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Old Thursday, April 20, 2023
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Default Sociology past papers 2000 to 2023

Q. No. 2. Education is an important social institution. How conflict and functionalist perspectives view education as institutionalized activity? Which of these approaches can best describe the system of education in Pakistan and how?
Q. No. 3. Explain G. H. Mead’s Concepts of Mind, Self and Society along with the basic principles of Symbolic Interactionism.
Q. No. 4. What is ontology, epistemology, methodology? Is there any difference between method and methodology? What is the role of ontology and epistemology in social research?
Q. No. 5. How do time-series, panel, and cohort studies differ? What are some potential problems with cost-benefit analysis?
Q. No. 6. Discuss in detail the theory of justice and Plato’s theory of forms and allegory of the cave.
Q. No. 7. What is meant by society? Discuss its types in detail. Also define culture and what is the difference between material and non-material in a society culture?
Q. No. 8. Write notes on the following: (10 each)
(i) Conversation Analysis
(ii) Volcano of civilization
Q2. Deviant Behaviour is the result of ineffective social control. Comment on the flaws existing in the formal and informal mechanisms of social control with examples and add how these mechanisms can be improved.
Q3. Since the inception of Pakistan as an independent country, numerous education policies have been developed but have not stood productive towards ensuring hundred percent enrolment. Describe the systemic flaws and other restraining forces behind it.
Q4. Compare Ibn-e-Khaldun’s Asabiya and Durkheim’s social solidarity on the basis of consonance and dissonance in the major premises of their theories.
Q5. Social issues are investigated through quantitative and qualitative modes of inquiry in variable situations. Explain the different situations with examples, reflecting the proper application of the two methods.
Q6. How can sexually abused children be reintegrated into society? Highlight the role of formal and informal agents/organizations in the socio-cultural landscape of Pakistan.
Q7. Max Weber and Talcott Parsons have theorized social action from their variable perspectives. Highlight the contributions of both thinkers and also locate the divergence in their standpoints.
Q8. Write notes on the following: a. Social functions of religion b. Cultural Relativism
Q. No. 2. Many scholars argue that the contemporary world we live in is predominantly dominated by a global culture. Do you agree that we live in a society with a global culture, provide examples for your arguments?
Q. No. 3. In what ways does informal and formal social control help to reduce or prevent deviance and crime in society?
Q. No. 4. In what ways have industrialization and the tertiary sector created socio-cultural change in Pakistan?
Q. No. 5. Do you think Marxist theory about class and gender-based conflict is still relevant in contemporary days?
Q. No. 6. Discuss why Ibn-e-Khaldun, a 14th century Islamic jurist and scholar, still influences thinkers and sociologists even today, with respect to his ideas about social change?
Q. No. 7. Discuss the strengths and limitations of the three methods of data collection for social researchers: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods.
Q. No. 8. Write Notes on the following:- (10 each)
(a) The social determinants that contribute to workplace violence against women in Pakistan
(b) The social determinants that contribute to domestic violence against women in Pakistan
Q. No. 2. Differentiate between social change and social structural changes. Discuss three key areas which need immediate attention of policy makers.
Q. No. 3. Durkheim emphasized on the functional aspects of religion. However, we observe many instances of religious extremism in Pakistani society. Shed some light on the phenomenon.
Q. No. 4. Do you think Karl Marx’s capitalist perspective is applicable to today’s world?
Elaborate your answer by giving arguments.
Q. No. 5. Max Weber used the term Verstehen for better understanding of social actions. Explain the significance of the concept by discussing two examples from social life.
Q. No. 6. How can moral degeneration be scientifically studied? Delineate the entire research process for studying this phenomenon.
Q. No. 7. Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative way of studying any social phenomenon. Elaborate by giving an example of each approach and how that can be inquired?
Q. No. 8. Write Notes on the following:- (10 each)
(a) Types of society
(b) Caste and Class Dynamics in Pakistan
Q. No. 2. There is continuous struggle between material and non-material cultures. In this process the non-material culture lag behind the material culture and create culture lag. As a sociologist give your opinion how to fill the gap.
Q. No. 3. ‘Suicide varies inversely with the degree of integration of the social group of which the individuals forms a part’. In the light of this statement, discuss Emile Durkheim theory of egoistic, altruistic, anomic and fatalistic suicide.
Q. No. 4. How culture ethnocentrism promotes social change and maintain social order.
Q. No. 5. Auguste Comte gives three evolutionary dimensions of society; Theologian, metaphysic and positivistic. Explain each step with cogent examples.
Q. No. 6. Discuss in detail that how unique culture ethos are impediments in the way of social change. Explain in detail the planned social change.
Q. No. 7. Evaluate Karl Marx’s contribution to the concept of Alienation. Discuss different types
of Alienation given by him
Q. No. 8. Write notes on the following (10 each)
(a) Research proposal on Afghan war syndrome and its impacts on the economy of Pakistan.
(b) The role of religious leaders in the integration of Pakistani society.
Q. No. 2. Differentiate between Ethnocentrism and Xenocentrism with examples. Which one and how is important in damaging the peace and development situation in Karachi? Discuss with logic and evidence on the Issue.
Q. No. 3. Make a comparative and analytical discussion on the Social Contract Theory and the organismic Theory while developing your thesis with a logical conclusion.
Q. No. 4. How do you see the future of Pakistani society resulting from the effect of Industrialization, Modernization, Urbanization and Modern means of communication upon social change processes? Discuss with examples.
Q. No. 5. How do you see the future of major cities in Pakistan? Discussing by focusing on the issues of water and foods security and the situation of terrorism and extremism with examples and data.
Q. No. 6. Discuss the structure and functions of Pakistani family with examples, keeping in view the changes occurring. How do you see the future of Pakistani Family System? Make a research based argument.
Q. No. 7. Ibn-e-Khaldun but not August Comte is the founder of Sociology? Make your argument in favour or against this thought with logic and examples from the historical development of sociology.
Q. No. 8. Write short notes on the following: (10 each)
(i) Research process in sociology
(ii) Deviance and street crime in Pakistan
Q. No. 2. How evolutionary theories of sociology provide a stimulating gesture to transform societies? Compare and contrast the classical and neo-classical school of thoughts for understanding phenomenon of social change.
Q. No. 3. What are core elements which lead to develop rigorous research design in social research?
Q. No. 4. Discuss in brief the socio-cultural factors that may enhance and retard the process of social and cultural change in societies.
Q. No. 5. Marx and Weber theorized that modern society alienated people. How do their approaches contrast each other and how their concepts of alienation can be compared with Durkheim’s concept of anomie?
Q. No. 6. What key characteristics distinguish capitalism from socialism? Compare these two systems in terms of productivity, economic inequality and personal freedom.
Q. No. 7. What is the role of culture in socialization of an individual to become a useful member of a society? Discuss what cultural patterns help to explain this phenomenon.
Q. No. 8. Write note on the following. (10 each)
(a) Political economy of globalization
(b) Regional migration
1. Discuss the application of Sociology in agriculture, health and industries with examples.
2.Why social stratification is an inevitable for a society? Explain its determinants in the context of Pakistani society.
3.Culture is the essence of the worthwhile, but there is a clear menace to the very soul of the citizen when culture become a toll in the hands of the regime of the day with which to transform the outlook of the citizen. Comment.
4.Youth is an asset of any nation but Pakistani youth is inclined towards youth bulge. What strategies being n expert suggests the state to put the youth on positive track? Give your suggestions in the light of sociological theories.
5.Describe the major work of Robert King Merton in Sociology. Explain his work with suitable examples
6.Which types of research by objective are commonly being used by NGOs and explain these types of research with suitable examples?
7.Write comprehensive notes on the following social though.
A. Law of three stages by Comte.
B. Suicide by Durkheim
Q. No. 2. Discuss the major contributions of Max Weber in understanding the society theoretically.
Q. No. 3. Discuss Migration as a social Phenomenon.
Q. No. 4. Discuss in detail the Karl Marx's "Theory of Labour".
Q. No. 5. Define the term "Community" and discuss its important characteristics.
Q. No. 6. Define term "Social Change" and discuss it as a Social Process.
Q. No. 7. Define the term "Social Problem" and discuss Crime as a Social Problem?
Q. No. 8. Write a note in detail on "Evolutionary Theory" given by Ibn-I-Khaldun.
2. Discuss attribution theories with special reference to media portrayals of social issues. Explain the role of dispositional traits and situational factors for individual actions or decision making.
3. What is the mind construction and explain if it is a planned activity? Discuss the role of education policy towards the formation of social mind and also show its importance in a separate paragraph.
4. What is a social organization? Discuss how precepts about caste and social classes influences smooth running of society.
5. Discuss the burgeoning role of social media in Pakistan. Explain the importance of regulating the mainstream electronic media towards the achievement of national goals. Illustrate your answer with examples from Pakistan.
6. What is the trained incapacity? Write two examples about two institutions in Pakistan where trained incapacity is promoted and where empowerment is encouraged.
7. Define the concept of perception and reality Discuss how perception of people are manoeuvred to influence public opinion. Explain your answer with examples from Pakistan.
8. Write short notes on the following
a. Education as a factor of development
b. Security as a social construct
Q:3 Is Max Weber more relevant than Durkheim in today's globalising world? Discuss with reference to their theoretical contributions.
Q: 4 What is hypothesis? Develop a hypothesis and identify:
(a) independent variables
(b) dependant variable and
(c) mediating variable (if any)
Q: 5 Define and differentiate between caste and class. Discuss the dynamics of classes in the existing feudal system.
Q: 6 Discuss as to how the process of social and cultural change in Pakistan can be accelerated? Your answer must include theoretically relevant factors in the rate of change.
Q: 7 Discuss the nature and genesis of institutions along with the change taking place in Pakistani family.
Q: 8 Write comprehensive notes on any two of the following:
(a) Marxist influence on sociological theory
(b) Determinants of social mobility
(c) Institutional evasions
(d) Social Planning
Q.2. Define culture invasion? Explain in detail the role of technological innovation and mass media in the revolution of rising expectations and the disruption of traditional society of Pakistan.
Q.3. Explain in detail the analysis f social conflict in capitist society shown by the prominent sociologist and economist Karl Marx.
Q.4. Discuss in detail the accelerating and decelerating factors of social change.How culture ethnocentrism promotes social change and maintain social order.
Q.5. Define ethnomethodology. Explain in detail Garfinkel view regarding ethnomethodology. How he used ethnomethodology in the field of sociological resarch and inquiry.?
Q.6. Define suicide and its type. Explain in detail the theory of anomy prsented by Emile-Durkhein. In what way the theory would be helpful in the solution of current involvement of Pakistani youth in suicidal attempts.
Q.7. Define urban sprawling. Explain in detail the socioeconomic impacts of peripheral areas on crime rate of urban society of Pakistan.
Q.8. Write short notes on any TWO of the following:
(i) Culture diffusion and schools of thoughts on culture diffusion.
(ii) Role of mosque in the integration of Pakistani society.
(iii) Changing family pattern, its causes and consequences.
(iv) The role of government and non-governmental orgainization in poverty alleviation of Pakistan.
Q2 Define the term "Social change" and discuss the process of social change in group behaviour.
Q3 Define the term "Social problem" and discuss the causes of drug abuse in Pakistan.
Q4 Discuss in detail "Urbanization as a process".
Q5 Write a note in detail on "Evolutionary Theory" given by Ibn-i-Khaldun.
Q6 Discuss in detail "Theory of Labour" given by Karl Marx.
Q7 Define the term "Social Research" and discuss the procedure "How to conduct a Research?"
Q8 Discuss the status of elderly people in Pakistani society.
Q2) Discuss critically the theories of social action and bureacracy presented by Max Weber. How the theory of bureaucracy is relevant to situation in Pakistan? Discuss with logic and evidence
Q3)what is internal validity that influences social science research design? what are different threats to internal validity? discuss with examples
Q4) what is role of biradri/castes in political system of Pakistan? support your anwer with data and evidence from previous general election results in pakistani society.
Q5) Discuss the role of media in social and cultural change in pakistan. what type of social planning/policy is needed to direct this change in the context of our own social and cultural values. discuss with examples.
Q6) urbanization in pakistan is increasing day by day. how do you look into the future of major cities in pakistan? discuss in light of terror and security situation in these cities.
Q7) how do you perceive the future of family institution/system in pakistan.? discuss with examples especially keeping in view marriage, elderly and youth problems in the families.
Q8) write short notes on the following:
a. Poverty in Pakistan
b. Drug abuse in Pakistan
Q.2. Discuss the major contributors of Max Weber in understanding the society theoretically.
Q.3. Discuss the term Social Research and explain the important steps of inducting social research.
Q.4. Discuss Migration as a social phenomenon.
Q.5. Define the term “Social Change”. How it occurs in a traditional society? Disucss it in detail.
Q.6. Karl Marx “Theory of Labour” Discuss in detail.
Q.7. Define the term “Social Problem”. Discuss smuggling a social problem in a society.
Q.8. Define the term “Community” and discuss the important characteristics of rural and urban community.
Q.2. Karl Marx has discussed labour theory of value in detail. What do you understand by that theory; write your answer in detail. (20)
Q.3. What type of survey would you use to study young criminals? Defend the logic og choice in detail. (20)
Q.4. Migration from rural to urban area is on the rise in Pakistan. Discuss all the positive and negative points at the origin and destination keeping theory of migration into consideration. (20)
Q.5. In what respects are your values similar to those of your parents? In what respects do they differ? How do you explain these differences? (20)
Q.6. Why does dissatisfaction with bureaucracy arises? What is major obstacle in eliminating bureaucratic features which cause resentment. Discuss in detail. (20)
Q.7. What do you understand by social mobility? Discuss “do transfer of payments aid or discourage social mobility”. (20)
Q8. Write short notes on following: (20)
a) Effects of Population Policy 2002
b) Internal migration
Q.1. Individual is product of society and culture. Different methods of socialization lead to a variety of building norms and values in the personality of individuals. Discuss:
(a) the relationsship of indiviual, society and culture.
(b) different methods of socialization
(c) the variation exemplified due to different methods of socialization in norms and values.
Q.2. What major contributions were made by Emile Durkhiem and Max Weber to the understanding of society theoretically? How far the two theories can be taken relevant today?
Q.3.Aresearch design is a roadmap for investigation. Discuss the major decisions a researcher makes in designing a study. While discussing decisions, identify a research problem with reference to which the designinghas been envisaged.
Q.4. Discuss the class structure of Pakistani society with special rrefrence to:
(a) the influence of the class structure at the time of independence.
(b) the determinants of social mobility (c) the feudal system
Q.5. Political thinkers in Pakistan lament that man in the street is alienated. Do u agree to the statement and if you agree give reasons. Discuss:
(A) nature of alienation
(c) Integrative patterns in Pakistan
Q.6. Write a comprehensive note( with an outline) on any three of the following:
(a) Incentives and inhibitions to social and cultural change in Pakistan.
(b) Rural-Urban convergence and the future of cities in Pakistan
(c)The nature and genesis of social institutions with special refrence to political institutions.
(d) Demographic transitions identifying the stage in Pakistan.
Q.7. In the light of theoretical perspectives (Hegel, Marx, Coser,Mills) explain the true nature of conflict. Discuss the various forms of pervasive conflict in Pakistan Society.
Q.1. what is the role of C.W. Mills in the development of Frankfurt school of conflict theory? Where and how he differs from his contemporaries? Discuss with evidence.
Q.2. What is a research design? What type of research design can used for studying the problems of drug addiction/HIV/AIDS in Pakistani society? Discuss with examples.
Q.3. rural-Urban migration is causing labour-drain from rural communities. What problems this situation is creating in the labour market of rural communities. As a subject scholor, what solutions do you suggest to minimize these problems? Discuss with examples.
Q.4. there is a thesis that “the development programmes/ strategies to change the fate of poor farming community in rural Pakistan are not based upon the evidence-based policy. Therefore, a failure in this regard is being faced for the last several decades”. How do you support this thesis? Make an evidence-based argument in the light of different evaluations/assessments made for rural development in Pakistan.
Q.5. what role biradri/caste system is playing in decision making on political issues especially local bodies elections in rural areas of Pakistan? How this biradri-based political organization influences the community development process? Discuss in the light of issues/conflicts arising from the situation and their impact on the individual, family and society.
Q.6. Define social institution. What is the significance of family, religion and education as institutions in the process of socialization? Explain your answer with examples from Pakistan society.
Q.7. write short notes on the following:
a) Drug Abuse
b) Social Conflicts
1. What are different theories about origin of society? Discuss them in detail.
2. In your opinion what are the advantages of socialisation? Is Socialisation process applicable to the adults? Discuss it.
3.Differentiate between Primary and Secondary Groups, and discuss the character of Primary Relations?
4. Define the terms Race and Racism. Discuss the causes responsible for Race Prejudices, and how these can be eradicated?
5. Define status. Discuss the factors which decide status of an individual in society.
6. Discuss the importance of social research for the study of Sociology. Explain the steps to be taken in social Research Process.
7. Write short Notes on the following:-
(a) Factions and Feuds (b) Parole System in Pakistan
1-Write clearly. What major Contributions did Karl Marx and Ibn-i-Khaldun make to our understanding of the social experience?
2-Why is culture indispensable to human society and what part do norms and values play in social life?
3- Define social institution and how can religion hold in check the explosive social tensions produced by inequality and injustice.
4-How you can define poverty and what strategies the Government of Pakistan has adopted to alleviate poverty and also discuss the role of NGO's to address the issue of poverty.
5-What are the social effects of deviance and do Crime-fighting programmes including imprisonment work in Pakistan.
6-Why is research essential to the scientific enterprise and what are the principal theoretical methods available to Sociologists in the study of social life? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each.
7-Write short notes on the following:
(a) Future of Cities in Pakistan
(b) Implications of population growth
(d)probability and Non-probability Sampling.

1. Durkheim wrote extensively on the suicide. Critically examine his views about Suicide.
2. The young criminals have been on the increase in Pakistan for the last many years in jail. Write down critically the main factors .associated with Juvenile delinquency.
3. What do you understand by diffusion of innovation? Taking Pakistani situation, are we in a position to reach the stage of taking off economically?
4. Describe the idea of philosophy of money as presented by George Simmel. How and in what ways other scholars have presented their views to describe the idea of philosophy of money.
5. When is survey research appropriate? What type survey research would you use to study heroin users. Defend the logic of your choice. *
6. What do you understand by scales and indexes used in social sciences? When is it necessary to shift the base of an index and how is this process carried out?
7. Write short notes on the following:
a) Aging of Population
(b) Factors.influencing high divorce rate in Pakistan.
1. Division of Labour has been discussed by various sociological theories. Discuss in detail the point of view taken about division of labour by Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim
2. What do you understand by experimental method used in data collection? Explain why some researchers preferred it over other data collection methods in social sciences and for what kind of studies experimental method is used by researchers?
3. Explain social, environmental and psychological factors associated with young criminals. Answer the question with special reference to Pakistan society.
4. Discuss in detail how social institutions/organizations have been helpful in social economic development of a society.
5. Max Weber is a strong advocate of bureaucratic forum of government system. Explain in detail what lead Max Weber to write in favour of bureaucracy.
6. What do you understand by the term modernization? Discuss the important factors associated with modernization of a society with special reference to Pakistani society.
7. Write short critique on the following.
a)Child and woman abuse in Pakistan
b)Poverty issue in Pakistan
1. What is the role of culture in socialization of an individual to become a useful member of society? Discuss with examples.
2. Ibne Khaldoon is known as “Father of Sociology”. Briefly discuss his contributions to Sociology.
3. Discuss briefly the method of Sociological research Formulate three hypothesis indicating variable of each.
4. What are the different forms of Social Classes? Discuss the impact of Feudal System in Pakistan.
5. Discuss briefly the internal and eternal means of Social Control with reference to Pakistani Society.
6. Write short notes on any TWO of the following
(a) Drug abuse and crime
(b) Theory of differential association
(c) International migration
7. What factors are related to social and cultural change? Give Examples of Pakistan.
1. If heredity makes what an individual is (Bio-sociological view), then how and what do groups contribute in socializing us to become interactive and useful members of society?
2. Keeping in view the contributions by Max Weber and Karl Marx elaborate the salient features of the schools of sociological thought they present.
3. Define and differentiate social and cultural change. Discuss the impediments to change with reference to the resistance to change in Pakistani society and culture.
4. Which one of the design(s) of social research is more preferred by sociologists and why?
5. Define social problem. Discuss the causes and consequences of smuggling specially the socio-cultural dimensions of the problem.
6. Critically evaluate the:
(a) Feudal system in Pakistan
(b) Issues of urbanization in Pakistan.
7. Discuss the:
(a) Cultural implications of the small/nuclear family
(b) Social consequences of high population growth rate.
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