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Old Wednesday, July 17, 2019
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Default The Earliest History Of Muslims

The earliest history of Muslims actually started when Prophet Adam was descended on earth by Allah. Allah sent 124000 prophets and 313 messengers until 7th century in the world.

Prophet Ibrahim(Abraham) is estimated to have been born 2,166 years before Jesus in or around the Mesopotamian, city of Ur, 200 miles southeast of present-day Baghdad.
There were two sons of Prophet Ibrahim from Sarah. Ishaq And Ismail. They were born in 1800 BCE(Before Common Era). Judaism and Christianity came from Ishaq(Isaac) whereas Islam from Ismail.

Muslims believe that Ibrahim in the Islamic tradition and his son, Ismail, constructed the Kaaba. Tradition holds that it was originally a simple unroofed rectangular structure. The Quraysh tribe, who ruled Mecca, rebuilt the pre-Islamic Kaaba in 608 CE(Common Era) with alternating courses of masonry and wood.
Prophet Ibrahim, known as Abraham, recognized as a prophet and messenger in Islam of Allah. Prophet Ibrahim plays a prominent role as an example of faith in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Muslim belief, Prophet Ibrahim fulfilled all the commandments and trials wherein God nurtured him throughout his lifetime. As a result of his unwavering faith in God, Ibrahim was promised by God to be a leader to all the nations of the world. The Quran extols Prophet Ibrahim as a model, an exemplar, obedient and not an idolater. In this sense, Ibrahim has been described as representing “primordial man in universal surrender to the Divine Reality before its fragmentation into religions separated from each other by differences in form”.

The Islamic holy day Eid al-Adha is celebrated in memory of the sacrifice of Prophet Ibrahim, and each able bodied Muslim is supposed to perform the pilgrimage to pay homage at the Kabah in the Hijazi city of Mecca, which was built by Prophet Ibrahim and his son Ismail as the first house of worship on earth.
Ismail is the figure known in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as Abraham’s (Ibrahim) son, born to Hagar (Hajar). In Islam, Ismail is regarded as a prophet and an ancestor to Muhammad. He also became associated with Mecca and the construction of the Kaaba. Stories of Ismail are not only found in Jewish and Christian texts, such as the Bible and rabbinic Midrash, but also Islamic sources.

Prophet Ishaq also know as Isaac. As in Judaism and Christianity, Islam maintains that Ishaq was the son of the prophet Ibrahim from his wife Sarah. Muslims hold Ishaq in deep veneration because they believe that both Isaac and his older half-brother Ismail continued their father’s spiritual legacy through their subsequent preaching of the message of Allah after the death of Abraham. Isaac is mentioned in fifteen passages of the Quran. Along with being mentioned several times in the Qur’an Isaac is held up as one of Islam’s prophets.

Prophet Ya’quub (son of Ishaq, son of Ibrahim). He was also known as Jacob, is a prophet in Islam. He is acknowledged as a patriarch of Islam.

As in Christianity and Judaism, Islam holds that Jacob had twelve sons, each of which would go on to father the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Jacob plays a significant role in the story of his son, Yusuf(Joseph). The Quran further makes it clear that God made a covenant with Prophet Ya’quub and Prophet Ya’quub was made a faithful leader by God’s command. His grandfather (Ibrahim), father (Ishaq), uncle (Ismail), son (Yusuf) and himself are all prophets of Islam.

The Quran also mentions that Ibrahim taught the faith of pure monotheism(Oneness Of God) to his sons, Ismail and Ishaq, as well as Yaquub. The Quran records Ibrahim telling Ismail, Ishaq and Yaquub : “Oh my sons! Allah hath chosen the Faith for you; then die not except in the Faith of Islam.” The Quran also mentions the gifts given to Yaquub as well as the strength of his faith, which became stronger as he became older.

In Islam, Prophet Isa (Jesus) is understood to be the penultimate prophet and messenger of God (Allah). Propget Isa was born during era 4BC(Before Christ) and disappeared 30-33
AD( Anno Domini). Prophet Isa is believed to be a prophet who neither married nor had any children and is reflected as a significant figure, being found in the Quran in 93 verses with various titles attached such as Son of Maryam(Mary).

The Quran (Holy book of Muslims) and most hadiths (testimonial reports) mention Isa to have been born a “pure boy” (without sin).

Prophet Isa(Jesus) is believed to have performed many miracles, several being mentioned in the Quran.

Like all prophets in Islam, Isa is also called a Muslim, as he preached that his followers should adopt the “straight path”. In Islamic eschatology, Isa will return in a Second Coming to fight the Dajjal or “False Messiah” and establish peace on earth.

In Islam, Prophet Isa is believed to have been the precursor to Muhammad. Islam rejects the divinity of Isa and teaches that Isa(Jesus) was not God incarnate, nor the Son of God, and according to some interpretations of the Quran, the crucifixion, death and resurrection is not believed to have occurred, and rather that God saved him.

Despite the earliest Muslim traditions and conflicting reports regarding a death and its length, the mainstream Muslim belief is that Isa(Jesus) did not physically die, but Muslims believe that Isa (upon him be peace)did not die on the cross but Allah raised him to heaven and he will return one day to defeat the Dajjal (Anti-Christ). According to a Hadith, he is on the second heaven. The Prophet(PBUH) mentioned, “During the Shahb e meraj (Night journey to Allah and heaven), I met Isa (upon him be peace) on the second heaven. I found him of medium stature, reddish white. His body was so clean and clear, that it appeared as though he had just performed ghusal (ablution, cleansing of the entire body) and come.”

In another Hadith, the Prophet(PBUH) mentioned, “Allah will send Prophet Isa(Messiah son of Mary). Thus he will descend near the white eastern minaret of Damascus, clad in two yellow sheets, leaning on the shoulders of two angels.”

The physical features of Isa (upon him be peace): He will resemble the famous sahabi Urwa bin Masoodi (may Allah be pleased with him). He will be of average height and red and white in colour. His hair will be spread to the shoulders, straight, neat and shining as after a bath. On bending his head, it will seem as if pearls are falling. He will have armour on his body. He will be wearing two pieces of cloth light yellow in colour.

He will descend on a Jamaat (group) that will be righteous at the time and comprising of 800 men and 400 women. The people will be preparing for war at the time against Dajjal.
It will be time for Fajr prayers, and Imam Mahdi will be the Amir (leader) of the Muslims. From the darkness of the dawn, a sound will suddenly be heard that “one who listens to your pleas has come” , the righteous people will look everywhere and their eyes will fall on Isa (upon him be peace). Briefly, at the time of Fajr, Isa (upon him be peace) will descend. When descending, Isa (upon him be peace)’s hands will be on the shoulders of two angels (according to another source (Kab Abrar), a cloud will carry him). On their insistence Isa (upon him be peace) will introduce himself. He will inquire about their enthusiasm and thoughts on Jihad against Dajjal. Isa (upon him be peace) will descend on the eastern side near the minaret in Damascus (or in Baitul-Muqaddus according to another narration). At the time Imam Mahdi will have proceeded forward to lead the Fajr Salaat. The Iqamat of the Salaat will already have been recited and Imam Mahdi will call Isa (upon him be peace) for Imamat (to lead the prayer), but he (Isa (upon him be peace)) will instead tell Imam Mahdi to lead the prayer since the Iqamat of that Salaat has already been said for him. Thus Imam Mahdi will lead the prayer, and Isa (upon him be peace) will follow him. After the ruku, he will make this statement: “Allah has killed Dajjal and the Muslims have appeared.”
Isa (upon him be peace) will subsequently kill Dajjal and a great era of peace and harmony will come to the world. Isa (upon him be peace) will marry and have children and will live for 19 years after his marriage. He will then pass away and be buried next to the Prophet(PBUH) in Majid-e-Nabwi, Madinah.

Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) (570-632 AD ) known as a member of the family of Hashim and the Quraysh tribe which is ‘Adnani.
Parents of Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) were Abdullah (father) and Aminah bint Wahb (mother). Abd al-Muttalib was grand father of Prophet Muhammad(PBUH).
Prophet Ali(13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was son of Abi Talib. Prophet Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam. He ruled as the fourth caliph from 656 to 661, but is regarded as the rightful immediate successor to Muhammad as an Imam by Shia Muslims.
4th Caliph Of The Rashidun Caliphate

Prophet Ali was born on 13 September 601 (13 Rajab 21 BH) Inside Kabah, Mecca, Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula
(present-day Saudi Arabia) and Died 29 January 661 (21 Ramadan AH 40)
(aged 59) Kufa, Mesopotamia, Rashidun Caliphate (present-day Iraq)

Spouses
Fatimah
Umamah bint Zainab
Umm ul-Banin
Leila bint Masoud
Asma bint Umays
Khawlah bint Ja’far
Al Sahba’ bint Rabi’ah

Descendants of Ali
Al-Hasan
Al-Husayn
Zaynab
Umm Kulthum
Muhsin
Muhammad
Abbas
Abdullah
Hilal
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (stepson)

Ali was born inside the sacred sanctuary of the Kaaba in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam, to Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad. He was the first male who accepted Islam, and, according to some authors, the first Muslim. Ali protected Muhammad from an early age and took part in almost all the battles fought by the nascent Muslim community. After migrating to Medina, he married Muhammad’s daughter Fatimah. He was appointed caliph by Muhammad’s companions in 656, after Caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated. Ali’s reign saw civil wars and in 661, he was attacked and assassinated by a Kharijite while praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa, being martyred two days later.

Ali is important to both Shias and Sunnis, politically and spiritually. The numerous biographical sources about Ali are often biased according to sectarian lines, but they agree that he was a pious Muslim, devoted to the cause of Islam and a just ruler in accordance with the Qur’an and the Sunnah. While Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided) caliphs, Shia Muslims regard Ali as the first Imam after Muhammad due to their interpretation of the events at Ghadir Khumm. Shia Muslims also believe that Ali and the other Shia Imams (all of whom are from the Ahl al-Bayt, Muhammad’s household) are the rightful successors to Muhammad. Ali has also received recognition from a variety of non-Muslim organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Organization for Human Rights, for his governance and social justice.

The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD)a in Karbala, in present-day Iraq. The battle took place between a small group of supporters and relatives of Muhammad’s grandson, Husayn ibn Ali, and a larger military detachment from the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph.

Abbas Al-Musavi’s Battle of Karbala, Brooklyn Museum
Date
10 Muharram 61 AH, October 10, 680 AD
Location
Karbala
Result
Umayyad victory
• Death of Husayn ibn Ali and members of his family and companions
• Incident is mourned by Muslims (Mostly Shiites) to date
Belligerents
Umayyad Caliphate
Husayn of Banu Hashim and his Shia
Commanders and leaders
Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad
Umar ibn Sa’ad
Shimr ibn Dhil-Jawshan
Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al Tamimi

Husayn ibn Ali
Al-Abbas ibn Ali
Habib ibn Muzahir
Zuhayr ibn Qayn
Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al Tamimi
Strength
4,000
70–110
Casualties and losses
88 killed, several wounded
72–110 casualties Including a six month old baby
^A Hurr was originally one of the commanders of Ibn Ziyad’s army but changed allegiance to Husayn along with his son, servant and brother on 10 Muharram 61 AH, October 10, 680 AD
When Muawiyah I died in 680, Husayn did not give allegiance to his son, Yazid I, who had been appointed as Umayyad caliph by Muawiyah; Husayn considered Yazid’s succession a breach of the Hasan–Muawiya treaty. The people of Kufa sent letters to Husayn, asking his help and pledging allegiance to him, but they later did not support him. As Husayn traveled towards Kufa, at a nearby place known as Karbala, his caravan was intercepted by Yazid I’s army led by Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al Tamimi. He was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan, along with most of his family and companions, including Husayn’s six month old son, Ali al-Asghar, with the women and children taken as prisoners.[4] The battle was followed by later uprisings namely, Ibn al-Zubayr, Tawwabin, and Mukhtar uprising which occurred years later.

The dead are widely regarded as martyrs by Sufi, Sunni and Shia Muslims. The battle has a central place in Shia history, tradition and theology and it has frequently been recounted in Shia Islamic literature. Mainstream Sunni Muslims, on the other hand, do not regard the incident as one that influences the traditional Islamic theology and traditions, but merely as a historical tragedy.

The Battle of Karbala is commemorated during an annual 10-day period held every Muharram by Shia and Alevi, culminating on its tenth day, known as the Day of Ashura. Shia Muslims commemorate these events by mourning, holding public processions, organizing majlis, striking the chest and in some cases self-flagellation.

The Battle of Karbala played a central role in shaping the identity of the Shia and turned them into a sect with “its own rituals and collective memory.”[6] For the Shia, Husayn’s suffering and death became a symbol of sacrifice “in the struggle for right against wrong, and for justice and truth against wrongdoing and falsehood.”[6] Hence, the battle becomes more than a politically formative moment of the Shia faith within Islam. It also defines the theological origin of the Shia martyr ethos, and it provides members of the faith with a catalogue of heroic norms. Therefore Gölz argues that the commemoration of the Battle of Karbala must be seen as a paradigm (i. e. the “Karbala paradigm”), since the view of history conveyed by it claims to provide a self-contained cosmology applicable to all aspects of life.

Further information: Muslim historians and List of Muslim historians
• Urwah ibn Zubayr (died 712)
◦ Hadith of Umar’s speech of forbidding Mut’ah
• Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 742)
◦ Hadith of Umar’s speech of forbidding Mut’ah
◦ Hadith of prohibition of Mut’ah at Khaybar
• Ibn Ishaq (died 761)
◦ Sirah Rasul Allah
• Imam Malik (died 796)
◦ Al-Muwatta
• Al-Waqidi (745–822)
◦ Book of History and Campaigns
• Ali ibn al-Madini (777–850)
◦ The Book of Knowledge about the Companions
• Ibn Hisham (died 834)
◦ Sirah Rasul Allah
• Dhul-Nun al-Misri (died 859)
• Muhammad al-Bukhari (810–870)
◦ Sahih Bukhari
• Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (died 875)
◦ Sahih Muslim
• Ibn Majah (died 886)
◦ Sunan Ibn Majah
• Abu Da’ud (died 888)
◦ Sunan Abi Da’ud
• Al-Tirmidhi (died 892)
◦ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
• Abu al-Hasan ‘Alī al-Mas’ūdī (896–956)
◦ Muruj adh-dhahab wa ma’adin al-jawahir (The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems) (947)
• Ibn Wahshiyya (c. 904)
◦ Nabataean Agriculture
◦ Kitab Shawq al-Mustaham
• Al-Nasa’i (died 915)
◦ Sunan al-Sughra
• Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923)
◦ History of the Prophets and Kings
◦ Tafsir al-Tabari
• Al-Baladhuri (died 892)
◦ Kitab Futuh al-Buldan
◦ Genealogies of the Nobles
• Hakim al-Nishaburi (died 1014)
◦ Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
• Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048)
◦ Indica
◦ History of Mahmud of Ghazni and his father
◦ History of Khawarazm
• Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (13th century)
• Ibn Abi Zar (died 1310/1320)
◦ Rawd al-Qirtas
• Al-Dhahabi (1274–1348)
◦ Major History of Islam
◦ Talkhis al-Mustadrak
◦ Tadhkirat al-huffaz
◦ Al-Kamal fi ma`rifat al-rijal
• Ibn Kathir (1300-1373)
◦ Al-Bidāya wa-n-Nihāya
◦ Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya
• Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406)
◦ Muqaddimah (1377)
◦ Kitab al-Ibar
• Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (1372–1449)
◦ Fath al-Bari
◦ Tahdhib al-Tahdhib
◦ Finding the Truth in Judging the Companinons
Bulugh al-Maram

The historians of the formative period

First era: 700-750 (Ibn Zubayr and al-Zuhri’s histories no longer exist, but they are referenced in later works).
• Urwah ibn Zubayr (d. 712)
• Aban bin Uthman bin Affan (d. 723)
• Wahb ibn Munabbih (d. 735)
Second era: 750-800
• Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d.741)
• Ibn Ishaq (d. 761) Sirah Rasul Allah (The Life of the Apostle of God)
• Abi Mikhnaf (d. 774) Maqtal al-Husayn
Third era: 800-860
• Hisham ibn al-Kalbi (d. 819)
• Al-Waqidi (d. 823) Kitab al-Tarikh wa’l-Maghazi (Book of History and Battles).
• Ibn Hisham (d. 835)
• Ibn Sa’d (d. 845)
• Khalifa ibn Khayyat (d. 854)
Fourth era: 860-900
• Ibn Abd al-Hakam (d. 871) Futuh Misr wa’l-Maghrib wa akhbaruha
• Ibn Qutaybah (d. 889) Uyun al-akhbar, Al-Imama wa al-Siyasa[1]
• Al-Dinawari (d. 891) Akbar al-tiwal
• Baladhuri (d. 892)
• Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838CE–923CE) History of the Prophets and Kings
Fifth era: 900-950
• Ya’qubi (d. 900) Tarikh al-Yaqubi
• Ibn Fadlan (d. after 922)
• Ibn A’tham (d. 314/926-27) al-Futuh
• Abū Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdānī (d. 945)
The historians of the classical period

Iraq and Iran

• Abu Bakr bin Yahya al-Suli (d. 946)
• Ali al-Masudi (d. 955) The Meadows of Gold
• Sinan ibn Thabit (d. 976)
• al-Saghani (d. 990) one of the earliest historians of science
• Ibn Miskawayh (d. 1030)
• al-Utbi (d. 1036)
• Hilal ibn al-Muhassin al-Sabi’ (d. 1056)
• al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 1071) Tarikh Baghdad (a biographical dictionary of major Baghdadi figures)
• Abolfazl Beyhaqi (995–1077) Tarikh-e Mas’oudi (also known as Tarikh-e Beyhaqi).[1]
• Abu’l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1201)
• Yaqut al-Hamawi (1179–1229) author of Mu’jam al-Buldan (“The Dictionary of Countries”)
• Ibn al-Athir (1160–1231) al-Kamil fi’l-Tarikh
• Muhammad bin Ali Rawandi (c.1204) Rahat al-sudur, (a history of the Great Seljuq Empire and its break-up into minor beys)
• Zahiriddin Nasr Muhammad Aufi (d. 1242)
• Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1256)
• Hamdollah Mostowfi (d. 1281)
• Ibn Bibi (d. after 1281)
• Ata-Malik Juvayni (1283)
• Ibn al-Tiqtaqa (d. after 1302)
• Ibn al-Fuwati (d. 1323)
• Wassaf (d. 1323)
• Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (d. 1398) Jami al-Tawarikh
• Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi (d. 1454)
• Mirkhond (d. 1498) Rauzât-us-safâ

• Al-Muqaddasi (d.1000)
• Ẓāhir al-Dīn Nīshāpūrī around 1175
• al-Musabbihi (d. 1030), Akhbar Misr[2]
• Ibn al-Qalanisi (d. 1160)
• Ibn Asakir (d. 1176)
• Usamah ibn Munqidh (d. 1188)
• Imad al-Din al-Isfahani (d. 1201)
• Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (d. 1231)
• Baha al-Din ibn Shaddad (d. 1235) al-Nawādir al-Sultaniyya wa’l-Maḥāsin al-Yūsufiyya (The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin)
• Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1256) Mir’at al-zaman (Mirror of the Time)
• Ibn al-Adim (d. 1262)
• Abu Shama (AH 599–665/AD 1203–68) full name Abū Shāma Shihāb al-Dīn al-Maqdisī[3]
• Ibn Khallikan (d. 1282)
• Ibn Abd al-Zahir (d. 1293)
• Abu’l-Fida (d. 1331)
• al-Nuwayri (d. 1332)
• al-Mizzi (d. 1341)
• al-Dhahabi (d. 1348) Tarikh al-Islam al-kabir
• Ibn Kathir (d. 1373) al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya (The Beginning and the End)
• Ibn al-Furat (d. 1405)
• al-Maqrizi (d. 1442) al-Suluk li-ma’firat duwwal al-muluk (Mamluk history of Egypt)
• Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (d. 1449)
• al-Ayni (d. 1451)
• Ibn Taghribirdi (d. 1470) Nujum al-zahira fi muluk Misr wa’l-Qahira (History of Egypt)
• al-Sakhawi (d. 1497)
• al-Suyuti (d. 1505) History of the Caliphs
• Mujir al-Din al-‘Ulaymi (d.1522)
al-Andalus and the Maghreb
• Qadi al-Nu’man (d. 974)
• Ibn al-Qūṭiyya (d. 977) Ta’rikh iftitah al-Andalus
• Ibn Faradi (d. 1012)
• Ibn Hazm (d. 1063)
• Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr (d. 1071)
• Ibn Hayyan (d. 1075)
• al-Udri (d. 1085)
• Abū ‘Ubayd ‘Abd Allāh al-Bakrī (d. 1094)
• Qadi Iyad (d. 1149)
• Mohammed al-Baydhaq (d. 1164)
• Ibn Rushd (d. 1198)
• Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi
• al-Qurtubi (d. 1273)
• Abdelaziz al-Malzuzi (d. 1298)
• Ibn Idhari (d. 1312)
• Ibn Battuta (d. 1369))
• Ibn al-Khatib (d. 1374)
• Ibn Abi Zar (d. ca. 1320) Rawd al-Qirtas
• Ismail ibn al-Ahmar (d. 1406)
• Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406) al-Muqaddimah and al-I’bar
India
Further information: Muslim chronicles for Indian history
• al-Bīrūnī (d. 1048) Kitab fi Tahqiq ma li’l-Hind (Researches on India), The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries
• Minhaj-i-Siraj (d. after 1259)
• Amir Khusro (d. 1325)
• Ziauddin Barani (d. 1357)
• Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman Medieval Indian medical historian
• Sayyid Shamsullah Qadri (24 November 1885–22 October 1953)
The early modern historians

Turkish: Ottoman Empire

• Aşıkpaşazade (d. 1481)
• Tursun Beg (d. after 1488)[4]
• İdris-i Bitlisi (d. 1520)
• Matrakçı Nasuh (d. 1564)
• Hoca Sadeddin Efendi (d. 1599)
• Mustafa Âlî (d. 1600)
• Mustafa Selaniki (d. 1600)
• Katip Çelebi (d. 1647)
• İbrahim Peçevi (d. 1650)
• Evliya Çelebi (d. after 1682)
• Mustafa Naima (1655–1716) Ta’rīkh-i Na’īmā
• Silahdar Findiklili Mehmed Aga (d. 1723)
• Ahmed Resmî Efendi (d. 1783)
• Ahmet Cevdet Pasha (d. 1895)

Arabic: Ottoman Empire and Morocco

• Ibn Iyas (d. after November 1522)
• Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari (d. 1632)
• Mohammed al-Ifrani (d. 1747)
• Mohammed al-Qadiri (d. 1773)
• Khalil al-Muradi (d. 1791)
• Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti (d. 1825) Aja’ib al-athar fi’l-tarajim wa’l-akhbar
• Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri (d. 1897)
Persian: Safavid Empire and Mughal India
Edit
• Muhammad Khwandamir (d. 1534)
• Abu’l-Fazl ibn Mubarak (d. 1602) – Akbarnama
• Abd al-Qadir Bada’uni (d. 1615)
• Firishta (d. 1620)
• Iskandar Beg Munshi (d. 1632)
• Nizamuddin Ahmad (d. 1621)
• Inayat Allah Kamboh (d. 1671)
• Muhammad Saleh Kamboh (d. ca. 1675)
• Abul Fazl Mamuri (c. 1700)
Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi (d. c. 1760)
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