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Post Philosophy Paper 2008



NOTE: Attempt all questions. Give details in relevance to the marks assigned to the Question. Question No. 8 is objective. All questions carry equal marks.

1. Distinguish between ‘truth’ and ‘validity’ of the logical argument. Illustrate your answer with the help of examples.

2. Critically examine the role of definition in Aristotelian Logic.

3. How emotive language is an impediment in clear thinking? Discuss.

4. What is a logical fallacy? Discuss in detail formal fallacy.

5. Discuss in detail the significance of use of symbols in logic.

6. Discuss various theory models viz-a-viz scientific theory. What is scientific explanations?

7. How far is it tenable to hold that Muslim contribution to logic is an improvement on Aristotelian logic?

Compulsory Question

8. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer sheet.


(1) Logic is the study of Rational Argument.
(a) True
(b) False

(2) Reasoning from the general to the particular is induction.
(a) True
(b) False

(3) The parable of ACHILLES and the tortoise ranks as the paradigm of a philosophical argument.
(a) True
(b) False

(4) Two statements are contradictory if they cannot both be true but may both be false.
(a) True
(b) False

(5) A proposition by itself is an argument.
(a) True
(b) False

PART-II: Which of the following are Prepositions and which are not?
(6) What a fine picture.
(a) Yes
(b) No

(7) Some students of the class are bachelors.
(a) Yes
(b) No

(8) All cows are black.
(a) Yes
(b) No

(9) May I come in, Sir.
(a) Yes
(b) No

(10) Do as directed.
(a) Yes
(b) No

PART-III: Choose the best options.

(11) The key feature of modern logic is the development of:
(a) Aristotelian Logic
(b) Forms of definitions
(c) logic of Relations
(d) None of these

(12) What fallacy is committed in the following argument:
“The criminal must not be punished because he belongs to a noble family.”
(a) Petitio Principii
(b) Figure of speech
(c) False cause
(d) None of these

(13) Draw a valid conclusion from the given argument:
(a) Either p or q
(b) If p, then r
(c) If q, then s

(14) What is “Bachelor” in Bachelor means unmarried adult male.
(a) Definition
(b) Definiendum
(c) Definiens
(d) None of these

(15) A is either “B or C” is a.
(a) Hypothetical Judgment
(b) Disjunctive judgment
(c) Indefinite Judgment
(d) None of these

(16) Who wrote the book “MANTIQ al-MASHR-ISIYYIN”?
(a) Ibn Sina
(b) Al-Ghazali
(c) Ibn-Taimiyyah
(d) None of these

(17) What does the following statement represent, “All the chair in the room are wooden”?
(a) Simple enumeration
(b) Perfect enumeration
(c) Negative induction
(d) None of these

(18) What does the symbol ‘ ’ stand for
(a) Implication
(b) Negation
(c) Conjunctive
(d) None of these

(19) The relation between A and E forms of prepositions in the square of oppositions is known as:
(a) Contradictory
(b) Sub-Contrary
(c) Contrary
(d) None of these

(20) Identify the fallacy committed in the following argument “Philosophy” is a useless subject because it does not help you to get a job:
(a) Fallacy of Equivocation
(b) Fallacy of Secundum Quid
(c) Fallacy of Ignoratio Elenchi
(d) None of these
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Q.I Select the best option /answer and till in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. (20)

(i) Who said “No man’s knowledge here can go beyond his experience:
(a) Locke
(b) Berkeley
(c) Hurne
(d) None of these

(ii) Who said “Beauty in things exists in the mind which contemplates them”:
(a) Locke
(b) Berkeley
(c) Hume
(d) None of these

(iii) Who wrote “the critique of dialectical Reasons”:
(a) Hegel
(b) Marx
(c) Sartre
(d) None of these

(iv) Who wrote the book ‘Beyond Good and Evil”:
(a) Nietzsche
(b) Freud
(c) Voltaire
(d) None of these

(v) Who put forth the idea of “Window less Monads”:
(a) Democritus
(b) Aspurites
(c) Leibniz
(d) None of these

(Vi)Who formulated “Categorical Imperative” as the basic rule ofmorality:
(a) Spinoza
(b) Descartes
(c) Kant
(d) None of these

(Vii)The Myth of the Cave was formulated by:
(a) Plato
(b) Aristotle
(c) Socrates
(d) None of these

(viii) Who said “Man is by nature a political animal:
(a) Aristotle
(b) Al-Farabi
(c) Rousseau
(d) None of these

(ix) Who formulated the theory of creative evolution:
(a) Iqbal
(b) Nietzsche
(c) Bergson
(d) None of these

(x) Who was the author of “Development of Mctaphysics in Persia”:
(a) Rumi
(b) Iqbal
(c) Iraqi
(d) None of these

(xi) The doctrine that “the only empirical statements that are meaningful are those that are verifiable” is called:
(a) Empiricism
(h) Logical Positivism
(c) Linguistics
(d) None of these

(xii) “The real is the rational and the rational is the real” represents the philosophy of:
(a) Marx
(b) Hegel
(c) Engels
(d) None of these

(xiii) Which famous book is called The Bible of the working class”:
(a) The Republic
(b) On Liberty
(c) Das Kapital
(d) None of these

(xiv) The view that reality is explicable without reference to anything outside the natural world is called:
(a) Realism
(b) Naive Realism
(c) Rationalism
(d) None of these

(xv) Which school of Muslim thought put forth the doctrine of atom ism:
(a) Asharism
(b) Mutazilism
(c) Sufism
(d) None of these

(xvi) VIENNA Circle is known for its association with:
(a) Scientific Method
(b) Empiricism
(c) Logical Positivism
(d) None of these

(xvii) Who, in the Medieval Muslim philosophy, was known as the Second Aristotle:
(a) Al-Vindi
(b) Al-Farabi
(c) Ibn Sina
(d) None of these

(xviii) Who is the author of the famous work translated as ‘A Treatise of the Canon ot Medicine:
(a) lbn Sina
(b) Al-Razi
(c) lbn 1-laitham
(d) None of these

(xix) Which of the following books by al-Ghazali summarized the philosophy of the PERIPATETICS?
(a) Maqasid al-Falasafa
(b) Tahafat al-Falasafa
(c) Al-Minqad mm al-Dalal
(d) None of these

(xx) Development of Metaphysics in Persia” was written by:
(a) Dr. .Javid Iqbal
(b) Allama lqbal
(c) Dr. Arnold
(d) None of these


(I) PART-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II. All questions carry EQUAL marks.
Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not considered.

Q.2. Pragmatism characterizes American philosophy in a unique way. Critically examine its impact on life and morals of the contemporary world. (20)

Q.3. "Hell is other people.” How does SARTRE’S remark reflect on existentialist quest for freedom of the individual.

Q.4. The main concern of VIENNA circle was to establish the philosophical foundations of a scientific world view. Discuss. (20)

Q.5. The fall of Marxism is the failure of dialectical materialism. Critically examine. (20)

Q.6. Al-Ghazali’s reputation of Muslim rationalists was a turning point in the history of Muslim thought. Discuss. (20)

Q.7. Discuss in detail Al-Farabi’s social philosophy. What is its significance for the contemporary world. (20)

Q.8. What is original in the eclecticism of Iqbal. Assess the status of Iqbal as a philosopher. (20)
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