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  #1  
Old Saturday, March 27, 2010
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As CSS, PMS and other competitive examinations have become more analytical and instead of bookish questions, general type questions are being asked because of changing scenario of the world. Therefore it is not possible to just depend upon books/guides/syllabus etc. What I observed is to bring your mental level to that standard that you become capable to deal any kind of unseen questions, tasks and responsibilities which are required in a CSP. Therefore I have started this thread, where instead of searching ere ad there we will find solution of all compulsory subjects on one platform. Here we’ll discuss the questions and will produce their complete answers so that ideas and creativities of different minds may be shared. I am initiating by giving some questions which are mostly chosen from CSS 2009/10 question papers and will give their answers myself as well and hope that all of you will participate not only to comment and criticize but also to give your answers in your style as well to make this thread fruitful for our preparation of CSS 2011, PMS, AD-ISI ad other competitive exams. I hope this thread will be ore useful for those who have less time for preparation in their daily routine because of their jobs, business, college studies etc.
Q-1: Make an outline ad write a Comprehensive Essay (2500-3500 words) on any one of given topics. Make sure you use different forms of discourse e.g. exposition, argumentation, description and narration.
1. The Future of Democracy in Pakistan.
2. Health is not a condition of matter, but of mind.
3. co.education , Merits and Demerits
4. The food crisis: problems , challenges and opportunitities for Pakistan.
5. English as the Medium of Education in Pakistan.
6. The future of UNO, Hopes and Hurdles
7. There is no great genious without a mixture of madness.
8. Status of Women in Islam
9. Pakistan's War on terror and its impact on our psyche and politic.socio.economic fronts.
10. Power of Media in the Modern World.
Q-2: Make a précis of the given passage and suggest a suitable heading.
From Plato to Tolstoi art has been accused of exciting our emotions and thus of disturbing the order and harmony of our moral life.” Poetical imagination, according to Plato, waters our experience of lust and anger, of desire and pain, and makes them grow when they ought to starve with drought. “Tolstoi sees in art a source of infection. “Not only in infection,” he says, “a sign of art , but the degree of infectiousness is also the sole measure of excellence in art.” But the flaw in this theory is obvious. Tolstoi suppresses a fundamental moment of art, the moment of form. The aesthetic experience – the experience of contemplation- is a different state of mind from the coolness of our theoretical and the sobriety of our moral judgment. It is filled with the liveliest energies of passion, but passion itself is here transformed both in its nature and in its meaning. Wordsworth defines poetry as “ emotion recollected in tranquility’. But the tranquility we feel in great poetry is not that of recollection. The emotions aroused by the poet do not belong to a remote past. They are “ here”- alive and immediate. We are aware of their full strength, but this strength tends in a new direction. It is rather seen than immediately felt. Our passions are no longer dark and impenetrable powers; they become, as it were, transparent. Shakespeare never gives us an aesthetic theory. He does not speculate about the nature of art. Yet in the only passage in which he speaks of the character and functions of dramatic art the whole stress is laid upon this point. “ The purpose of playing,” as Hamlet explains, “ both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as, twere, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the time, his form and pressure.” But the image of the passion is not the passion itself. The poet who represents a passion doest not infected us with this passion. At a Shakespeare play we are not infected with the ambition of Macbeth, with the cruelty of Richard III or with the jealously of Othello. We are not at the mercy of these emotions; we look through them; we seem to penetrate into their very nature and essence. In this respect Shakespeare’s theory of dramatic art, if he had such a theory, is in complete agreement with the conception of the fine arts of the great painters and sculptors.
Q-3: Inspite of strong research base, rich lands, reasonable water resources and various land reforms why agriculture remained less developed in Pakistan?
Q-4: "The new afghan strategy of U.S.,in fact,is a veiled request for their safe exit-.It is a gamble.the price of victory will be high and the price of failure is incalculable."analyse and comment.
Q-5: Write short note on the following by giving their exact life span and contribution to the field of science (Accurate facts will be appreciated)
(a) Umer Al Khayam
(b) Zakariya Al Razi
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Old Monday, March 29, 2010
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Q-1: Make an outline ad write a Comprehensive Essay (2500-3500 words) on any one of given topics. Make sure you use different forms of discourse e.g. exposition, argumentation, description and narration.
1. The Future of Democracy in Pakistan.
2. Health is not a condition of matter, but of mind.
3. co.education , Merits and Demerits
4. The food crisis: problems , challenges and opportunitities for Pakistan.
5. English as the Medium of Education in Pakistan.
6. The future of UNO, Hopes and Hurdles
7. There is no great genious without a mixture of madness.
8. Status of Women in Islam
9. Pakistan's War on terror and its impact on our psyche and politic.socio.economic fronts.
10. Power of Media in the Modern World.
Pakistan's War on terror and its impact on our psyche and politic.socio.economic fronts.

(a) What is terrorism
(b) Term of war on terror
(c) Challenges faced by the world
(d) Countries under target of terrorism
(e) Pakistan’s status in the war
(f) Effects on Pakistan
(g) Impact on our psyche
i. We have become more courageous
ii. Unity against terrorism
iii. Hatred against extremists
iv. We are becoming less emotional and more practical
(h) Impact on politico-socio-economic fronts
i. New political challenges
ii. Time of careful decisions
iii. Time to be more active
iv. Importance of Pakistan’s leadership
v. Precipitation of extremists
vi. Concentration on poor areas
vii. Hesitation of foreigners to invest
viii. Decline in tourism industry
ix. Decline in business
x. Failure of markets
xi. Ruining of Peshawar and northern areas
(i) Conclusion
__________________________________________________ ________________________________
Terrorism means to do any act which cause fear in the people. It is further explained as to do any act against any government or institution of the government or any society or public by causing damage/threat to life or property or both.
“War on terror” was first globally coined after 9/11 attacks and a war against terrorism was started which was initiated by USA and later on other countries were got involved in it as allies of USA against terrorism. A force was organized which was used to pursue and target the suspected terrorists, wherever these were expected, the area was invaded and is being invaded by these forces. USA tried to achieve its many motives after blaming many countries as terrorist countries or the base of terrorists.
Afghanistan became the first victim of the war and later on it extended to Iraq here the war was named as Operation Iraq L8iberation (OIL), and the word OIL was revealing the real motive of Bush’s government i.e. to gain control of Iraq’s oil reserves.
Unlike other wars, this war has no boundaries, no borders, and even not any defined battle fields. A terrorist can be anyone, it may be you, it may be me, just as spies they may penetrate among us and cause damage of any kind to achieve their motives.
The countries which came under the target of terrorism are USA, Afghanistan, Iraq, India and above all Pakistan. The country which has sustained the most damage in the war is our country. But it is not a time to weep or to blame terrorism or its war. Because if we watch the game from an optimistic view then we find that many positive impacts have been casted by this new changed scenario.
The geopolitical location of the country has made it the most important country in the war. And this war has caused many effects on the country as well and has changed the scenario inside and outside. Where we have become victim of this war and have to scarify a lot, but these sacrifices have not gone vain and are yielding many positive aspects as well. This is the output of this war that now we have become able to make meetings with USA on same level. We became most allied ally and now have become partner of USA government in this strategic situation. This is the result of this war on terror that we have come on that standard to offer NATO forces to train Afghan Local Forces.
This war on terror has made us more courageous because the many suicidal attacks have made us more desperate…………………
Conclusion: Hard and tough times provide opportunities to nations to prove their mantle.
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Old Wednesday, April 28, 2010
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Q-2: Make a précis of the given passage and suggest a suitable heading.
From Plato to Tolstoi art has been accused of exciting our emotions and thus of disturbing the order and harmony of our moral life.” Poetical imagination, according to Plato, waters our experience of lust and anger, of desire and pain, and makes them grow when they ought to starve with drought. “Tolstoi sees in art a source of infection. “Not only in infection,” he says, “a sign of art , but the degree of infectiousness is also the sole measure of excellence in art.” But the flaw in this theory is obvious. Tolstoi suppresses a fundamental moment of art, the moment of form. The aesthetic experience – the experience of contemplation- is a different state of mind from the coolness of our theoretical and the sobriety of our moral judgment. It is filled with the liveliest energies of passion, but passion itself is here transformed both in its nature and in its meaning. Wordsworth defines poetry as “ emotion recollected in tranquility’. But the tranquility we feel in great poetry is not that of recollection. The emotions aroused by the poet do not belong to a remote past. They are “ here”- alive and immediate. We are aware of their full strength, but this strength tends in a new direction. It is rather seen than immediately felt. Our passions are no longer dark and impenetrable powers; they become, as it were, transparent. Shakespeare never gives us an aesthetic theory. He does not speculate about the nature of art. Yet in the only passage in which he speaks of the character and functions of dramatic art the whole stress is laid upon this point. “ The purpose of playing,” as Hamlet explains, “ both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as, twere, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the time, his form and pressure.” But the image of the passion is not the passion itself. The poet who represents a passion doest not infected us with this passion. At a Shakespeare play we are not infected with the ambition of Macbeth, with the cruelty of Richard III or with the jealously of Othello. We are not at the mercy of these emotions; we look through them; we seem to penetrate into their very nature and essence. In this respect Shakespeare’s theory of dramatic art, if he had such a theory, is in complete agreement with the conception of the fine arts of the great painters and sculptors.
Title: Art: a game, or a blame?

Ancient Greek philosophers have been accusing art as a cause of enticing our lust, when it should be nipped. Even according to Tolstoi, the excellence in art is based upon infectiousness. But the theory is blemish as passion is transformed thoroughly in art and great poetry is not that kind of recollection of emotions, and the emotions aroused by the poet are extant, and we are not passive to these emotions. We see and judge these but not are influenced by. And the purpose of Artist is not to infect us but to reflect the true picture of morality and passions as we are not infected by passionate characters of Shakespeare, but their true features are revealed.
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Old Wednesday, July 07, 2010
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POPULATION EXPLOSION
In statistics of any country population is a very important word. A study of the population is of great importance to frame policies for the economic development of the country. Any country with fewer resources and more people to live in, to be fed and to be clothed is said to be an over populated country.
If any country is rich in soil, climate, mineral resources, manpower and talent then by taking advantage of these resources effects of over population can be controlled. So any country with much resources and men who are taking advantage of the resources and everyone enjoying good life cannot be said as overpopulated.
But any country with less resources and more population is an overpopulated and is moving towards poverty and starvation.
Any country with more resources and less population is free of population explosion but, if it have fast population growth rate then it is an alarming situation as well as because if the population growth is not controlled on the basis of resource, then it may reach to population explosion. So any country less or more populated, its population growth should be controlled.
Population Growth in Pakistan:-
Pakistan with an estimated population of 130 million in mid 1995 is the seventh most populated country in the world, fourth in Asia and second in SAARC countries. The historical trends indicate a continuously increasing growth in population. Currently, the population is estimated to be growing at a rate of 2.9% per annum Pakistan is the world’s 7th most populous country.
Population growth rate of Pakistan is so fast that it has population doubling time of thirty years end as many as seven new born babies are added to its population with every passing minute. Pakistan through ranked seventh among the most populous countries of the world, has the highest population doubling time of thirty years.
China is at top in the list but its population doubling time is much lower than Pakistan. Chinese population doubles after 70 years. Japan and USA are the only two developed countries which are also included in the list of ten most populous counties, having doubling time very low. The population of Japan would not double even in three centuries as it has population doubling time of 350 years. The US is the third most populace country but has population doubling time of 117 years.
This fast growth rate and less doubling time of population of Pakistan is alarming because living standard in Pakistan is already critical. In Pakistan 43 percent of the population is under 15 years of age. Around 50 percent of Pakistan’s population lives in one-room houses. On average seven persons live in a house. 76 percent of the houses do not have bathrooms and 60 percent people face sewerage difficulties. Karachi is the largest city in Pakistan with a population of 92 million. By 2020 half of our population will be living in cities.
It does not mean that Pakistan have less resources to be utilized according to more population. But Pakistan is not utilizing her resources. Pakistan have good variety of soil, climate, mineral resources and geographical conditions, but poor planning and pathetic political system do not allow these resources to overcome population explosion. But, if we move with good plans then we may meet population growth difficulties.
Solutions to population explosion:-
To find solution to any problem, it is important to find out its causes. So there are some causes of population growth in Pakistan, from which some causes are positive and some are negative. So the causes which are proper to be overcome, should be controlled.
The world of today is said to be over populated. The alarming increase in the world population poses certain crucial economic, political and social problems in almost all spheres of life and to all sectors of human races. The facts given below tell us the rapid and horrible increase in the world population.
Following are the causes of population growth in Pakistan.
High birth rate and low death rate.
We are rapidly multiplying at the rate 3%. For the last over three decades, there is a rapid fall in the death rates due to tremendous progress in medical science. The diseases like cholera, malaria, small pox, typhoid have been greatly controlled. These used to take a heavy toll of life. The provision of hospitals in villages and cities, the improved health environment have helped in lowering the death rates.
Other causes of rapid growth of population are given below:-
 Warm climate which results high birth rate.
 System of universal marriage in our religion.
 Re-marriage of widows results more production of children.
 System of early marriage.
 Mass illiteracy.
 Low standard of living of the people.
 Lack of recreational facilities.
 Joint family system.
 Introduction of modern medicines.
 Desire for a male child.
 Better sanitation.
 Control over natural calamities.
To Pakistan, therefore the solution of the problem is of higher importance than any other nation of the world.
Practical economists have so far suggested three ways to fight out the population menace. The first consists in the utmost exploitation of resources so as to maximize the production. The second is concerned with planned distribution of national wealth. The third relates to the control of birth so as to keep it within reasonable limit. The same means also apply equally to the problem with which Pakistan is faced, But whether is Pakistan or elsewhere, these aree to be applied not separately or isolatedly but together and simultaneously because they constitute only three fronts of same strategy. They will, therefore, bear the desired fruit only when they have been put into operation as complementary to one another.
Of these, the first two-maximum production and equitable distribution are universally admitted as sound ways when they are screwed up together like two blades of scissors. One cannot cut without the other and when put together to make the complete implement, they cut anything, at least many things.
So as in the case of Pakistan, resources should be utilized properly. Just as to take out mineral resources only Pakistani firms and Pakistani engineers be allowed and the tender should not be given to any foreign company. Government should select talented men and they should be given education so that Pakistan may become independent to take out minerals.
Government should have strict plans to distribute factories in different areas according to their needs and demand but not on a political race. If any area requires five cotton factories then not a sixth one should be allowed even because of much political pressure.
Whenever any factory is needed then investors from inside Pakistan should be compelled to built it, even combined with their proper shares.
So building of factories, mills etc should be done because of the requirement of the area but not according to the wish of any investor.
Then manpower of Pakistan should be utilized, and it is the duty of Government to increase literacy rate in the country and the talented youngsters who go abroad to utilize their talent, they should be convinced to utilize their knowledge in the country, and they should given chances in the country.
Government should control the education system and every department have proper number of seats, and after completion of studies, job security should be provided. Moreover talented and creative students should be convinced and helped by the Government in establishing new business so that the manpower may be utilized within the country.
But it must be borne in mind that no amount of production and no scientific even-handed distribution of wealth will be of any avail in the long run if the population keeps multiplying at the present rate. It is essential to the success of any economic plan that the volume of population remains more or less unchanged over a long period of time. For, if the population increases out of the proportion to the increase of output, all the surplus achieved will be swallowed up by the additional mouths. Thus the nation remains as poor as ever, if not worse than before. To check the growth of population is, therefore, inseparably connected with the success of any plan to combat over population.
A proper family planning should be implemented all over the country. A proper shrewdness should be aroused among the people and those who are against the planning they should be convinced by different means, because our religion does not forbade it if it is in favour of the people, the government and the country. More recreational facilities should be minimized by increasing living standard of the people.
So in the start the family planning will face many problems but after implementation nationally, it will yield great profit for the country.
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GOOD GOVERNANCE AND THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC SERVANT


Good governance is to run any institution in proper defined manners towards positive objectives. It is the main cause of success of any department. While in public administration, people always need to be driven by some leaders who lead them. Because public is busy in their personal affairs and they are required to be driven. So the public servants are the only trained and nature permanent leaders who other than the political leaders, govern the public towards definite scopes.
Without public servants, the nation become headless and the departments become dead. Despite all these importance of the servants, they face many hurdles in carrying their tasks.
In the case of democracy, when government my decision then these are implemented through the public servants who work as hands of the government.
The basic governance of the government is based upon the constitution of the country. This constitution is made working through the servants they make it running smoothly. When the people get adapted to it then it becomes easy for the public servants to run it. But when a new ordinance or role is implemented then it is the work of the public servants to make it followed. So without the services of public servants, a government becomes paralyzed. Just as Marriage Ordinance in Punjab was tried to be followed, so that one dish may be observed in marriage parties celebrations, but it is not the public who so obedient who follow the ordinance just announced. It is necessary to be given a push through the servants so that the orders of the government get followed. but to make the orders a decisions to be followed is the basic element of good governance. But even after the announcement of the marriage ordinance by Chief Minister, it was not followed. so the instructions were given to Police officials and commissioners to make the ordinance to be followed. When they kept a check on it then all the marriages started to observed under these rules. Then the public started to arrange any marriage then hey used to say that there were strict orders about one dish and it must be followed (Sakhti ho gai ha jee one dish ki). The marriage halls managers and owners were also given instruction that they must follow the ordinance. So all was done with the effort of public servants, but when the CM was changed then the ordinance remained same but the public servants were told by the new body to quit the ordinance and instructions given by the pervious CM.
So the ordinance just became wording on papers. The rule/ordinance and constitution when sketched and approved by the government is just only words, but when the government tries to implement it when in the hands of government only it is just an announcement. But when it reaches in the hands of the public servants then it becomes a real ordinance who make it to be followed. So when the fate again gave the chance to the same CM with one dish marriage thoughts he again realizing the importance of public servants tried to get their services and again the unconscious ordinance became a real ordinance and started being followed. Secrete departments like CID were given the tasks to make the instruction followed by the government and they started reporting and keeping check on marriage ordinance, rates of fertilizers, rates of breads (Roti) according to the announcement of the CM. So the ordinance again became alive.
So the life of the governance is these public servants. Public servants are the souls in the body of governance.
When there are foolish decisions taken by the si called leaders (politicians) and state of muting is observed in a state then a big burden falls directly on the shoulders of public servants. Mostly in these circumstances the political leaders do not think about the public and just find the way to save their own steins. But the public servants never make the public to feel orphan and wrap then in protection of their governance.
It is the patience and selflessness of these souls that they bear the harshness and rages of the public and draw out the public from these harsh situation towards a definite and proper direction.
So it is the role of the public servant to maintain coordination between government and the public. As he is a spokes man of the government therefore a great responsibility lies on his shoulders. Sometimes wrong decisions are also taken by the government. In this state of delirium a public servant must have decision making capability and should create his own way n which the orders of the government get followed and public also be given protection.
There is another way trial which the public servants have to face is the recommendations by seniors, higher officials and political leader or feudal or people with much power for their personal benefits to do any work against merit. In this state the public servant comes under a big pressure and his seat is seem by him in a doldrums. In this state the seat of the servant becomes hot for him and he comes under a big difficulty. So in this state he should take help from his higher reliable authorities.
In this state his decisions do matter. He should judge the matter through his own eyes and should brief his higher officials about the problem and justify about the right side, so that help of his higher officials be obtained by him. In this way his burden will be shifted partially from his shoulders and there will be more chances to support right and given it protection.
When being posted in any region then the public servant should take the media in his confidence so that he never get entrapped, by politicians for their personal benefits through infamy created by media.
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GOOD GOVERNANCE

A proper way in every field to make a state an Ideal state is good governance. The concept of an ideal state is that imaginary state which is peaceful, peace loving, balanced in all aspects, secure from inside and outside, in which every citizen is enjoing his full rights every individuals is living prosporous, n which every person is educated and the state is also reputed in international community and where there is nno corruption at all and there is transparent justice and where there is everyone is contributing one’s services for the state sincerely and there is not any concept of un-employment and poverty. Such kind of state is only in imagination, but every good leader tries to make and achieve that concept of an ideal state through his governance and such kind of governance is called as good governance.
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KASHMIR CONFLICT


According to Pakistan’s point of view, Kashmir should be a part of Pakistan because more than 80 percent population of Kashmir is Muslim. Kashmir’s government has never been representative of the people because if we turn pages of history, we will come across that on 16th of March 1846 by the treaty of Amritsar, British government sold the Kashmir to Hindu Dogra Cheiftain, Ghulab Singh for the amount of 7.5 million. Ghulab Singh was a staunchly enemy of Muslims. So there was no democracy till 1947 when the states had to decide to Join Pakistan or India because of the wish of their people and social and geographical realities according to 3rd June 1947 Partition of Indo-Pak formula. So Maharajah Hari Singh decided that Kashmir should accede with India. But Pakistani government thinks that the government of Maharajah Hari Singh was not representative of the people of Kashmir. That’s why a proper and fair plebiscite should be held and the real wishes of the people of Kashmir should be revealed, and it is a hope that the people of Kashmir are Pakistani by heart and thy will like to join Pakistan.
Reaction of “Freedom Fighters” of Kashmir against Maharajah Government and evacuation and Azad Kashmir is a prove that the people of Kashmir want to join Pakistan.
Geographically it had border of 600 miles with West Pakistan and in many ways just as Port, Railways and Highways Kashmir was depending on West Pakistan. So under any powerful and neutral arbiter should be assigned and Kashmir should be allowed to join Pakistan and India Forces should be compelled to evacuate and free Kashmir.
But as in eyes of India Kashmir is an integral part of India. On announcement by Red cliff on 16th of August 1947, District Gordaspur joined India so geographically it should join India. It was not an intention of India but requirement of the situation so that Indian Indian troops entered in Kashmir on the request of Maharajah Hari Singh through Mr.V.P. Merion. Maharajah who was ruler of Kashmir, he requested Lord Mountbatten for military support to control law and order which was being out of control for Maharajah. India herself wanted plebiscite as from this letter which was a reply of Maharajah’s request is a prove that Indian government entered in Kashmir because of the demands of the situation.
The letter of the Lord was as:-
My dear Maharajah Sahib,
Your Highness letter dated 26 October has been delivered to me by Mr.V.P. Merion. In the special circumstances mentioned by your Highness my Government has decided to accept the accession of Kashmir State to the Dominion of India. In consistence with their policy that in the case of any state, where the issue of accession has been the subject of dispute, the question of accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the state, it is my Government’s wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invader, the question of the state’s accession should be decided by a reference to the people.
Meanwhile in response to your Highness appeal for military aid, action has been taken today to send troops of the Indian Army to help your on forces to defend your territory and to protect the lives, property and honour of your people.
My Government and I note with satisfaction that Your Highness has decided to invite Sheikh Abdullah to form an interim Government to work with your Prime Minister.
I remain
New Delhi Yours Sincerely,
27 October, 1947 Mountbatten of Burma

So the letter represents that it was not intention of India but decision of Lord Mountbatten on the request of Maharajah to troops to Kashmir to control law and order situation. India herself wanted to hold plebiscite but now the scenario has been changed because a number of Hindu families are migrated from Kashmir, so the plebiscite now will not give proper results. It is also a claim of India that “Freedom Fighters” in Kashmir are not actually Kashmiris but they are Pakistani militants disguised as Freedom Fighters and Pakistan is creating terrorism through these fighters in Kashmir which is a part of India.
But actually Kashmir is not a part of India and not even of Pakistan. Both of the parties (India and Pakistan) claiming to have Kashmir, only want to increase their importance in world’s politics. Because Kashmiris now do not want to accede with any country, the want their identity, they want their freedom, they want their rights.
They raise the slogan “We want freedom”. They want freedom not only from India but also from Pakistan. They want peace in their homeland. They are not fighting for any accession, but they are fighting for their identity.
The “Freedom Fighters” who fought against Maharajah’s Government and evacuated Azad Kashmir, they did not want accede with any country, but that was their reaction against suppression and cruelty of Maharajah.
Kashmiris want their own identity that is why, even through peace, Azad Kashmir could not have become a part of Pakistan. The Kashmiris of Azad Kashmir have their own identity, their own government, which is different from that of Pakistan.
In the case of Jammu Kashmir, India could not have become successful to make Kashmir as its own part because they are facing a number of problems and reaction from the people of Kashmir.
Kashmiris are different from Pakistanis and Indians who are fighting for their identity and the war is not a war of religion or accession but of freedom.
Kashmiris are different and they are a different nation according to their colours, their creed, their language, and their traditions.
So the nation who is fighting for her identity and freedom is under greedy intention of neighbours India and Pakistan those who want to conquer it for natural resources and more land.
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Default i want to post an other because i did my work in absence of computer

NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN PAKISTAN


National integration is a major problem of Pakistan and it is in turmoil condition here. Our politicians have always used “India’s enmity” as an element of integration. In our country, there are the following groups who have different aspects regarding nation building.
There is a group, which thinks that provinces should be given autonomy and centre should have responsibility of co-ordination among the provinces, foreign affairs, defence and budget distribution.
Another group with the base of “Two Nation Theory” think Islam as the only element of national integration.
The last group which includes both of the aforementioned groups to some aspects in its vision, consider India as a threat to our country and whole of the nation writes at this point against India.
Pakistan has a variety of cultures lingual groups and even religions and we lost our base of two nation theory in 1971 with the separation of East Pakistan and appearance of Bangladesh as an independent state. There was a same religion in East and West Pakistan but this element could not prevent the disintegration.
Moreover, after following provincial autonomy concept, we cannot even achieve national integration too. As there are different cultures, lingual groups, religions and ideologies in each province.
Using cross border element i.e. India as an element of uniting the nation against our enemy, our politicians achieved integration for a time being, but in actual, the problem remained as it is.
The reason behind this core issue is our politicians, as our leaders do not have clear image on the topic. After the independence of the country, the approaches of our political leaders toward the solution of the issue. The dictators mostly tried to suppress the nation to integrate it, but this approach made the problem more complicated. These approaches caused a war conflict in East Pakistan and we lost that part. After-wards Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, to escape from rebellion movements of different provinces for independence, declared the country as one unit. The formula of one unit acted positively in Bhutto’s period but the outcome was worse than before.
General Zia-ul-Haq used religion as an element of integration but that concept was person specific. In the beginning the formula generated its objectives but afterwards it failed.
In the period of Benazir Bhutto, Baluchistan became more sensitive regarding its integration with rest of the nation. Nawaz Sharif Government has to face crisis regarding the matter and religion and Indian threat were tried to be used as bases for integration.
Musharraf government also used its policies which has effect for time being. Now a days provinces autonomy is going to be appeared as a hope towards nation building. But this provincial autonomy is government specific and not public specific. As the politicians take steps to save their governments and their present. The future is also kept in mind, but this future is the personal future of the political leaders but the steps taken are not about the future of the public and future of the nation.
In actual, there is no balance of power among the provinces from where this problem originates and provinces blame other provinces, specially Punjab which is the biggest province on the basis of population. From the days of independence, Muhajirs in Sindh gained business power and Punjabis gained political power. Anyone who have not any of these powers were left for behind. Therefore Punjab became the leading province in policy making and the politicians of other three provinces used their people against Punjab to raise their voices for the sake of their rights. Such kind of movements did not benefit the general public but their leaders gained a lot from it. Sindh consider Punjab as a thief of their water. Baluchistan claims as it is the producer of national resources including national gas and Baluchistan is deprived of the facilities and there resources are eaten up by Punjab.
The people of K.P (NWFP) has been loyal to the country and there are a number of Pathans in Armed Forces. But after becoming a poor victim of terrorism and starting of operations in K.P (NWFP) and tribal areas, these Pathans lost the confidence on the government and withdrawn their sympathies for the country. Another conflict of Hazara Province in K.P (NWFP) and Saraiki Province in Punjab also added flames in the problem of nation building.
Therefore, it is a grave need of today to eliminate all the differences and to diminish the gaps between the people, provinces and different groups. We are not in a position to bridge the gaps but it is the time to diminish and end the gaps. If we all not do so today, we will be dismembered tomorrow. We will have to take steps on permanent basis to build our nation. Following news is a good idea to achieve National Integration
The News
Wednesday, May 05, 2010
By Masood Burki

A debate has started on the need for creating Hazara and Saraiki provinces. But rather than solving our problem of political, administrative and ethnic imbalances, creation of only two new provinces may create further complications.

Large-scale autonomy should be given to provinces, or units, so that no ethnic group has the ability to dominate smaller groups. In Switzerland there are four ethnic groups: speakers of Germans, French, Italians and Romansch. There is no domination in Switzerland by the German majority, because the political system ensures that this will not happen.

At the time of independence, India consisted of seven states and two union territories. Today the country has 28 states and seven union territories. By creating a large number of political subdivisions, India has, to a great extent, eliminated the domination of the north over the south.

My proposal is to create 16 or 17 provinces in Pakistan, which is the bare minimum. Pakistan should create five provinces out of Punjab, namely: Rawalpindi, Lahore, Sargodha, Multan and Bahawalpur. It should create three provinces out of Sindh: Sukkur, Hyderabad and Karachi. Three provinces should be carved out of NWFP: Peshawar, Abbotabad (Hazara) and Dera Ismail Khan. Balochistan should have the provinces of Quetta, Sibi and Makran. There should be provinces consisting of the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir and one consisting of FATA. Alternatively, the FATA area should join the provinces of Peshawar and Dera Ismail Khan.

There should be more federal territories in addition to the Federal Territory of Islamabad. All ports should be federal territories. Thus we will have ten federal territories.

We need to go for a plebiscite in Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas (by calling in UN observers) to integrate them as new provinces of Pakistan. It is absolutely essential that the people of the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir are represented in our National Assembly. After achieving this integration we can create pressure on India to complete the process of plebiscite, as enshrined in the UN resolutions on Kashmir.

Because of bad governance and rampant corruption, Pakistani society is on the brink of disaster. Pakistan is in the grip of militant extremists who are thriving because of the state's inability to deliver governance, speedy justice and fair play to the people. The creation of only Hazara and Saraiki provinces will cause a host of complications.

The gulf between the haves and have-nots has increased, and the masses are desperate and the state is failing. In the economic field, we have over the years avoided the adoption of a policy of self-reliance. Most of our governments have followed policies which have made us more and more dependant on foreign aid, and thus today we have limited sovereignty.

Pakistan is a nation of diverse ethnic and linguistic groups and needs better integration through better administration and more viable political subdivisions. While creating more provinces in Pakistan we have also to ensure, in the Constitution of Pakistan, that no more than four ministers will be allowed in each province as mandatory provision of the Constitution. Similarly, the federal government is to be restricted to only 12 ministers.

In order to achieve a strong and viable Pakistan it is inevitable to create at least 16 or 17 provinces in Pakistan on an urgent basis.

The choice is ours. Either we became a failed state or go for self-reliance, austerity and honesty to create a stable and viable state.
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Default No Sensible man ever made an apology

NO SENSIBLE MAN EVER MADE AN APOLOGY


Look, before you leap is a common saying which saves a sensible man from bad shameful results. In this way he is also saved from making an apology.
A sensible man is one who always steps on the basis of reasons. He has justification for his every work. But an apology is based on blames and these blames can be rejected by providing proper reasons and justification for the work done and one can save oneself fro making an apology even the result is other than success.
If we turn the pages of history then well come to know that never a sensible man had to make an apology except his personal matters in which a husband apologies his wife, a son his parent set. Muhammad Ali Jinnah a great political leader even successful in many matters laid his life with a mission, so he took every step legally which made him part from sorry and even in English government he was never blamed.
Mr. Gandhi and Nehru even sometimes sent in prison because of the blames on them but this thing never made them to bow their heads in front of others as they has justifications for their steps on the basis of their own concepts.
So all the sensible men including politicians, leaders, Generals etc. always took steps on the basis of their reasons in favour of the steps and on the basis of plannings which are the shields against shameful results.
When so ever a man loses his sensibility under the influence of his emotions then he makes the wrong decision and this should be avoided and emotions should be kept under control.
So justification, planning and control of emotions are the qualities of a sensible man and it may result sometimes in failure but never in making an apology. So blames can be rejected if you can prove your step as proper and necessary.
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Originally Posted by Perhar View Post
Q-3: Inspite of strong research base, rich lands, reasonable water resources and various land reforms why agriculture remained less developed in Pakistan?
Since partition, India and Pakistan had different psyche for development of Agriculture. The Prime Minister of India was conscious of the fact that India is deficit in Food and in order to feed such a huge and galloping population, he declared Agriculture as priority sector of the economy and hence larger funds were provided to Agriculture.
Indian Punjab was picked up as model province for higher production of food, grains viz wheat, rice and maize. Indian Punjab has established three Agriculture Universities at Ludhina, Haryana and Palampur. The Funds allocated to these Universities were 80 crore, 22 crore and 12 crore respectively. Sufficient funds were allocated for research.
Electricity for tube wells was given free, storage capacity was built to store the surplus food, Marketing Mandies were developed which remained open for 24 hours, and support price was assured to the farmers; thus special attention was paid for development of Food and Agriculture.
The Indian Agriculture Industry is on the brink of a revolution that will modernize the entire food chain, as the total food production in India is likely to double in the next ten years. The agriculture food industry also assumes significance owing to India’s sizable agrarian economy, which account for over 35% of GDP and employs around 65% of the population. Both in term of foreign investment and number of joint ventures/ foreign collaborations, the consumer food segment has the top priority. The other attractive features of the Indian agro Industry such as deep-sea fishing, aqua culture, milk and milk products, meat and poultry segments have the capacity to lure foreigners with promising benefits.
On the other hand the psyche in Pakistan was different. It was believed that we have already autarky in Food and we have limited Industry. High level Bureaucracy which took over charge of almost all the Ministries in Pakistan has no knowledge of ground realities of Agriculture prevailing in the Country. Such as very yields of crops and 90% of farmers were poor and can not invest. In Agriculture there was no credit facility for the farmers. They did not know that if Agriculture is not developed, from where the Industries will get the raw material.
It was not in their comprehension that they should establish industries like Fertilizer, Agriculture Machinery, Pesticides and Seed, which will act as a vehicle for higher agriculture production.
They paid attention only to consumer industries such as textile and sugar. No doubt, these industries were also needed to consume, agriculture production but such industries could be developed. Later on or the job would have been entrusted to private sector who has knowledge of these industries but were completely ignorant about agriculture industries.
Very meager amount was allocated to research and education. University of Agriculture Faisalabad which “is known as mother University even in India” has still only a budget of 32 crore as compared to 120 crore in Indian Punjab. 80% of our Agriculture University budget is spent on salaries and allowance of the staff and 20% on research.
The Planning Commission of Pakistan allocated very meager funds to Agriculture. In the first five years plan from 1955 to 1960, only 9.46% funds were provided while agriculture was contributing 75% to GDP at that time. It is interesting to know that allocations in others plan period were also very low.
Water sector was also neglected except in Ayub Khan time when Mangla and Terbela dams were built and more allocations were made to water sector.
Let’s now analyze why our food production is not increasing and why we have not been able to achieve the potential which definitely exists and can be achieved? The main reason of low production of food grains and specially that of wheat is that income from wheat is not compatible with that of cash crops. A comparative income statement given below.
Crops Gross income in Rs. Expenses in Rs. Net income in Rs.
Wheat
Punjab 4467 4343 124
Sindh 4322 4018 305
Cotton
Punjab 13072 6651 6421(52times)
Sindh 8045 4247 3798(12times)
Sunflower
Punjab 6090 4795 1295(10times)
Sindh NA NA NA
Cotton + Wheat
Punjab 17538 10944 6545(53 times)
Sindh 12367 8265 4102(14times)
Sugarcane
Punjab 11427 8970 2456(20times)
Sindh 13697 10112 3585(12 times)
From the above statement it is evident that cotton, sunflower and sugarcane give higher income 52, 10 and 20 times respectively as compared to wheat. Therefore farmers are not attracted to grow food grains.
The World Bank and International Monitoring Fund (IMF) under the conditions of its aids loans do not allow subsidy to agriculture sector in Pakistan while on the other hand India, our neighboring country, is providing a subsidy of Rs. 50 billion for fertilizers. The farmers in East Punjab have not to pay the water rates and also have very nominal rates of electricity for tube wells etc. 80% of the farmers of our country are very poor and they need support at the sowing time of crops, therefore Government has to improvise some sort of incentives to them. It is suggested that just like “Food Stamp Scheme” provided to poor people “Wheat Production Stamp Scheme” may be started in which all those farmers who give higher production can be helped.
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