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Old Thursday, May 12, 2005
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Default Every Day Science Paper - 2003

AoA, dear felows, a bit solved paper of EDS-2003 is below :

-------
1. Write short notes on any two of the following :
a). Microwave oven : It is one of the great inventions of the 20th century. Microwave ovens are popular because they cook food quickly. They are also extremely efficient in their use of electricity because a microwave oven heats only the food - nothing else. A microwave oven uses microwaves to heat food. Microwaves are radio waves. In the case of microwave ovens, the commonly used radio wave frequency is roughly 2,500 megahertz (2.5 gigahertz). Radio waves in this frequency range are absorbed by water, fats and sugars. When they are absorbed they are converted directly into atomic motion - heat. Microwaves in this frequency range have another interesting property: they are not absorbed by most plastics, glass or ceramics. Metal reflects microwaves, that’s why metal pans do not work well in a microwave oven.
b). Optic fibre : Optical fiber refers to the medium and the technology associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic wire or fiber. Optical fiber carries much more information than copper wire. Most telephone company long-distance lines are now of optical fiber.
Transmission on optical fiber wire requires repeaters at distance intervals. The glass fiber requires more protection within an outer cable than copper. For these reasons and because the installation of any new wiring is labor-intensive, few communities yet have optical fiber wires or cables from the phone company's branch office to local customers. A type of fiber known as single mode fiber is used for longer distances; multimode fiber is used for shorter distances.
c). Biotechnology: The simplest definition of biotechnology is "applied biology" and the application of biological knowledge and techniques to develop products. It may be further defined as the use of living organisms to make a product or run a process. By this definition, the classic techniques used for plant and animal breeding, fermentation and enzyme purification would be considered biotechnology. Some people use the term only to refer to newer tools of genetic science. In this context, biotechnology may be defined as the use of biotechnical methods to modify the genetic materials of living cells so they will produce new substances or perform new functions. Examples include recombinant DNA technology, in which a copy of a piece of DNA containing one or a few genes is transferred between organisms or "recombined" within an organism.
2. Give names of the members of the solar system. Briefly write down main characteristics of : a). Mars b). venus
- Mercury - Venus - Earth - Mars - Jupiter
- Saturn - Uranus - Nepture - Pluto

Mars : It is the fourth planet in solar system. (Greek: Ares) is the god of War. The planet probably got this name due to its red color; Mars is sometimes referred to as the Red Planet. The name of the month March derives from Mars. The first spacecraft to visit Mars was Mariner 4 in 1965. Though Mars is much smaller than Earth, its surface area is about the same as the land surface area of Earth.

Venus : Venus is the second planet from the sun and the sixth largest. Venus' orbit is the most nearly circular of that of any planet. (Greek: Aphrodite; Babylonian: Ishtar) is the goddess of love and beauty. The planet is so named probably because it is the brigthest of the planets known to the ancients.


3. Name :

a). The instrument used for the measurement of blood pressure : sphygmomanometer
b). A mammal, which can fly : bat
c). A disease which is more common in men than in women and is hereditary in character : daibetes millatus
d). One endangered animal species of Pakistan : snow leopard
e). An ore of mercury : Amorphous
f). A cyanobacterium : Anabaena azola
g). A hormone secreted by pancreas : insulin
h). The nuclear reaction taking place on the surface of sun : fusion reaction
i). The scientist who discovered sulfuric acid : Jabir bin Hayan
j). The constituent elements of brass :

4). What do the following scientific abbreviations stand for :

a). SONAR : sound navigation by application of radiation
b). SARS : severe acute respiratory syndrome
c). NTP : network time protocol
d). RQ : respiratory quotient
e). PVC : polyvinyl chloride
f). NPN : negative positive negative
g). WAN : wide area network
h). ECG: electro cardio gram
i). CPU: central processing unit
j). BCG : bacillus of calmette –Guerin

Q 5 : what are pesticides ? discuss their classification commonly in use with agronomists.

Toxic chemicals that are used to destroy pests are known as pesticides. Fungicides (which kill fungi), herbicides (which kill plants), and insecticides (which kill insects) are types of pesticides.

Classification of Pesticides :

Acarcides, Algicides, Bactericides, Bird repellents, Fungicides, Herbicides, Insect attractants, Insect repellents, Insecticides, Nematacides , Mamal repellents, Rodenticides , Virucides and plant growth regulators

Each major group of pesticides (e.g. herbicides or plant growth regulators) is subdivided into chemical or other classes (e.g. chloroacetanilide herbicides or auxins).

Q 6 : Define any five of the following :

Acoustics : The science of sound dealing with the production, effects, and transmission of sound waves through various mediums. Includes the effects of reflection, refraction, diffraction, absorption, and interference

Quartz : It is a hard glossy mineral consisting of silicon dioxide in crystal form; present in most rocks (especially sandstone and granite); yellow sand is quartz with iron oxide impurities. It is a mineral composed of the elements silicon and oxygen (silicon dioxide) that occurs in multiple forms.

Cross Pollination : Mixing the pollen of one flowering plant with another to create a hybrid. It is done by transfer of pollen from one flower to another of a different variety but of same species. Necessary for the fruit development of many plants.

Allele : Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given gene locus. One of the variant forms of a gene at a particular locus, or location, on a chromosome. Different alleles produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color or blood type.

Optical Illusion : drawing or object that appears to have an effect that it does not really have, such as when a flat painting seems to have three-dimensional depth. When something appears different than it actually is. Example: Trompe de oil murals which "trick the eye" into thinking they are 3 dimensional, or when a ceiling appears higher than it is because of colors, etc. used.

Ovulation : The release of an egg (or eggs) from the ovary.

Aqua Regia : Aqua regia is a 3:1 mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Aqua regia is used to test gold and platinum; it is just about one of the few substances that can dissolve gold and platinum.

Q. 7 : Which physical quantities are measured by the following units :

a) Pascal Sound Pressure
b) Torr Pressure
c) Curie Intensity of radioactivity
d) Angstrom Unit of length
e) Light year The distance light travels in a year
f) Dioptre Lens refractive power
g) Horse power Unit of Power
h) Radian Unit of angular measure
i) Candela Unit of luminous intensity
j) Mole unit of amount of substance

Q. 8: Explain the structure of Earth and its Atmosphere


Atmosphere of Earth :

Gaseous envelope of the Earth, or any other celestial object. The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of nitrogen (78 per cent), oxygen (21 per cent), argon (0.9 per cent), carbon dioxide (0.03 per cent), varying amounts of water vapour, and trace amounts of hydrogen, ozone, methane, carbon monoxide, helium, neon, krypton, and xenon.

The atmosphere is divided into several layers. The lowest one, the troposphere, extends up to about 16 km (10 mi) in tropical regions and to about 9.7 km (6 mi) in temperate latitudes. Most clouds occur in this layer. Above the troposphere is the stratosphere, which has an upper boundary of almost 50 km (30 mi). The layer from 50 to 80 km (30 to 50 mi), called the mesosphere, is characterized by a marked decrease in temperature as the altitude increases. At an altitude of 80 km (50 mi), ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and showers of electrons from the sun ionize several layers of the atmosphere, causing them to conduct electricity. Because of the relatively high concentration of ions, this layer, extending to an altitude of 640 km (400 mi), is called the ionosphere. The region beyond the ionosphere is called the exosphere; it extends to about 9,600 km (6,000 mi), the outer limit of the atmosphere.


Air pressure is measured by a barometer and is expressed in torrs, which are related to the height of a column of mercury that the air pressure will support. Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is 760 torrs. At about 5.6 km (3.5 mi), it is 380 torrs; half of all the air in the atmosphere lies below this level.

Q. 9 : Fill in the blanks :

The conversion of non-diffuisalbe substances into diffusible ones by the action of enzymes in called :
Diamond is the purest naturally occurring crystalline form of : Carbon
Caustic soda is extensively used for making : making Surf
When a person can see nearer objects but not the distant ones he is said to be suffering from : nearsightedness (myopia)
Marble is --- rock : metaphoric
Curie is a unit of : radioactivity
The brown colour of rust is because of : oxidation
The movement of food through esophagus is by the muscular action known as : peristaltic
Granite is a form of – rock :
Cellulose -- is the main chemical substance in the plant cell wall :
Cell -- was first discovered by Robert Brown :

Q 10. What are Endocrine Glands ? Name any two . From which of the body are the following secreted :

Group of organs and tissues of the body that release hormones. The endocrine glands and their hormones regulate the growth, development, and function of various tissues and coordinate many of the processes of metabolism.

Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland has three lobes: anterior, intermediate, and posterior. It is situated at the base of the brain and has been called the “master gland”. The pituitary secretes various hormones that stimulate the function of other endocrine glands; growth hormone; and endorphins, peptides that reduce sensitivity to pain. The pituitary also stores vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone secreted by the hypothalamus.

Adrenal Glands
The adrenal glands, located on top of each kidney, consist of a medulla (inner part) and a cortex (outer part). The adrenal medulla produces adrenaline and noradrenaline, which affect a number of functions that help the body deal with acute emergencies. The adrenal cortex secretes a group of steroid hormones, including cortisone and hydrocortisone, that are essential to the maintenance of life and adaptation to stress.

Insulin : Pancreas
Thyroxin : Thyroid
Adrenaline ; Adrenal medulla
Estrogen : Ovaries
Testosterone : Testes
Cortisol; Adrenal cortex






Q. 11 Chose the best choice in the following statements :

1. Enzymes are organic catalysts made up of :
a. Carbohydrate b. Proteins c. Fats d. Nucleic Acid
b

2. A nanometer is :
a. 10 -3 meters b. 10-6 meters c. 10-9 meters d. 10-12 meters
c



3. The minimum speed of a Pentium II computer is :
a. 133 Mhz b. 233 Mhz c. 333 Mhz d. 433 Mhz
c

4. According to recent classifications the living organisms are divided into number of kingdoms :
a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5

5. Glycosis is a process of :
a. Photosynthesis b. Reproduction c. Transpiration d. Respiration
d

6. The Unit that coordinates different devices of Computer system is :
a. ALU b. Register c. Control Unit d. Logical Instruction
c

7. Seed is technically :
a. Ripened Ovule b. Carpel c. Ripened Ovary d. Fully mature pollen grain
a

8. ADH is a harmone secreted by :
a. Anterior pituitary b. posterior pituitary c. Adrenal Cortex
d. Adrenal Medulla
b

9. The number of natural satellites orbiting around the Mars is :
a. 1 b. 2 c. 5 d. 14
b

10. Permian Period belongs to :
a. Palaeozoic era b. Mesozoic era c. Coenozoic era d. Precambrian era
a

Q . 12 Differentiate between the following pairs :
a). Lava and Magma
Molten rock, when it is still beneath the earth's surface is Magma, and "lava" after it has erupted.

b). Ultraviolet and infrared


Ultraviolet :electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 4,000 nm, the wavelength of violet light, and 150 nm, the length of X-rays. (The nanometre, nm, equals a millionth of a millimetre). Natural ultraviolet radiation comes from the Sun, and artificial ultraviolet radiation comes from electric-arc lamps (Electric Arc).
Infrared : electromagnetic radiation in the portion of the spectrum just beyond the red portion of visible light. The wavelengths of infrared radiation are shorter than radio wavelengths and longer than those of light.

c). Fault and Fold

Fault : The line of fracture along which one section of the Earth’s crust displace relative to another section, as a result of vertical or horizontal movement of earth.


Fold : In geology, bends in layered, or stratified rocks. Most stratified rocks were originally sediments laid down as horizontal or near-horizontal layers, or beds. However, not only have they solidifed, but they are usually inclined, or dip, in one direction or another, and they have been tilted.

d). Caustic Soda and Caustic Potash

Caustic Soda: A common name for sodium hydroxide strongly alkaline caustic used in manufacturing soap and paper and aluminum and various sodium compounds
Caustic Potash, It is potassium hydroxide, often used in agriculture and industry

e). S.E.M. and T.E.M.

S.E.M. : scanning electronic microscope an electronic microscope that produces a three-dimensional image, allowing the surface structure of a specimen to be examined.

T.E.M.: transmission electronic microscope.

Q.13 which of the following statements are true and which are false

a) Right kidney in man is slightly lower in position than the left kidney : True
b) Light is not visible : False
c) Steel is more elastic than rubber : True
d) Pitch of man’s voice is greater than that of woman : False
e) Diastolic blood pressure is greater than systolic blood pressure : False
f) Base metal can be converted into gold by heating : False
g) Guava contains more vitamin C than orange : False
h) A light year is a unit of time : False
i) Mercury is heavier than lead ; False
j) Movement of tectonic plates may cause eruption of a volcano : True

Q.14 Give scientific reason of the following :

Colour blindness is more common in men than in women
Light coloured clothes are generally worn in summer
A person is hurt
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Old Tuesday, June 19, 2007
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Tabassum Jee, U always answer all that questions, but always u forget to answer the Scientific Reasons, I need all the scientific Reasons which are in last 5 yrs papers, Can u give me a favour.. Hope to hear from you soon..

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Old Thursday, September 18, 2008
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thnaks to all the members who contribute to this forum. but i request you all ( pls no hard feelings), to answer the questions only in the case when you r cent percent sure and if not then do mention that the answers are doubtful, cos a single mistake commited to answer the questions will most probably be repeated by the students who just consult the forum, and a single mark can put them either side of the margin, pass or fail......so plssssssss be careful.

while going through the EDS papers i felt so good that my brother tabassum shabir awan has contributed alot but in a few answers i have the following information.
dont remeber the year of papers' questions i am mentioning.

1.the brown colour of rust is due to ferric ion in the compund or oxide of ferric oxide. similarly when u cut a fresh apple, its color first is greenish (esp its freshly extracted juice) due to ferrous ion fe++, which is highly reactive with oxygen, thus causing the process of oxidation producing ferric oxide (Fe)2O3, Fe+++.
2. trees shed their leaves in winter because:
it helps the tree to conserve the stored energy in it for hard winters
because leaves are the main source of evaporation, they lower the temperature, causing lowering of the temperature further.
the rate of photosynthesis is much lowered in winters because the intensity of sun's temperature is low, thereby trees dont make use of the leaves' functionality, instead must supply them with the limited food stored, this makes the trees, plants etc to shed their leaves.
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Old Wednesday, November 03, 2010
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Default Solution...

3. Name :

a). The instrument used for the measurement of blood pressure : sphygmomanometer

b). A mammal, which can fly : bat

c). A disease which is more common in men than in women and is hereditary in character : daibetes millatus

d). One endangered animal species of Pakistan : snow leopard

e). An ore of mercury : mercuric oxide

f). A cyanobacterium : Anabaena azola

g). A hormone secreted by pancreas : insulin

h). The nuclear reaction taking place on the surface of sun : fusion reaction

i). The scientist who discovered sulfuric acid : Jabir bin Hayan

j). The constituent elements of brass ???
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Quote:
j). The constituent elements of brass ???
j). The constituent elements of brass are copper with zinc
red brass zinc 15%
yellow brass zinc 34-37%
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The conversion of non-diffuisalbe substances into diffusible ones by the action of enzymes in called :digestion
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Old Friday, April 29, 2011
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The conversion of complex food into simplest one is called DIGESTION..

****

Quote:
Originally Posted by Malmeen Khan View Post
The conversion of complex food into simplest one is called DIGESTION..
...With the help of digestive enzymes
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digestion is the process of breaking down food by mechanical and enzymatic action in the stomach and intestines into substances that can be used by the body....
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Default Corrections!

Some Mistakes or Left outs that I believe I should help with, are!

Every Day Science Paper - 2003
________________________________________
3. Name :
e). An ore of mercury : Cinnabar
j). The constituent elements of brass: Copper and Zinc

Q. 9 : Fill in the blanks :

The conversion of non-diffuisalbe substances into diffusible ones by the action of enzymes in called: Digestion
Granite is a form of – rock : Igneous

Question 11.

3. The minimum speed of a Pentium II computer is :
a. 133 Mhz b. 233 Mhz c. 333 Mhz d. 433 Mhz
b (233 Mhz)

4. According to recent classifications the living organisms are divided into number of kingdoms :
d. 5


13. True False
g) Guava contains more vitamin C than orange : True (yes its surprising but its true)
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Default Q13 g)

Guava contains more vitamin C than orange.
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