gland releases this growth hormone. Mostly middle aged people get affected by this disease.

There are some major causes of this hormonal disease. The most common cause of this disease is the growth of a tumor known as pituitary adenoma in the pituitary gland. Because of pituitary tumor, this gland starts producing excess of growth hormones. The disease results in oversized hands, feet, too tall height, and other oversized organs.


There are different symptoms of Acromegaly disease. Some common symptoms are:
• A patient feels headaches.
• Partial loss of vision occurs.
• Voice of the patient becomes deep.
• Patients start snoring.
• Patients of this disease have a specific skin odor.
• Enlargement in liver occurs.
• Patients get caught by diabetes.
• Patients have oversized hands and oversized feet.
• Breast discharge is common among the women.


Some common signs of the disease are:
• Pain in Joints
• Excessive Sweating
• Enlargement in body organs
• Thickened Skin
• Enlarged Tongue
• Enlarged Chest
• Muscles Weakness
• Irregularities in Menstrual cycle in women
• Impotence
• High blood pressure
• Coarse skin


In order to confirm this disease, a doctor first performs some physical tests. A doctor observes the behavior and the body organs of the patients. A test is performed to measure the level of growth hormone in the body. Some other tests that are conducted for diagnosing this disease include:
• Blood Test
A blood test is performed to measure the levels of GH and IGF-I in the body. Increased levels of these growth hormones indicate that a patient is suffering from this disease. You should have fasted overnight if your doctor performs this test.
• Growth Hormone Suppression Test.
This is the most accurate test for verifying Acromegaly. The patient is asked to drink glucose. And the doctor measures the level of blood vessels of growth hormones before and after taking the glucose. People suffering from Acromegaly have higher levels of GH.
• Magnetic Resonance Imaging
This test is also recommended sometimes by the doctors. This imaging is performed to find the level and the position of pituitary tumor of pituitary gland. In this way, non pituitary tumors are also looked that also become a cause of high levels of the growth hormones.


First of all, a doctor requires complete medical history of the patient. Blood test repots are used for measuring the level of growth hormones. Higher levels of these hormones confirm this disease. The reports of magnetic resonance image are also helpful in confirming the disease. Blood tests are the key tests for diagnosing the disease. The major confirmation test of this disease is growth hormone suppression test. CT scan can also be used for detecting tumors and diagnosing the disease.


A good prognosis of Acromegaly requires an early diagnosis. Patients receiving prompt treatment have good prognosis. Surgery is the best for treatment according to size of the tumor as the size of pituitary adenoma affects the remission rates and the level of growth hormones mainly. If the size of tumor is less than 10mm (microadenoma), you can have better prognosis. With macroadenomas disease become long lasting after the surgery. GH concentration post treatment is the best survival predictor.


There are several drugs that are used for the prevention of this disease. These drugs work for blocking the function of growth hormones. These drugs include:
• Somatostatin Analogues
Drugs octreotide and lanreotide are Somatostatin analogues. Somatostatin is the brain hormone. These drugs interfere with the excessive production of GH. Thus, the level of GH is decreased.
• Dopamine Agonists.
Drugs cabergoline and Parlodel can lower the level of GH and IGF-I. These drugs are taken in the form of pills and can also reduce the size of the tumor.
• Growth hormone antagonist
The medication Somavert eliminates the effects of GH on the body tissues. This is the best preventive treatment. This medication also normalizes the level of IGF-I.


Acromegaly is of different types. Two major types of it are:
• Pituitary-tumor-caused Acromegaly
This is caused by the uncontrolled secretion of the growth hormones by pituitary gland due to pituitary tumor. Headaches, joint pain and diabetes are the major symptoms of it.
• Non-pituitary-tumor-caused Acromegaly
This type of Acromegaly is caused due to the tumors of pancreas, adrenal glands, and lungs that also cause excessive production of growth hormones. They produce hormone GHRH that stimulates the production of GH. Enlargement in body organs is the major indication of this type of Acromegaly.

Other rare types of Acromegaly include
• Ectopic Acromegaly
• Acromegaly due to growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma


There are some complications that are originated from the Acromegaly disease. Some of these are:
• Loss of Vision
• High Blood Pressure
• Enlargement of Heart
• Suppression of Spinal Cord
• Sleep Apnea
• Diabetes Mellitus
• Uterine Fibroid
• High Risks of Cancer
• Increased Death Rate
• Fatigue
• Weakness
• Psychological Changes
• Depression

Home Remedies

Acromegaly is a serious disease with serious complications. There is no self measure for this disease. You just need to feel confident and comfortable. You should immediately consult your heath care provider after detecting its symptoms.


The focus of the treatment is on decreasing the level of growth hormones. A best treatment should also eliminate the negative effects of the tumor. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most commonly used treatment. In this surgery, the tumor is extracted out. With the extraction of the tumor, the level of GH is normalized. Pressure on the tissues is also eliminated. It is a complex procedure. You should go to an experienced surgeon only. If tumor is not completely removed, a patient needs drugs or radiation treatments. These radiation treatments include
• Conventional Radiation Therapy
• Stereotactic Radiosurgery
In this disease, the patients require regular monitoring of the body. This will ensure that the pituitary gland is working properly.
When to Seek Medical Care?
We have mentioned Acromegaly symptoms above. If you notice any of these symptoms for more than a week, it is the right time to seek medical care. In case of serious symptoms, i.e. chest pain, you should immediately visit your health care provider.

3. Acne Rosacea Disease: Some Important Facts You Must Know
Introduction to Acne Rosacea Disease

Rosacea is an agitating, long lasting skin disease. This disease mainly affects our face and causes redness on the skin. Many red, small-sized bumps filled with secretion are produced on face. If it is not treated properly, it gets worse with the time. The disease is often mistaken as a kind of skin allergy. It is common among the people with fair skin. The disease has affected a number of people in all over the world.

Causes of Acne Rosacea

Exact causes of the disease have not been found yet. The experts have suggested that deformity in blood vessels of the face is the major factor causing this disease. Another cause of this disease is the mite Demodex folliculorum that survives on our skin. Rosacea patients have much higher numbers of these mites. It has not been confirmed yet that whether these mites cause this disease or not. Another expected cause of this disease is an H. pylori bacterium that is found in intestine. This bacterium promotes the production of bradykinin protein that causes enlargement in blood vessels. Many patients have this disease in inheritance.

Triggers of Acne Rosacea Disease

There are some factors that can aggravate this disease. These aggravating factors include:
• Eating Tasty Food Items Always
• Taking Hot baths
• Moisture in the Environment
• Use of Bakery Products
• Taking Strong Drinks
• Taking Energetic Exercise


There are different symptoms of this disease that are not long lasting. These symptoms continue to appear and disappear. These appear suddenly, and then we have a clear skin abruptly. Some of these symptoms include:
• Facial Flushing
• Red Bumps
• Facial Blushing
• Facial Redness
• Skin Burning
• Small Sores
• Skin Inflammation

Signs of Acne Rosacea

• Redness appears in the center of the face.
• Facial blood vessels become visible.
• Skin is swollen up.
• Skin becomes hard dry or oily.
• Raised patches appear on skin.
• Skin gets thick.
• Large pores appear on the face.
• Eyes become watery and dry.
• Patients feel eye burning and eye itching.
• Breakouts like acne appear on the skin.


There are no diagnostic and serologic tests for this disease. You ought to have a thorough examination of your skin condition from a physician. You should tell about the skin conditions clearly to your physician, i.e. skin redness, skin flushing, skin blushing, skin burning, and swelling, etc. Based upon this skin examination, your physician may recommend the best treatment for the disease.


No clinical test has been found yet for diagnosing this disease. A physician can reach a diagnosis by examining the patient’s skin and questioning about the symptoms and skin conditions. Enlarged skin blood vessels help in differentiating this disease from other skin diseases. As this disease mainly has an effect on our face so, the symptoms can be found on the face. You should have an early treatment to stop this disease from becoming worse. In some cases a blood test is performed if doctor suspects any inherited illness.


Rosacea can be identified in teenagers. This persistent skin disease is characterized by aggravations. The inflammatory component of the disease can be diminished by an appropriate medical care, thus, minimizing the risk of being caught by this disease. Once you have identified this disease, you should avoid disease provoking life style and other environmental factors that cause full-blown disease. After identifying this disease, you should immediately consult a skin doctor.


There are some preventive measures that can be taken to stop this disease from getting worse. After having a thorough examination of your skin and identifying the disease, you should follow the treatments prescribed by the dermatologist. You should know about the disease triggers and should avoid these to prevent the disease. Keep your face protected from the rays of the sun. Do not use any skin care product that causes skin irritation. Take a lot of care of your eyes with sensitive eye care products.


There are different types of this disease. Four major types of this disease are:

• Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea

In this type, redness appears on our face. Broken facial blood vessels become visible. A patient feels skin blushing, burning, swelling, and stinging. Long lasting facial redness is the primary symptom of this type of Rosacea.
• Papulopustular Rosacea
Acne line Rosacea is often mistaken as acne. In this skin disease, our skin does not have oil-clogged pores rather skin burning sensation is common among the patients. This type of Rosacea mainly affects the aged women. Bumps and pimples on our face are the major symptoms of this type.

• Phymatous Rosacea
This type of Rosacea causes skin thickening. Thick skin especially around the nose is the major indication of this type of this skin disease. This type also causes sometimes enlargement of the nose. This type is often mistaken as alcoholics’ nose.
• Ocular Rosacea
In this type of disease, the eyes of the patients become watery. A patient eye symptoms like eye burning, eyelids swelling, eye itching, and blur vision are the major indications of this type.


There are different complications that can arise from this disease. Some of these complications are:
• Ocular Rosacea can lead to inflamed eyelids.
• It affects emotional health of the patients. It makes patients feel embarrassed and frustrated.
• It results in facial deformity by causing enlargement in nose and cheeks.

Home Remedies

There are some home remedies that you can follow for controlling this disease. Always wear sunscreen before going outside in sun. Avoid rubbing your face. Avoid the skin care products that cause facial irritation. Stay always from hot food, hot drinks, and alcoholic drinks especially. Say goodbye to spicy food items.

Rosacea Treatment

No cure for this disease has been found yet. There are different treatments that are recommended by the skin specialists for controlling the disease. Surgical treatments like laser surgery are mostly used to get rid of the effects of this skin disease. Rosacea treatment requires a combination of certain lifestyle changes and prescription drugs. The prescription drugs that are used in the treatment of this disease include:
• Antibiotics
Antibiotics with anti-inflammatory effects are recommended for curing this disease. These antibiotics are available in different forms, i.e. creams, lotions, gels, and pills. Antibiotic pills have more side effects, but these are quite effective.
• Acne drugs
Several drugs like isotretinoin are recommended by the doctors. This drug is quite effective in diminishing the Rosacea acne like lesions. If you are pregnant, avoid taking this drug as it has serious birth effects.
When to Seek Medical Care?
If you see persistent redness, papules and pustules on your face, or have watery eyes, it is the right time to visit a physician. You should immediately consult a skin doctor after that you have identified the symptoms of this disease.
Reply With Quote

common diseases, diseases, most common disease

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On

Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Civil Servants on CSS Forum Zirwaan Khan CSS Competitive Examination 42 Saturday, September 10, 2022 02:57 AM
Repeated Questions of International Law Last Island International Law 3 Wednesday, February 23, 2022 02:20 PM
How to make Good Notes? rose_pak Tips and Experience Sharing 7 Thursday, October 17, 2019 11:30 AM
Solved Everyday Science Papers Dilrauf General Science & Ability 4 Friday, April 08, 2011 07:10 PM
European Union Aarwaa Current Affairs Notes 0 Sunday, April 20, 2008 11:34 PM

CSS Forum on Facebook Follow CSS Forum on Twitter

Disclaimer: All messages made available as part of this discussion group (including any bulletin boards and chat rooms) and any opinions, advice, statements or other information contained in any messages posted or transmitted by any third party are the responsibility of the author of that message and not of (unless is specifically identified as the author of the message). The fact that a particular message is posted on or transmitted using this web site does not mean that CSSForum has endorsed that message in any way or verified the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any message. We encourage visitors to the forum to report any objectionable message in site feedback. This forum is not monitored 24/7.

Sponsors: ArgusVision   vBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2023, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.