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Old Thursday, March 18, 2010
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Paper I
Part Two

Attempt any four questions.

Q2. Define Psychology as a science of behavior. List various schools and systems used in psychology.

Q3. Describe structures and function of brain emphasizing the role of neurons as a unit of nervous system.

Q4. Differentiate between classical conditioning and operant conditioning in context of human learning.

Q5. Describe the significance of motivation in human life referring to any one theory of motivation.

Q6. Define perception and sensation and explain how five senses specially vision and hearing operate.

Q7. Explain the psychoanalytic perspective of personality, giving details of Frueds psychosexual stages of personality development.

Q8. Define any ten:
I. Psychometrics
II. Unconscious mind
III. Perceptual constancy
IV. Negative reinforcement
V. Free association
VI. Thematic apperception test
VII. Stimulus
VIII. Aggression
IX. Personality traits
X. Extinction
XI. Attitudes
XII. Altruism
XIII. Group norms
XIV. prejudice

Last edited by Princess Royal; Thursday, March 18, 2010 at 09:09 PM.
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  #2  
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Default Psychology Paper Two

Paper II
Part Two

Q2. Define growth and development and discuss the basic processes and stages of development highlighting the nature nurture theory..

Q3. Explain the prenatal development and infancy period of development. Write down the role of genetics and heredity in chromosomal disorder or abnormality..

Q4. What are the various areas of human development. Define and describe the significance of intellectual development in comparison with other areas of development in child development.

Q5. Explain the concept of abnormality. Briefly describe the goals of clinical diagnosis and write about either personality or behavioral assessment..

Q6. Define therapy. List various therapies used in psychology and write about any one briefly..

Q7. Describe what do you know about biological and sociological factors
relationg to maladjustment and crime psychology?.

Q8. Define any ten:
I. Maturation
II. Infancy
III. Imprinting
IV. Neonatal period
V. Object permanence
VI. Chromosomal abnormality
VII. Psychosomatic disorder
VIII. Psychotherapy
IX. IQ
X. Drug addiction
XI. Juvenile delinquency
XII. Neurotic disorder
XIII. Psychosis
XIV. Group dynamics

Last edited by Princess Royal; Thursday, March 18, 2010 at 09:16 PM.
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Old Friday, March 19, 2010
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paper 1 mcqs

q.1 ______________ psychologists work to improve efficiency of people in business.
a.cognitive
b.developmental
c.industrial/organizational
d.physiological
e. none of these

q.2 psychology is the science of :
a. behaviour and mental processes
b. objective introspection
c. inductive reasoning
d. emotions
e. none of these

q.3 a hypothesis is
a. the independent variable
b. an explanation of a phenomenon
c. a testable prediction derived from a theory
d. the dependant variable.
e. none of these

q.4 the research method used by Frued was:
a correlational method
b. naturalistic observation
c survey research
d case study method
e. none of these

q.5 the amount of association between two or more variable is:
a correlation
b. naturalistic observation
c.reliability
d. synchronicity
e. none of these

q.6 gestalt theory emphasized
a. a flow of consciousness
b. the atoms of thought
c. environmental stimuli
d. our tendency to see patterns
e. none of these

q.7 short fibres that branch out from cell body and pick up the incoming message are called:
a dendrites
b. axons
c. nerves.
d terminals
e. none of these

q.8 the thyroid gland controls :
a, glucose absorption
B. emotions
C. metabolism
d. sexuality
e. none of these

q.9 the ability of the eye to distinguish fine details is called
a visual dilation
b visual acuity
c. visual sensitivity
d. adaptation
e. none of these

q.10 a disorder called ________ results when fluid presssure builds up inside the eye and causes damage to optic nerve

a. prospagnia
b achromatospia
c dyslexia
d. glaucoma
e. none of these
q.11 optical illusion result from distortion in
a. transduction
b. sensation
c . perception
d. adaptation
e. none of these

q.12 our general method for dealing with environment is known as
a intelligence
b perceptual style
c personality
d cognitive style
e. none of these

q.13 external stimuli that lead to goal-directed behavior are called:
a drives
b needs
c . incentive
d. reciprocal

q.14 most psychologist believe that aggressionis:
a an innate biological response to frustration
b linked to sexual drive
c a learned response
d. a drive that builds up over time and must be released
e. none of these

q.15 the process of detecting ,translating and transmitting from external environment to brain is called
a perception
b. sensation
c. selective attention
d adaptation
e none of these.

q.16 according to Alfred Adler ,the prime motivating force in a person's life is:
a physical gratification
b existential anxiety
c striving for superiority
d the need for power
e none of these.

q.17 which of the following learning mechanism dopes b.f.Skinner see as being the major means by which behavour is learned?
a classical conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. observational conditioning
d insight learning
e none of these.

q.18 which of the following approaches to personality is least deterministic?
A the humanistic approach
B the psychoanalytical approach
C skinner's approach
d. the behavioural approach
e none of these.

q.19 which of the following did Carl Rogers believe fosters a congruent self-concept?
A conditional love
B appropriate role models
C immediate- need gratification
D unconditional love
e none of these.

q.20 stereotypes are
a. special types of schemas that are part of people's shared cultural background
b widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group
c. equivalent to prejudice
d both a and b
e none of these.
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Last edited by Princess Royal; Sunday, March 21, 2010 at 10:47 AM.
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Old Sunday, March 21, 2010
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PSYCHOLOGY, PAPER-II

FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR
RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS-17 UNDER
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2010

PART – I (MCQ)
(COMPULSORY)

Q.1. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. (20)

(i) In developmental psychology, the term nature refers to _____ factors that influence development.
(a) Biological
(b) Environmental
(c) Physical
(d) All of these
(e) None of these

(ii) In the study of development, the most important biological factor is __________ the systematic physical growth of the body, including the nervous system.
(a) Maturation
(b) Hormones
(c) Growth factors
(d) Environment
(e) None of these

(iii) A biologically determined period in the life of some animals during which certain forms of learning can take place most easily is called a:
(a) Stage
(b) Milestone
(c) Critical period
(d) Landmark
(e) None of these

(iv) ________ is distinguished for major stages of cognitive development, the sensorimotor, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage.
(a) Jean Piaget
(b) John Bowlby
(c) Sigmund Freud
(d) Harry Harlow
(e) None of these

(v) Kohlberg’s theory of moral development was criticized by Gilligan primarily because:
(a) The data did not support his conclusions
(b) It was based on a study of boys only
(c) It was done so long ago
(d) His subjects consisted of urban children only
(e) None of these

(vi) The rapid increase in weight and height that occurs around the onset of puberty is known as the:
(a) Maturation stage
(b) Physical development stage
(c) Adolescent growth spurt
(d) Menarche
(e) None of these

(vii) The ________ stage is characterized by an ability to use abstract concepts:
(a) Concrete operational
(b) Formal operational
(c) Preoperational
(d) Operational
(e) None of these

(viii) We are more likely to experience which of the following during adolescence than at any other time in our lives?
(a) Moodiness
(b) Parent-child conflicts
(c) Risky behaviour
(d) All of these
(e) None of these

(ix) A therapist who encourages clients to relate their dreams and searches for the unconscious roots
of their problems is drawn from:
(a) Psychoanalysis
(b) Humanistic therapies
(c) Person-centered therapy
(d) Cognitive therapy
(e) None of these

(x) Compared to psychoanalytic therapists, humanistic therapists are more likely to emphasize:
(a) Hidden or repressed feelings
(b) Childhood experiences
(c) Psychological disorders
(d) Self-Fulfillment & growth
(e) None of these

(xi) Behaviour therapies apply learning principles to:
(a) Identify and treat the underlying causes of dysfunction
(b) Improve learning and insight
(c) Eliminate the unwanted behaviour
(d) Improve communication and social sensitivity
(e) None of these

(xii) An example of a cognitive therapy is rational-emotive therapy, which is developed by:
(a) Carl Rogers
(b) Joseph Wolpe
(c) Albert Ellis
(d) Allen Bergin
(e) None of these

(xiii) The explicit and implicit rules that a society establishes to govern conduct are referred to as:
(a) Norms
(b) Culture
(c) Morality
(d) Conventions
(e) None of these

(xiv) The violation of a society’s explicit and implicit norms can be viewed as not normal in the sense that the violation is:
(a) Deviant
(b) Distressful
(c) Dysfunctional
(d) A danger to one’s self or to others
(e) None of these

(xv) Which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes unhappiness?
(a) Distress
(b) Deviance
(c) Dysfunction
(d) Danger to self or others
(e) None of these

(xvi) Which of the following is not true regarding people with a mental illness?
(a) They frequently are in considerable distress
(b) Society views such people as in need of help
(c) They usually pose a danger to themselves or others
(d) They usually have behaviour that is in some way different
(e) None of these

(xvii) Dementia is a condition that is characterized by:
(a) General paresis
(b) Physical ailments
(c) A general intellectual decline
(d) The loss of contact with reality
(e) None of these

(xviii) The ancient Greek physicians characterized hysteria as:
(a) Euphoric behaviour
(b) Uncontrollable sobbing
(c) An inability to control emotional responses
(d) A physical ailment without any physical cause
(e) None of these

(xix) What model of mental illness did most people hold during the middle ages?
(a) The moral model
(b) The medical model
(c) The psychogenic model
(d) The supernatural model
(e) None of these

(xx) The first medical practitioner to specialize in mental illness was:
(a) Johan Weyer
(b) William Tuke
(c) Benjamin Rush
(d) Sigmund Freud
(e) None of these
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Old Sunday, March 21, 2010
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paper 1 mcqs

q.1 ______________ psychologists work to improve efficiency of people in business.
a.cognitive
b.developmental
c.industrial/organizational
d.physiological
e. none of these

q.2 psychology is the science of :
a. behaviour and mental processes
b. objective introspection
c. inductive reasoning
d. emotions
e. none of these

q.3 a hypothesis is
a. the independent variable
b. an explanation of a phenomenon
c. a testable prediction derived from a theory
d. the dependant variable.
e. none of these

q.4 the research method used by Frued was:
a correlational method
b. naturalistic observation
c survey research
d case study method
e. none of these

q.5 the amount of association between two or more variable is:
a correlation
b. naturalistic observation
c.reliability
d. synchronicity
e. none of these

q.6 gestalt theory emphasized
a. a flow of consciousness
b. the atoms of thought
c. environmental stimuli
d. our tendency to see patterns
e. none of these

q.7 short fibres that branch out from cell body and pick up the incoming message are called:
a dendrites
b. axons
c. nerves.
d terminals
e. none of these

q.8 the thyroid gland controls :
a, glucose absorption
B. emotions
C. metabolism
d. sexuality
e. none of these

q.9 the ability of the eye to distinguish fine details is called
a visual dilation
b visual acuity
c. visual sensitivity
d. adaptation
e. none of these

q.10 a disorder called ________ results when fluid presssure builds up inside the eye and causes damage to optic nerve
a. prospagnia
b achromatospia
c dyslexia
d. glaucoma
e. none of these

q.11 optical illusion result from distortion in
a. transduction
b. sensation
c . perception
d. adaptation
e. none of these

q.12 our general method for dealing with environment is known as
a intelligence
b perceptual style
c personality
d cognitive style
e. none of these

q.13 external stimuli that lead to goal-directed behavior are called:
a drives
b needs
c . incentive
d. reciprocal

q.14 most psychologist believe that aggressionis:
a an innate biological response to frustration
b linked to sexual drive
c a learned response
d. a drive that builds up over time and must be released
e. none of these

q.15 the process of detecting ,translating and transmitting from external environment to brain is called
a perception
b. sensation
c. selective attention
d adaptation
e none of these.

q.16 according to Alfred Adler ,the prime motivating force in a person's life is:
a physical gratification
b existential anxiety
c striving for superiority
d the need for power
e none of these.

q.17 which of the following learning mechanism dopes b.f.Skinner see as being the major means by which behavour is learned?
a classical conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. observational conditioning
d insight learning
e none of these.

q.18 which of the following approaches to personality is least deterministic?
A the humanistic approach
B the psychoanalytical approach
C skinner's approach
d. the behavioural approach
e none of these.

q.19 which of the following did Carl Rogers believe fosters a congruent self-concept?
A conditional love
B appropriate role models
C immediate- need gratification
D unconditional love
e none of these.

q.20 stereotypes are
a. special types of schemas that are part of people's shared cultural background
b widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group
c. equivalent to prejudice
d both a and b
e none of these.
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Old Sunday, March 21, 2010
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Thanks so much !!!! I am a bit confused in one ! i got 18 right and one confused and one wrong !

....... Hypothesis is not derived from a theory but is an explaination of a phenomenon because those who create a hypothesis don't keep in mind any theory ..... they just see the surroundings and create a statement called hypothesis which after several steps becomes a theory !
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Old Sunday, March 21, 2010
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For a hypothesis to be put forward as a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot be satisfactorily explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously in common and informal usage, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory – although the difference is sometimes more one of degree than of principle.

People refer to a trial solution to a problem as a hypothesis — often called an "educated guess"[5] — because it provides a suggested solution based on the evidence. Experimenters may test and reject several hypotheses before solving the problem.

these are statements from wikipedia .
and also from many psychology books answer is what i told u "a testable prediction..........'
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19 which of the following did Carl Rogers believe fosters a congruent self-concept?
A conditional love
B appropriate role models
C immediate- need gratification
D unconditional love
e none of these.

are you sure that the answer is appropriate role models ????
i think its unconditional love...
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Old Monday, March 22, 2010
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Psychopathology

Rogers describes the concepts of congruence and incongruence as important ideas in his theory. In proposition #6 he refers to the actualizing tendency. At the same time he recognizes the need for positive regard. In a fully congruent person realizing their potential is not at the expense of experiencing positive regard. They are able to lead lives that are authentic and genuine. Incongruent individuals, in their pursuit of positive regard, live lives that include falseness and do not realise their potential. Conditions put on them by those around them make it necessary for them to forego their genuine, authentic lives to meet with the approval of others. They live lives that are not true to themselves, to who they are on the inside.

Rogers suggests that the incongruent individual who is always on the defensive and cannot be open to all experiences is not functioning ideally and may even be malfunctioning. They work hard at maintaining/protecting their self concept. Because their lives are not authentic this is a difficult task and they are under constant threat. They deploy defense mechanisms to achieve this. He describes two mechanisms: distortion and denial. Distortion occurs when the individual perceives a threat to their self concept. They distort the perception until it fits their self concept. Denial follows the same process except instead of distorting they deny the threat exists.

This defensive behavior reduces the consciousness of the threat but not the threat itself. And so, as the threats mount, the work of protecting the self concept becomes more difficult and the individual more defensive and rigid in their self structure. If the incongruence is immoderate this process may lead the individual to a state that would typically be described as neurotic. Their functioning becomes precarious and psychologically vulnerable. If the situation worsens it is possible that the defenses cease to function altogether and the individual becomes aware of the incongruence of their situation. Their personality becomes disorganised and bizarre, irrational behavior, associated with earlier denied aspects of self, may erupt uncontrollably.
this is from wikipedia


Self-concept-the way in which one perceives oneself-can be divided into categories, such as personal self-concept (facts or one's own opinions about oneself, such as "I have brown eyes" or "I am attractive"); social self-concept (one's perceptions about how one is regarded by others: "people think I have a great sense of humor"); and self-ideals (what or how one would like to be: "I want to be a lawyer" or "I wish I were thinner").
According to Rogers, one's self-concept influences how one regards both oneself and one's environment. The self-concept of a mentally healthy person is consistent with his or her thoughts, experiences, and behavior. However, people may maintain a self-concept that is at odds with their true feelings to win the approval of others and "fit in," either socially or professionally. This involves repressing their true feelings and impulses, which eventually causes them to become alienated from themselves, distorting their own experience of the world and limiting their potential for self-actualization, or fulfillment. The gulf between a person's self-concept and his or her actual experiences (which Rogers called incongruence) is a chronic source of anxiety and can even result in mental disorders. According to Rogers, a strong self-concept is flexible and allows a person to confront new experiences and ideas without feeling threatened.

according to above points role model looks ok . my answers are mine extracted from study and in no way final for others u can have your opinion
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i'm just quoting a line from Corey's book Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy

"Rogers believed that there must be unconditional positive regard from some others so that a person's self regard can be increased"

and you can even check this ebook to make your concept clear

http://books.google.com/books?id=sIL...oncept&f=false
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