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Old Sunday, August 21, 2005
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Default GK paper 1(EveryDay Science)

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE, PAPER - I , (EVERYDAY SCIENCE)

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS__________MAXIMUM MARKS: 100 NOTE: Attempt any TEN questions. All questions carry EQUAL marks. Draw diagrams where necessary and write clearly.

1. Write short notes on any TWO of the following: (5 each)

(a) Communication Satellite (b) Geo-thermal Energy (c) Ultrasonics
2. Write short notes on the life and work of the following:
(5 each)

(a) AI-Biruni (b) Ibn Al - Haitham

3. Name: (1 each)

(a) The alloy which consists of copper and tin.

(b) The device used to measure radioactivity.

(c) The organ in (he human body which is responsible for the digestion of protein only

(d) The instrument used to measure very high temperature.

(e) The scientist who designed the first internal combustion engine used to burn low grade fuel.

(f)The scientist who asserted the earth to be a huge magnet.
(g) The metal known as quick silver.

(h) The device which converts the chemical energy into electrical energy.

(i) The first
person to orbit the earth in space.

(j) The scientist who discovered water.

4-Write briefly about
any FIVE of the following: (2each)

(a) Shock Waves (b) Sound Barrier (c) Solar Cell (d) Super Fluid (e) Tsunami (f) Photovoltaic Cell (g) Hygrometer

5. Which physical quantities are measured by the following units? (1 each)

(a) Coulomb (b) Weber (c) Tesla (d) Siemen (e) Rutherford (f) Faraday
(g) Angstrom (h) Parsec (i) Degree (j) Steradian
6. How do our domestic and industrial activities pollute water? Explain with reference to two important industries of Pakistan. (5,5)

7- Which of the following statements are True and which are False: (1 each)

(a) To
stay in the sunlight while circling the globe at the equator, one has to move with a speed of 1670 km/hour.

(b) Infrared
waves have more wavelengths than the red colour.

(c) liver produces bile which is involved in the breakdown of fats.

(d) A secondary cell can be charged again.

(e) Nucleic acids are responsible basically for protein synthesis in the human body,

(f) The quality of gasoline is checked by its octane number.

(g) image in
a plane mirror is not laterally inverted.

(h) Horse
power is the unit of mechanical energy.

(i) Sound
travels faster in vacuum than in water.

(j) Nitrogen is the most occurring element in the human
body.

8. Differentiate between the following pairs. (2 each)

(a) Radiotherapy & Chemotherapy (b) Penumbra & Umbra (c) Springtides & Neaptides

(d) Vertebrates
&. Invertebrates (e) Fluorescent light & Neon signs

9. Fill in the blanks: (1 each) '

a)The variation in the blood flow can be heard with an instrument called __

b)There is a place in the retina where the light sensitive cells are interrupted by the presence of the optic nerve head. It is known as __
(c) The study of human population is called __.

(d) Human beings belong to species called ___ .

(e) defect of
eye due to which nearly located objects arc not clearly visible is called __ .

(f) About _ __ _ of the human body consists of water.

(g) All of the oxygen that you breathe has been produced by the splitting
of water during __ ___.

(h) The important ore of Chromium is _.

(i) _ __ acid was discovered by Jabbar bin Hayyan.

(j) The measurement of rainfall is made by an instrument known
as _.

10. What are the main reasons of water - logging in Pakistan? How does a tube-well reclaim a water logged soil? (5,5)

11 . Give scientific reason of the following: (2 each)
(1) Pole star is always seen in the north.
(2) We never see birds urinating.
(3) Pasteurized milk has more nourishment than the ordinary boiled milk.
(4) Bees die when they sting human beings.
(5) Cloudy nights are usually warmer than the clear ones.
12. What are Nuclear reactors? How the Electrical energy is produced by Nuclear Power Plants? Name the devices which convert
(1) Mechanical energy into electrical energy
(2) Heat
energy into mechanical energy
(3) Electrical energy into mechanical energy
(4) Electrical energy into sound energy
(5) Sound energy into electrical energy

13. What do the following scientific abbreviations stand for: (1 each)
(a) I-1DL (b) McV (c) UHF (d) LED (e) LCD (f) BASIC (g) MASER (h) ETT (i) HST
j) DBS

14-Compare the columns A and B and write the correct answer from the Column to the Column A (serial wise) in Column C,
Column A
1. Gunpowder
2. Marble
3. Ozone
4. Argon
5. Quartz
6. Mirage
7. Gold
8. Modulation
9. Length
10. Solar Energy


Colum B
Sulphur dioxide
Fermi
Aqua regia
Beta - Particle
Frequency
Calcium Carbonate
Dobson Units
Silicon dioxide
Total internal reflection
Blue purple light


Column C
1.
2.
3.
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

15. Choose the best choice in the following statements.
(I) Select the correct association :

(a) Oxidation-Loss of an electron (b) Oxidation - gain of an electron (c) Reduction - gain of a neutron (d) Reduction - loss of a neutron
(2) Radioactive isotope of Uranium used in Nuclear Bomb is:

(a)92 U 235(b)92 U 234
c)92 U 233
d)92 U 238



(3) Human population growth is greatest in developing countries because:
(a) the birth rate is high in developing countries (b) the death rate is high in developing countries

(c) much of the population has already reached the child bearing age

(d) most of the world's population lives in industrialized countries


(4) Which woody raw material is used for the manufacture of paper pulp?
(a) Cotton (b) Poplar (c) Bagasse
(d) Rice straw

(5) Rectified spirit contains alcohol about:

(a) 80% (b) 95% (c) 70%

(d) 85%

(6) Which of the following elements is not present abundantly in earth's crust: (a) Silicon (b) Radium (c) Aluminum

(d) Carbon

(7) The famous book; Al - Qanoun was written by the Muslim scientist: (a.) Jabar bin Hayyan (b) Zakariya Al - Razi (c) Abu Ali Sina

(d) Abdul Qasim Majreeti

(8) Basic metals can be converted into gold by:

(a) heating (b) beating (c) artificial nuclear radioactivity(d) chemical reaction

(9) A light year is a unit of:

(a) time (b) energy (c) length (d) mass

(10) One of the main function of the earth's ozone layer is to:

(a) prevent global warming (b) filter out ultraviolet rays (c) absorb pollution (d) all of the above
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  #2  
Old Tuesday, August 23, 2005
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a) Communication Satellite :communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or low Earth orbits.

For fixed services, communications satellites provide a technology complementary to that of fiber optic submarine communication cables. For mobile applications, such as communications to ships and planes, for which application of other technologies, such as cable, are impractical or impossible.

b.Geothermal means "Heat from the Earth". The heat that flows from the Earth's hot interior due to crustal plate movements, zones of high heat flow may be located close to the surface where convective circulation plays a signifcant role in bringing the heat close to the surface. Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma.

Almost everywhere, the shallow ground or upper 10 feet of the Earth's surface maintains a nearly constant temperature between 50° and 60°F (10° and 16°C). Geothermal heat pumps can tap into this resource to heat and cool buildings. A geothermal heat pump system consists of a heat pump, an air delivery system (ductwork), and a heat exchanger—a system of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building. In the winter, the heat pump removes heat from the heat exchanger and pumps it into the indoor air delivery system. In the summer, the process is reversed, and the heat pump moves heat from the indoor air into the heat exchanger. The heat removed from the indoor air during the summer can also be used to provide a free source of hot water.
Ultrasonics, branch of physics dealing with high-frequency sound waves, usually in the range above 20,000 hertz (Hz), that is, above the audible range. It is to be distinguished from supersonics (see Aerodynamics), which deals with phenomena arising when the velocity of a solid body exceeds the speed of sound. Modern ultrasonic generators can produce frequencies of several gigahertz (1 GHz = 1 billion Hz) by transforming alternating electric currents into mechanical oscillations. Detecting and measuring ultrasonic waves are accomplished mainly through the use of a piezoelectric receiver (See Piezoelectric Effect) or by optical means, because ultrasonic waves can be rendered visible by the diffraction of light.
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Old Wednesday, August 24, 2005
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Question check my answers

(a) The alloy which consists of copper and tin.
Bronze

(b) The device used to measure radioactivity.
Geiger-Muller tube

(c) The organ in the human body which is responsible for the digestion of protein only
Digestive Enzymes

(d) The instrument used to measure very high temperature.
Infrared pyrometers

(e) The scientist who designed the first internal combustion engine used to burn low grade fuel.
Etienne Lenoir

(f)The scientist who asserted the earth to be a huge magnet.
Ben Franklin

(g) The metal known as quick silver.
Mercury

(h) The device which converts the chemical energy into electrical energy.
Battery

(i) The first person to orbit the earth in space.
John Glenn

(j) The scientist who discovered water.
Belinda Mooney
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Old Saturday, August 27, 2005
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Guide me plz. Had i written right answers
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Old Monday, October 24, 2005
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Default GK-I 2005 Solved

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE, PAPER - I , (EVERYDAY SCIENCE)

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS__________MAXIMUM MARKS: 100 NOTE: Attempt any TEN questions. All questions carry EQUAL marks. Draw diagrams where necessary and write clearly.

1. Write short notes on any TWO of the following: (5 each)

(a) Communication Satellite
A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or low Earth orbits.
For fixed services, communications satellites provide a technology complementary to that of fiber optic submarine communication cables. For mobile applications, such as communications to ships and planes, for which application of other technologies, such as cable, are impractical or impossible.
The first satellite to relay communications was Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. It was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from President Eisenhower. NASA launched an Echo satellite in 1960. This 100-foot aluminized Mylar balloon served as a passive reflector for radio communications. Courier 1B, (built by Philco) also was launched in 1960, was the world’s first active repeater satellite.

(b) Geo-thermal Energy
Geothermal Energy is energy from heat inside the Earth.The centre of the Earth is around 6000 degress Celsius - hot enough to melt rock. Even a few kilometres down, the temperature can be over 250 degrees Celsius.

In general, the temperature rises one degree Celsius for every 36 metres you go down.

In volcanic areas, molten rock can be very close to the surface.

Geothermal energy has been used for thousands of years in some countries for cooking and heating.

The name "geothermal" comes from two Greek words: "geo" means "Earth" and "thermal" means "heat".

How it works:
Hot rocks underground heat water to produce steam.
We drill holes down to the hot region, steam comes up, is purified and used to drive turbines, which drive electric generators.

There may be natural "groundwater" in the hot rocks anyway, or we may need to drill more holes and pump water down to them.

The first geothermal power station was built at Landrello, in Italy, and the second was at Wairekei in New Zealand. Others are in Iceland, Japan, the Philippines and the United States.

In Iceland, geothermal heat is used to heat houses as well as for generating electricity.

If the rocks aren't hot enough to produce steam we can sometimes still use the energy - the Town Hall in Southampton, England, is partly heated this way

More details:
Geothermal energy is an important resource in volcanically active places such as Iceland and New Zealand.
How useful it is depends on how hot the water gets. This depends on how hot the rocks were to start with, and how much water we pump down to them.

Water is pumped down an "injection well", filters through the cracks in the rocks in the hot region, and comes back up the "recovery well" under pressure. It "flashes" into steam when it reaches the surface.

The steam may be used to drive a turbogenerator, or passed through a heat exchanger to heat water to warm houses. A town in Iceland is heated this way.

The steam must be purified before it is used to drive a turbine, or the turbine blades will get "furred up" like your kettle and be ruined.


(c) Ultrasonics
Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, approximately 20 kilohertz. Some animals, such as dogs, dolphins, and bats, have an upper limit that is greater than that of the human ear and thus can hear ultrasound.
Ultrasound has industrial and medical applications. Medical Sonography (also called ultrasonography) can visualise muscle and soft tissue, making them useful for scanning the organs, and obstetric sonography is commonly used during pregnancy. Typical diagnostic ultrasound scanners operate in the frequency range of 2 to 13 megahertz. More powerful ultrasound sources may be used to generate local heating in biological tissue, with applications in physical therapy and cancer treatment. Focused ultrasound sources may be used to break up kidney stones or for cataract treatment by phacoemulsification.
Ultrasonic cleaners, sometimes called supersonic cleaners, are used at frequencies from 20-40 kHz for jewellery, lenses and other optical parts, watches, dental instruments, surgical instruments and industrial parts. The main mechanism for cleaning action in an ultrasonic cleaner is actually the energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitation events occurring in the liquid of the cleaner. Home cleaners are available and costs range from approximately US $100.
Ultrasound when applied in specific configurations can produce exotic phenomena such as sonoluminescence. These phenomena are being investigated partly because of the possibility of bubble fusion.
Ultrasound generator/speaker systems are sold with claims that they frighten away rodents and insects, but there is no scientific evidence that the devices work; controlled tests have shown that rodents quickly learn that the speakers are harmless.



2. Write short notes on the life and work of the following: (5 each)

(a) AI-Biruni
Abu Raihan Biruni (also, Al-Biruni, Alberuni Persian (September 15, 973 - December 13, 1048) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astrologer, traveller, historian, pharmacist and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, medicine and science.
He was born in Khwarazm , presently in Uzbekistan. He studied mathematics and astronomy under Abu Nasr Mansur.
He was a colleague of the Central Asian philosopher and physician Ibn Sina, the historian, philosopher and ethicist Ibn Miskawayh, in a university and science center established by prince Abu Al Abbas Ma'mun Khawarazmshah. He also travelled to Pakistan and India with Mahmud of Ghazni, who also became his patron, and accompanied him on his campaigns there, learning the language, and studying the religion and philosophy, and wrote Ta'rikh al-Hind ("Chronicles of India"). He also knew the Greek Language, the Sanskrit Language and possibly Syriac and Berber. He wrote his books in Persian and Arabic, but his native language was Khwarezmian.
Some of his notable achievements included:
· At age 17, he calculated the latitude of Kath, Khwarazm, using the maximum altitude of the sun.
· By age 22, he had written several short works, including a study of map projections, "Cartography", which included a methodology for projecting a hemisphere on a plane, .
· By age 27, he had written a book called "Chronology" which referred to other work he had completed (now lost) that included one book about the astrolabe, one about the decimal system, four about astrology, and two about history.
· He calculated the radius of the Earth to be 6,339.6 km (this result was replicated in the West in the 16th century).
Biruni's works number more than 120.
His contributions to mathematics include:
· theoretical and practical arithmetic
· summation of series
· combinatorial analysis
· the rule of three
· irrational numbers
· ratio theory
· algebraic definitions
· method of solving algebraic equations
· geometry
· Archimedes' theorems
· trisection of the angle
His non mathematical works include:
· Critical study of what India says, whether accepted by reason or refused - a compendium of India's religion and philosophy
· The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries - a comparative study of calendars of different cultures and civilizations, interlaced with mathematical, astronomical, and historical information.
· The Mas'udi Canon - a book about Astronomy, Geography and Engineering, named after Mas'ud, son of Mahmud of Ghazni, to whom he dedicated
· Understanding Astrology - a question and answer style book about mathematics and astronomy, in Arabic and Persian
· Pharmacy - about drugs and medicines
· Gems about geology, minerals, and gems, dedicated to Mawdud son of Mas'ud
· Astrolabe
· A historical summary book
· History of Mahmud of Ghazni and his father
· History of Khawarazm

(b) Ibn Al – Haitham
Alhazen Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham (also: Ibn al Haythen), (965-1040), was an Iranian-Arab mathematician; he is sometimes called al-Basri, after his birthplace.
Alhazen was born at Basra, then part of Buwayhid Persia, now part of Iraq, and probably died in Cairo, Egypt.
One account of his career has him summoned to Egypt by the mercurial caliph Hakim to regulate the flooding of the Nile. After his field work made him aware of the impracticality of this scheme, and fearing the caliph's anger, he feigned madness. He was kept under house arrest until Hakim's death in 1021. During this time he wrote scores of important mathematical treatises.
Alhazen was a pioneer in optics, engineering and astronomy. According to Giambattista della Porta, Alhazen was the first to explain the apparent increase in the size of the moon and sun when near the horizon, although Roger Bacon gives the credit of this discovery to Ptolemy. Alhazen also taught that vision does not result from the emission of rays from the eye, and wrote on the refraction of light, especially on atmospheric refraction, for example, the cause of morning and evening twilight. He solved the problem of finding the point on a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one point is reflected to another point.
Alhazen's extensive writings influenced many Western intellectuals such as Roger Bacon, John Pecham, Witelo, and Johannes Kepler.
His seven volume treatise on optics Kitab al-Manazir (Optics) (written from 1015 to 1021) is possibly the earliest work to use the scientific method. The ancient Greeks believed that truth was determined by the logic and beauty of reasoning; experiment was used as a demonstration. Alhazen used the results of experiments to test theories. The "emission" theory of light had been supported by Euclid and Ptolemy. This theory postulated that sight worked by the eye emitting light. The second or "intromission" theory, supported by Aristotle had light entering the eye. Alhazen performed experiments to determine that the "intromission" theory was scientifically correct.
Optics was translated into Latin by Witelo in 1270. It was published by Friedrich Risner in 1572, with the title Oticae thesaurus Alhazeni libri VII., cum ejusdem libro de crepusculis et nubium ascensionibus. This work enjoyed a great reputation during the Middle Ages. Works by Alhazen on geometrical subjects were discovered in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris in 1834 by E. A. Sedillot. Other manuscripts are preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and in the library of Leiden.

3. Name: (1 each)

(a) The alloy which consists of copper and tin.
Bronze

(b) The device used to measure radioactivity.
Geiger counter

(c) The organ in (the human body which is responsible for the digestion of protein only
Stomach

(d) The instrument used to measure very high temperature.
Pyrometer

(e) The scientist who designed the first internal combustion engine used to burn low grade fuel.
Francois Isaac de Rivaz

(f)The scientist who asserted the earth to be a huge magnet.
William Gilbert

(g) The metal known as quick silver.
mercury

(h) The device which converts the chemical energy into electrical energy.
Battery

(i) The first person to orbit the earth in space.
Yuri Gagarin

(j) The scientist who discovered water.
Antoine Lavoisier







4-Write briefly about any FIVE of the following: (2each)

(a) Shock Waves
In fluid dynamics, a shock wave is a nonlinear or discontinuous pressure wave. It can also be when the actual molecular or particle speed is moving faster than the wave propagation speed (space shuttle through air). They can and do transport and transmit tremendous amounts of energy (hundreds of Megawatts per square meter for shocks generated by nuclear explosions). See Rankine-Hugoniot equation.

In compressible fluids such as air, disturbances such as the pressure changes caused by a solid object moving through the medium will propagate through the fluid as pressure waves traveling at the speed of sound. When the cause of the disturbance is moving slowly relative to the speed of sound, the pressure wave takes the form of conventional sound waves. The pressure waves enable the fluid to redistribute itself to accommodate the disturbance, and the fluid behaves similarly to an incompressible fluid.

However, when a disturbance moves faster than the pressure waves it causes, fluid near the disturbance cannot react to it or "get out of the way" before it arrives. The properties of the fluid (density, pressure, temperature, velocity, etc.) thus change almost instantaneously as they adjust to the disturbance, creating thin disturbance waves called shock waves and shock heating.

Shock waves are not sound waves; a shock wave takes the form of a very thin membrane (sheet of energy) on the order of micro-meters in thickness. The pressure excursion within the shock wave is so extreme that it causes the speed of sound within the wave to change. Shock waves in air are heard as a loud "crack" or "snap" noise. Over time a shock wave can change from a nonlinear wave into a linear wave, degenerating into a conventional sound wave as it heats the air and loses energy. The sound wave is heard as the familiar "thud" or "thump" of a sonic boom, commonly created by the supersonic flight of aircraft.

There are two types of shock waves: normal shocks and oblique shocks. A normal shock extends perpendicular to the flow of fluid, and the flow goes from supersonic upstream of the shock wave to subsonic downstream. An oblique shock is formed at an angle to the flow, and although the component of flow perpendicular to the oblique shock goes from supersonic to subsonic in crossing the wave, the tangent component of flow is not affected, so the net flow may remain supersonic downstream of an oblique shock wave.

To generate lift a supersonic airplane has to produce at least two shock waves: One over-pressure downwards wave, and one under-pressure upwards wave. As the Whitcomb area rule states, we can reuse air displacement without generating additional shock waves. In this case the fuselage reuses some displacement of the wings.Analogous phenomena are known outside fluid mechanics. For example, particles accelerated beyond the speed of light in a refractive medium (where the speed of light is less than that in a vacuum, such as water) create shock effects, a phenomenon known as Cerenkov radiation.

There are two basic types of shock waves: blast waves and driven waves. A blast wave is produced by explosive phenomena. Blast waves can travel out from their source at supersonic speeds. A driven wave is produced by a source that constantly ejects matter (for example, the solar wind). A driven wave can reach a static state where it bounds the wind.

When meteors enter the earth's atmosphere, this phenomenon causes them to heat up and disintegrate; this is sometimes erroneously attributed to friction.

Another example of a shock wave is the boundary of a magnetosphere. At the shock wave, particles from the solar wind will abruptly slow to subsonic speeds.

(b) Sound Barrier
In aerodynamics, the sound barrier is the apparent physical boundary stopping large objects from becoming supersonic. The term came into use during World War II when a number of aircraft started to encounter the effects of compressibility, a grab-bag of unrelated aerodynamic effects, and fell out of use in the 1950s when aircraft started to routinely "break" the sound barrier.

As a plane approaches the speed of sound, the way air flows around its surfaces changes and it becomes a compressible fluid. Along with a number of changes in the way that lift is generated, this change also gives rise to a rapid increase in drag, known as the wave drag.

At first the exact nature of the wave drag was not well understood. It appeared that it increased exponentially, as it does for a limited range of speeds. With only the limited power of piston engines to drive them, planes could not overcome this rapid increase in drag, and even large increases in power would result in only tiny increases in performance. It appeared that an infinite amount of power would be needed to reach supersonic speeds, and thus everyone started talking about the sound barrier.

Crucial breakthroughs in supersonic speed came from the study of artillery. Starting with Ernst Mach in the 19th century, scientists were aware that after a point drag no longer increased, and in fact dropped again. Mach deduced and experimentally confirmed the existence of a shock wave which has the form of a cone with the projectile at the apex. The ratio of the speed of the projectile to the speed of sound v/c is now called the Mach number.

The challenge then became how to provide this amount of power. With the introduction of the swept wing to lower drag, and the jet engine to provide the power, by the 1950s a number of aircraft were able to fly supersonically with relative ease.

Chuck Yeager (then a Major in the US Air Force, later a Brigadier General) was the first person to break the sound barrier in level flight on October 14, 1947, flying the experimental Bell X-1 at Mach 1 at an altitude of 45,000 feet in a rocket.

George Welch made a plausible but unverified claim to have broken the sound barrier 14 days before Yeager while diving an F-86 Sabre. He also claimed to have repeated his supersonic flight 30 minutes before Yeager's flight.

Hans Guido Mutke claimed to have broken the sound barrier before Yeager, on April 9, 1945 in a Messerschmitt Me 262. However, this claim is disputed by most experts and lacks a scientific foundation.

(c) Solar Cell
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is a semiconductor device consisting of a large-area p-n junction diode, which, in the presence of sunlight is capable of generating usable electrical energy. This conversion is called the photovoltaic effect. The field of research related to solar cells is known as photovoltaics.

Solar cells have many applications. They are particularly well suited to, and historically used in situations where electrical power from the grid is unavailable, such as in remote area power systems, Earth orbiting satellites, handheld calculators, remote radiotelephones, water pumping applications, etc. Solar cells (in the form of modules or solar panels) are appearing on building roofs where they are connected through an inverter to the electricity grid in a net metering arrangement.

(d) Super Fluid
Superfluidity is a phase of matter characterised by the complete absence of viscosity. Thus superfluids, placed in a closed loop, can flow endlessly without friction. Superfluidity was discovered by Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, John F. Allen, and Don Misener in 1937. The study of superfluidity is called quantum hydrodynamics.

The superfluid transition is displayed by quantum liquids below a characteristic transition temperature. The phase change to the superfluid state is referred to as the lambda transition, because of the shape of the specific heat curve vs. temperature resembles the greek letter lambda(Λ). Helium-4, the most abundant isotope of helium, becomes superfluid at temperatures below 2.17 K (−270.98 °C). The less abundant isotope helium-3 becomes superfluid at a much lower temperature of 2.6 mK, only a few thousandths of a kelvin above absolute zero.

Although the phenomenology of superfluidity in these two systems is very similar, the nature of the two superfluid transitions is very different. Helium-4 atoms are bosons, and their superfluidity can be understood in terms of the Bose statistics that they obey. Specifically, the superfluidity of helium-4 can be regarded as a consequence of Bose-Einstein condensation in an interacting system. On the other hand, helium-3 atoms are fermions, and the superfluid transition in this system is described by a generalisation of the BCS theory of superconductivity. In it, Cooper pairing takes place between atoms rather than electrons, and the attractive interaction between them is mediated by spin fluctuations rather than phonons. See fermion condensate. A unified description of superconductivity and superfluidity is possible in terms of gauge symmetry breaking.

Superfluids, such as supercooled helium-4, exhibit many unusual properties. A superfluid acts as if it is a mixture between a normal component, with all the properties associated with normal fluid, and a superfluid component. The superfluid component has zero viscosity, zero entropy, and infinite thermal conductivity. (It is thus impossible to set up a temperature gradient in a superfluid, much as it is impossible to set up a voltage difference in a superconductor.) One of the most spectacular results of these properties is known as the thermomechanical or fountain effect. If a capillary tube is placed in a bath of superfluid helium, if the tube is heated (even by shining a light on it), the superfluid helium will flow up through the tube and out the top (this is a result of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation). A second unusual effect is that superfluid helium can form a layer, a single atom thick, up the sides of any container it is placed in.

(e) Tsunami
tsunami (pronounced soo-nah-mee or tsoo-nah-mee [ IPA /suˈnɑːmi/ or /tsuˈnɑːmi/]) is a natural phenomenon consisting of a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and large meteorite impacts all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastating.

The term tsunami comes from the Japanese language meaning harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). Although in Japanese tsunami is used for both the singular and plural, in English tsunamis is well-established as the plural. The term was created by fishermen who returned to port to find the area surrounding the harbour devastated, although they had not been aware of any wave in the open water. A tsunami is not a sub-surface event in the deep ocean; it simply has a much smaller amplitude (wave heights) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometres long), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a passing "hump" in the ocean.

Tsunamis have been historically referred to as tidal waves because as they approach land they take on the characteristics of a violent onrushing tide rather than the sort of cresting waves that are formed by wind action upon the ocean (with which people are more familiar). However, since they are not actually related to tides the term is considered misleading and its usage is discouraged by oceanographers.

(f) Photovoltaic Cell
Same As Solar Cell.

(g) Hygrometer
Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. The simplest form of a hygrometer consists of two thermometers, one of which has its bulb constantly kept wet. Evaporation from the bulb lowers the temperature so that this thermometer usually shows a lower temperature. However, when the air temperature is below freezing, it is possible for the "wet bulb" (actually a thin coating of ice) to be warmer than the dry bulb. Humidity is computed from the ambient temperature as shown by the "dry bulb thermometer" and the difference in temperature shown by the "wet bulb" and dry bulb thermometers. One device that uses the wet/dry bulb method is the sling psychrometer, where the thermometers are attached to a handle or length of rope and spun around in the air for a few minutes.

There are several other types of hygrometers that are commonly used. Frequently, the devices use the stretching of a human or animal hair under tension to determine the ambient humidity. In order to see changes that occur over time, many hygrometers record the value of humidity on a piece of graduated paper so that the values can be read off the chart. However, modern instruments often use electronic means of recording the information.

Besides green houses, and industrial spaces, hygrometers are also used in some saunas, humidors and museums. The sling or motorized psychrometer is used in meteorology.

5. Which physical quantities are measured by the following units? (1 each)

(a) Coulomb
unit of electrical charge
(b) Weber
unit of magnetic flux
(c) Tesla
unit of magnetic flux density
(d) Siemen
unit of conductance
(e) Rutherford
unit of rate of decay of radioactive material
(f) Faraday
unit of electric charge
(g) Angstrom
unit of length, used especially to specify radiation wavelengths
(h) Parsec
unit of astronomical length
(i) Degree
unit of measurement of an angle
(j) Steradian
Unit of solid angle measurement

6. How do our domestic and industrial activities pollute water? Explain with reference to two important industries of Pakistan. (5,5)

You are thirsty. You fill a glass with water.
You.re about to take a sip.
STOP!
Take a good look at the water.
Do you see anything?
No, of course you don.t.
None of us would be able to see the microbes in the
water. Most of us don.t even know from where, the
water we drink, or bathe with or brush with, comes
from. If we knew the source or how polluted it actually
was, we.d probably faint.
Water pollution is one of the most serious
environmental problems in South Asia. Let.s dive
deeper.
Since water is constantly and openly flowing through
the ecosystem . as clouds, rain , underground water:
in rivers, lakes, ponds: through cities and fields . it
picks up and carries whatever we leave behind.
And being a universal solvent, it easily picks up and
carries bacteria, viruses, heavy metals, toxic
chemicals ..... and many other unwanted substances.
Once into the water, the aquatic life is affected and it
is also rendered unfit for human consumption.

Vision 2032: We go to
another Planet to fetch water!

Recharging of groundwater happens when water,
particularly rainwater, percolates through the soil till it
reaches an acquifer. The layers of soil act as sieve,
filtering the water as it passes each layer. But if the
very soil itself is contaminated by toxic wastes and
pesticides, the water rather than getting filtered gets
contaminated further. The chemical pollutants in the soil
get dissolved easily with the water and seep down and
contaminate the entire groundwater deposits. Cleaning
of surface water is still feasible, but once ground water
is polluted, only God can clean it again !!!
Who is responsible for water pollution? Is it only the
industries who dump their untreated effluents in water
? No. WE ALL are responsible. Lets swim through the
ways water is polluted:
a. Industrial Effluents
Industries that use large amounts of water for
processing have the potential to pollute waterways
through the discharge of their waste into streams and
rivers, or by run-off and seepage of stored wastes into
nearby water sources. Though the industries play a
major role towards the regions endeavour towards self-
reliance, many of its activities have a degrading effect
on our environment . The rapid growth of industries has
not been accompanied by adequate waste treatment
facilities. Water is thus one of the prime victims of this
unplanned growth.
When the well is dry, we know the worth of water.
- Benjamin Franklin
b. Domestic Sewage
This is the wastewater that is discarded from our
households. Sewage generated from the urban
areas in the region has multiplied manifold since the
past 50 years.
As cities expand in the region without proper waste
treatment plants, rivers and streams are being used
increasingly as receptacles for their waste. Almost
90% of waste water in the region is discharged
directly into water bodies. Many people also dump
their garbage into water bodies , making them the
final resting place of cans, bottles, plastics, and other
household products. In fact our cleaning agents like
detergents, bleaches contain chemicals harmful for
aquatic life.
Ironic isn.t it, because the same water is used again
by us for drinking, bathing. Ugh!!
c. Agricultural Run-Off
Agricultural practices today use chemical fertilizers
and pesticides in large quantity. Thus when it rains
on an agricultural field which has been sprayed with
say a pesticide, the run off water picks up the
chemicals along the way and brings it to a nearby
acquifer or river, thus polluting it.
Stop polluting the river
and let them recover
..The Impact on ENVIRONMENT
Water pollution has taken its toll on the environment
too. The land has been degraded by water logging
and salinisation . Unsustainable agricultural
practices have led to droughts and floods. Both have
led to enormous loss of not only human life but also
aquatic life. For instance, like an oil spill in the sea
causes severe damage to the surrounding
ecosystems. It decreases the oxygen content in the
water resulting in irreparable loss of marine life.
The Impact on HEALTH
Water sustains life. But water can also endanger life!!
There are short-term and long-term health risks
associated with contaminated water - these may be
microbial (bacteria, viruses, parasites), or chemical
(metals, pesticides, disinfection byproducts). Fishes,
that we eat, can also be contaminated due to
effluents discharged into their habitat. If water used
for irrigation is contaminated, it affects the
agricultural produce and the poison thus may enter
the food chain.
Stagnant water also provides the perfect breeding
ground for mosquito (that causes malaria) and a host
of other parasites and insects that cause life threatening
diseases especially in Bangladesh and India.
Thus water is responsible for more than 60 % of
diseases in the region. In Bangladesh alone,
gastroenteritis and diarrhoea kill some 2,50,000
children under five years of age annually.

Nature.s Natural soap!!
That.s right. Nature has a great capacity to cleanse
itself. Of course only if man.s intervention is small.
In case of water, the sun through its heat is a
prime factor for cleaning and purifying. It converts
water into vapour to form clouds which condense
to refill our lakes and rivers with clean water.
Sunlight also penetrates the river water and helps
in the process of photosynthesis of submerged
plants, which produce oxygen. This oxygen level in
water body helps water to become clean. Some
plants also absorb toxic wastes from the water. .
But when the water body is polluted with our
wastes, the sunlight is not able to penetrate and
reach the plants. The plants and other organisms
die also because many a times the waste is of
toxic nature.

Get Mercury free with Milk
Grass growing on banks of highly polluted rivers
absorbs the pollutants especially mercury. The
cows grazing on this grass take in mercury, which
passes into the milk and affect the babies who
drink the milk.


Here is a Famous Riddle
Imagine you own a pond on which water lily is
growing. The lily plant doubles in size each day.
If the lily were allowed to grow unchecked, it
would completely cover the pond in 30 days,
choking all other forms of life in water. For a
long time, the lily plant seems small, and you
decide to relax and not remove it until it covers
half the pond. On what day will that be?
On the tewnty - ninth day, of course. You have
one day to save your pond!

Can you imagine a future without water? Never !
But if we continue to be selfish and irresponsible
then that is what tomorrow will be like. If we go on
polluting, wasting, and mismanaging water, we are
sure to run out of clean and safe water. You can
forget about bathing, brushing, cooking, drinking,
swimming, washing..and all the other things that
we think will go on forever..!
From floods to droughts, from water scarcity to water
pollution .. South Asia like rest of the world is plagued
with water problems. Perhaps it is because of all
this it is said that the next world war maybe fought
over water. So let us learn and be responsible and
find solutions.










7- Which of the following statements are True and which are False: (1 each)

(a) To stay in the sunlight while circling the globe at the equator, one has to move with a speed of 1670 km/hour.

(b) Infrared waves have more wavelengths than the red colour.

(c) liver produces bile which is involved in the breakdown of fats.

(d) A secondary cell can be charged again.

(e) Nucleic acids are responsible basically for protein synthesis in the human body,

(f) The quality of gasoline is checked by its octane number.

(g) image in a plane mirror is not laterally inverted.

(h) Horse power is the unit of mechanical energy.

(i) Sound travels faster in vacuum than in water.

(j) Nitrogen is the most occurring element in the human body.

8. Differentiate between the following pairs. (2 each)

(a) Radiotherapy & Chemotherapy
Radiotherapy:
Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). Radiotherapy may be used for curative or adjuvant cancer treatment. It is often used as a palliative treatment, where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic relief. Total Body Irradiation (TBI)is a special radiotherapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. Radiotherapy has a few applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of severe Thyroid eye disease, Pterygium, prevention of Keloid scar growth, and prevention of Heterotopic Bone formation. The use of radiotherapy in non-malignant conditions is limited partly by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers.

Chemotherapy:
Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. In its modern-day use, it refers almost exclusively to cytostatic drugs used to treat cancer.
In its non-oncological use, the term may also refer to antibiotics (antibacterial chemotherapy). In that sense, the first modern chemotherapeutic agent was Paul Ehrlich's arsphenamine, an arsenic compound discovered in 1909 and used to treat syphilis. This was later followed by sulfonamides discovered by Domagk and penicillin G discovered by Alexander Fleming.
Other uses of cytostatic chemotherapy agents are the treatment of autoimmune diseases and the suppression of transplant rejections.


(b) Penumbra & Umbra
Penumbra:
The penumbra (Latin for mid-shadow) is the portion of a shadow that results from the source of illumination being only partially blocked. Penumbras only occur when the source of light is not a point-source. As the sun is a visible disc, solar shadows have penumbras. The penumbra part of a shadow is contrasted with the umbra part of the shadow in which the light source is completely blocked.
The part of the penumbra where an annular eclipse is visible is called the antumbra.
Also, the penumbra is the lighter, fuzzier outer edge of a shadow. The shadow is darkest at the umbra, near the object, and weakest at the penumbra, at the edge.


Umbra:
The umbra (Latin for shadow) is the darkest part of a shadow. From within the umbra, the source of light is completely blocked by the object causing the shadow. This contrasts with the penumbra where the light source is only partially blocked and there is only a partial shadow.
The umbra is also the comparatively dark central region of a sunspot.

(c) Springtides & Neaptides
Spring Tide Vs Neap Tide:
The tide is the regular rising and falling of the ocean's surface caused by changes in gravitational forces external to the Earth. The main changing gravitational field is due to the Moon while a lesser field is caused by the Sun.
Around new and full Moon when the Sun, Moon and Earth form a line, the tidal forces due to the Sun reinforce those of the Moon, due to the syzygy found at those times.
The tides' range is then at its maximum: this is called the "spring tide", or just "springs" and is derived not from the season of spring but rather from the German verb springen, meaning "to leap up". When the Moon is at first quarter or third quarter, the sun and moon are at 90° to each other and the forces due to the Sun partially cancel out those of the Moon. At these points in the Lunar cycle, the tide's range is at its minimum: this is called the "neap tide", or "neaps".
Spring tides result in high waters that are higher than average, low waters that are lower than average, slack water time that is shorter than average and stronger tidal currents than average. Neaps result in less extreme tidal conditions. Normally there is a seven day interval between springs and neaps.

(d) Vertebrates &. Invertebrates
Vertebrates:
Living Beings which do have spinal columns or backbone are said to be vertebrates.
The internal skeleton which defines vertebrates consists of cartilage or bone, or in some cases both. The skeleton provides support to the organism during the period of growth. For this reason vertebrates can achieve larger sizes than invertebrates.
Invertebrate:
Invertebrate is a term to describe any animal without a spinal column. It therefore includes all animals except vertebrates.

(e) Fluorescent light & Neon signs
Florescent Light:
The common fluorescent tube relies on fluorescence. Inside the glass tube is a partial vacuum and a small amount of mercury. An electric discharge in the tube causes the mercury atoms to emit light. The emitted light is in the ultraviolet range and is invisible, and also harmful to living organisms, so the tube is lined with a coating of a fluorescent material, called the phosphor, which absorbs the UV and re-emits visible light.




Neon Signs:
Neon signs are produced by the craft of bending glass tubing into shapes. A worker skilled in this craft is known as a glass bender, neon or tube bender.
The neon sign is an evolution of the earlier Geissler tube (also called a Crookes tube), which is a glass tube for demonstrating the principles of electrical discharge.



9. Fill in the blanks: (1 each) '

a)The variation in the blood flow can be heard with an instrument called _ stethoscope _

b)There is a place in the retina where the light sensitive cells are interrupted by the presence of the optic nerve head. It is known as The Retinal Neural Transmission Layer_
(c) The study of human population is called Demography.

(d) Human beings belong to species called _mammals__ .

(e) defect of eye due to which nearly located objects arc not clearly visible is called Farsightedness Also called hyperopia __ .

(f) About _ 65% __ _ of the human body consists of water.



(g) All of the oxygen that you breathe has been produced by the splitting of water during __ Oxidative phosphorylation ___.

(h) The important ore of Chromium is Chromite _.

(i) _ Nitric acid__ acid was discovered by Jabbar bin Hayyan.(HCL was also discovered by him)

(j) The measurement of rainfall is made by an instrument known as rain gauge_.

10. What are the main reasons of water - logging in Pakistan? How does a tube-well reclaim a water logged soil? (5,5)

waterlogging and salinity are common in irrigated agriculture in both India and Pakistan, particularly where wheat and rice, the most important cereals, are grown in the same system. In Pakistan, over 70% of the groundwater pumped is of poor quality, and 6 M ha of land are salt affected, mainly in the canal-command area. Half of this is cultivable or cultivated to some extent, and a large proportion is waterlogged.

Waterlogging in some of the main wheat-producing areas in NW India is expected to increase 5 fold over the next 30 years, directly threatening the livelihoods of 1 million families. This will have a significant negative impact on the food grain production of the country as a whole, and it is likely that a similar situation prevails in Pakistan.

Work in the Faisalabad district, carried out in a project funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) showed that people in villages in salt-affected areas had a much lower standard of living than those in villages with normal soils. In particular, educational achievement was much lower and illiteracy, particularly amongst girls and women, was much higher in the saline area.

The Government of Pakistan has spent large sums on reclamation, mainly on drainage. Despite some significant successes, the area outside the canal commands remains untouched, and the measures have not worked on either dense saline-sodic soils or where irrigation water is also saline-sodic. Drainage is expensive, and the area waterlogged is still very large and expected to increase again in the future.


The land affected by moderate salinity is used to grow salt- and waterlogging-tolerant varieties of wheat and rice to increase the income of farm families. This project is specifically aimed at this situation.

We believe that one reason for the lack of progress in developing successful varieties for Pakistan in particular is the lack of simultaneous screening for waterlogging and salinity. Waterlogging leads to oxygen deficiency in the root zone and restricts the energy available for excluding salts from the roots of the plants, making them much more susceptible to salinity than normally.



The main reason for waterlogging has been pointed out as a “human made” one which was due to seepage from the artificial canals for irrigation.Waterlogging had resulted in the water level rising as far as three metres in certain cases that lent the ground unfit for agriculture. Salinity also rises with the rising water level.

In the past, government invested heavily to get rid of Waterlogging and salinity menace in the Rechna Doab. Currently government is encouraging farmers to install community tubewells in the areas where the groundwater is of better quality. It is also necessary to formulate some legal framework to regulate tubewell operations in areas where the recharge problem exists. The existing institutions like the On Farm Water Management (OFWM) program and Punjab Groundwater Sector Development Program (PGSDP) may be strengthened to monitor aquifer depletion/recharge on a regular basis to ensure the sustainable supplies of groundwater in the fresh groundwater areas.

11 . Give scientific reason of the following: (2 each)
(1) Pole star is always seen in the north.
Because the pole star, which we have in the south, is too faint that it cannot be seen from the naked eye.
(2) We never see birds urinating.
They don’t have urethra in their body, by which normally mammals urinate.
(3) Pasteurized milk has more nourishment than the ordinary boiled milk.
Because its normally refrigerated, covered and protected.
(4) Bees die when they sting human beings.
because they leave their stingers in the wound with a tiny venom sac attached
(5) Cloudy nights are usually warmer than the clear ones.
Clouds will insolate the lower troposphere, causing the temperature to not cool off as much at night.
12. What are Nuclear reactors?
A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate. Nuclear reactors are used for many purposes, but the most significant current uses are for the generation of electrical power and, in rare cases, for the production of plutonium for use in nuclear weapons.

· How the Electrical energy is produced by Nuclear Power Plants?
A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors generating nuclear power.

Nuclear power plants are base load stations, which work best when the power output is constant (although boiling water reactors can come down to half power at night). Their units range in power from about 40 MWe to almost 2000 MWe, typical of new units under construction in 2005 being in the range 600-1200 MWe.

As of 2005 there are 441 nuclear power reactors in operation around the world, which together produce about one-sixth of the world's electric power.



Name the devices which convert:
(1) Mechanical energy into electrical energy
Generator
(2) Heat energy into mechanical energy
Heat engine or steam engine.
(3) Electrical energy into mechanical energy
Electrical Motor
(4) Electrical energy into sound energy
Loudspeaker
(5) Sound energy into electrical energy
Microphone

13. What do the following scientific abbreviations stand for: (1 each)
(a) I-1DL
(I don’t think there is any such thing like I-1DL)
(b) McV
mean cell volume
(c)UHF
ultrahigh frequency
(d) LED
Light-emitting diode
(e) LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
(f) BASIC
Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
(g) MASER
microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
(h) ETT
Educational Telecommunications and Technology
(i) HST
High-speed train (in uk), Hubble space telescope
(j) DBS
Direct broadcast satellite

14-Compare the columns A and B and write the correct answer from the Column to the Column A (serial wise) in Column C,
Column A
1. Gunpowder
2. Marble
3. Ozone
4. Argon
5. Quartz
6. Mirage
7. Gold
8. Modulation
9. Length
10. Solar Energy

Colum B
Sulphur dioxide
Fermi
Aqua regia
Beta - Particle
Frequency
Calcium Carbonate
Dobson Units
Silicon dioxide
Total internal reflection
Blue purple light

Column C
1.Gunpowder(Sulphur Dioxide)
2. Marble(Calcium Carbonate)
3. Ozone(Dobson Unit)
4 Argon(Blue Purple light)
5 Quartz(Silicon Dioxide)
6 Mirage(Total internal Reflection)
7 Gold(Aqua Regia)
8 Modulation(Frequency)
9 Length(Fermi)
10 Solar Energy(Beta Particle)



15. Choose the best choice in the following statements.
(I) Select the correct association :
(a) Oxidation-Loss of an electron (b) Oxidation - gain of an electron (c) Reduction - gain of a neutron (d) Reduction - loss of a neutron
(Oxidation-Loss of an electron is the answer)

(2) Radioactive isotope of Uranium used in Nuclear Bomb is:
(a)92 U 235(b)92 U 234
c)92 U 233
d)92 U 238
(92 U 235 is the answer)

(3) Human population growth is greatest in developing countries because:
(a) the birth rate is high in developing countries (b) the death rate is high in developing countries.
(c) much of the population has already reached the child bearing age.
(d) most of the world's population lives in industrialized countries.
(most of the world's population lives in industrialized countries, not sure that this is the right answer though)

(4) Which woody raw material is used for the manufacture of paper pulp?
(a) Cotton (b) Poplar (c) Bagasse
(d) Rice straw
(Poplar is the answer)

(5) Rectified spirit contains alcohol about:
(a) 80% (b) 95% (c) 70%
(d) 85%
(95% is the answer)

(6) Which of the following elements is not present abundantly in earth's crust: (a) Silicon (b) Radium (c) Aluminum
(d) Carbon
(Aluminum is the answer)

(7) The famous book; Al - Qanoun was written by the Muslim scientist: (a.) Jabar bin Hayyan (b) Zakariya Al - Razi (c) Abu Ali Sina
(d) Abdul Qasim Majreeti
(Abu ali sina is the answer)

(8) Basic metals can be converted into gold by:
(a) heating (b) beating (c) artificial nuclear radioactivity(d) chemical reaction
(chemical reaction must be the answer)



(9) A light year is a unit of:
(a) time (b) energy (c) length (d) mass
(Length, actually it’s a unit for measuring distance)

(10) One of the main function of the earth's ozone layer is to:
(a) prevent global warming (b) filter out ultraviolet rays (c) absorb pollution (d) all of the above
(filter out ultraviolet rays is the correct answer)


Any correction will be eternally appreciated…


"Verily The Lord knows everything and Satan knows nothing"
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Belinda Mooney was a journalist who wrote about the inverter

The scientist who discovered water.
Antoine Lavoisier

Quote:
Originally Posted by Afshan
Guide me plz. Had i written right answers
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Old Wednesday, October 26, 2005
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Default The G-k Paper 1( Some Questions R Here Solved)

aoa ,
here is solved questions of G-K1
Q:5

1.COULUMB=ELECTRIC AL QUANTITY

2.TESLA=MAGNETIC FLUX

3.SIEMEN= ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE

4.FARADY= ELECTRICAL CHARGE

5.ANGSTROM=LENGHT(USED FOR ATOMIC MEASURMENT AND WAVE LENGTHS OF ELCTRO MAGNATIC RADIATIONS )

6.PARSEC= MEASURMENT( IN ASTRONOMY)


7.DEGREE= TEMPERATURE


Q:13:


1.LCD=LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY

2.HDL= HARDWARE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE

3.UHF= ULTRA- HIGH FREQUENCY

4.LED= LIGHT EMITTING DIODE

5.BASIC= BEGGINER'S ALL PURPOSE SYMBOLIC INSTRUCTION CODE

6.HST = HIGH SPEED TECHONOLGY

7.DBS=DATA BASE SERVER

THERE R SOME MISSING ,WHICH I COULD NOT SOLVE , IT IS REQUESTED TO EVERY ONE THAT PLZ DO FIND AND SOLVE THE REST ONE.

THANKX

RIZ.
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aoa

HERE IS Q :2


1- AL-biruni( 973- 1048 A.D)


HE WAS BORN KHAWARZIM. HE WAS MATHEMATICAIN, ASTRONOMER. GEOGRAPHER.PHYSICIAN AND HISTORIAN HE EXPLAINED THE ADVANCED TRIGONOMETRY. HE DISCOVERED THAT LIGHT TRAVELS FASTER THAN SOUND. HE GAVE AN UNDERSTANDING OFTHE TERM LONGITUDES AND LATITUDES. HIS BOOKS R:

1.TAHQIQ AL HIND
2.QANUN AL MASUDI
3.ASRAR AL BAQIYA
4.KITAB AL SAIDANA and
5.al tafhim


2- ibn al haitham( 975-1038 A.D)

HE WAS BETTER KNOW AS THE "ALHAZAN" IN THE WEST. HE WAS BORN IN BASRA. HE WAS MATHEMATICIAN , PHYSIOLOGIST AND OPTICIAN. HE DISCOVERED MAGNIFYING LENSES AND THE FUNCTION OF RETINA AS THE SEAT OF VISION. HE ALSO IDENTIFIED THE GRAVITY AS THE FORCE ,WHICH LATER DEVELPOED BY NEWTON AS THEORY. HIS FAMOUS BOOLS R:

1. KITAB AL MANAZIR
2.ON TWILIGHT PHENOMENA
3. MIZAN UL HIKMA and
4. CONFIGURATION OF THE UNIVERSE.



RIZ
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Old Wednesday, November 23, 2005
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Thank you all people……that should help.

Thanks again.
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AOA

Let me clear few things about question five.

Coulumb=Unit of electric charge symbol "q"

farad= unit of capicitance symbol "C" ..Capacitance is the ability of electric conductor.
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