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Shahjehansoomro Saturday, November 14, 2020 07:21 PM

Computer And The Latest Technology
Computer is a machine or an electronic device used for storing and processing data. Data is unprocessed whereas processed data is called an information. Computer consists of components such as CPU( Central Processing Unit), Memory, Input/Output devices such as Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, Printer, DVD Drive etc.

CPU( Central Process Unit) has motherboard inside which maily consists of microprocessor Chip, Hard Disk, RAM ( Random Access Memory), ROM( Read Only Memory), builten Cards such as VGA Card( Video graphic array ), Sound card, NIC( Network Interface Card) etc.

Precisely Microprocessor receives commands from user and process them. Commands can be data in binary 0 or 1. Binary is one of numbering systems. There are four types of numbering system.
Such as decimal 0 to 9, Binary 0 or 1, Octal 0 to 7, Hexa decimal 0 to F ( 0 to 9,A, B C,D, E,F).

Binary numbers or data is converted into alphabet, thus conversion reverses alphabet into binary. Binary data is measured through bit, byte, mega byte, giga byte, tera byte,petabyte, exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte. Bit can be either 0 or 1, byte consists of 8 bits, Megabyte is 1024 bytes, Gigabyte is 1024 MB, Terabyte is 1024 GB, petabyte, exabyte, zettabyte and yottabyte.

There is ALU( Arithemetic Logic Unit) in the processor which performs or computes the operations. The speed of processor is measured through Hertz, like, Mega hz, Giga hz, Tera hz etc. Latest processor speed is 4.8 Giga hz.

Hard disk is known as permanent or fixed memory. Data is permanently stored in Hard disk or softwares are installed in it. Hard disk memory can be in Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte etc. Whereas RAM is known as temporary memory. Once user opens software, it comes on RAM and executes untill user closes that software after finishing his/ her work on computer. RAM can be in Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte etc.

Computer can have three things as the most important things in order to provide the fastest speed such as Processor should be neither less or very much in hz, whereas Hard disk should be neither less nor very much in memory, RAM should be as maximum as it can be.

ROM( Read only memory) are the chips which are once permanently programmed for particular tasks and can not be reprogrammed for any change.

VGA CARD is also known as Video/ display card or graphics adapter. It is used for display on screen. Sound Card is used for audio. NIC is used for network connection.

Monitor is the screen for display. Its display is made of pixels( binary system 0 or 1). Latest screens are LCD( Liquid Crystal Display). Lcds are the flat screens. Most latest in screen(TV) is LED( Light Emitting Diod). Its display is made of light emitting diodes. Keyboard and mouse are either wired or wireless.

There are different types of printers introduced until now. Dot Matrix, Ink jet, Laser, LED and 3D Printers. Dot Matrix printer works on ribbons, Ink jet work on Ink Catridge. Cartridge uses three colors scheme combination. RGB(Red, Green, Blue) through which rest of other colors are made with the combinations. An LED Printer is a type of computer printer similar to a*Laser Printer. Such a printer uses a*light emitting diod (LED) array as a light source in the printhead instead of the laser used in laser printers and, more generally, in the*xerography process Printer. 3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model.

Drive types As of 2020, most of the optical disc drives on the market are DVD-ROM drives and BD-ROM drives which read and record from those formats, along with having backward compatibility with CD, CD-R and CD-ROM discs; compact disc drives are no longer manufactured outside of audio devices.

Latest technology Hologram has been introduced. Hologram computer, virtual laser holographic keyboard and virtual laser holographic mouse. Hologram is a real world recording of an interference pattern which uses diffraction to reproduce a 3D light field. These work on projection laser lights on touch.

Modern mobile communications systems describes as the overview which will mainly scope on the mobile data transmission systems (especially WLAN), but also classical cellular networks, etc., GSM, GPRS, UMTS and LTE/LTE-A. Mobile (Cellular) phones are also known as palm devices or gadgets. Latest mobile phones are smart phone having bigger touch screens and processor, Secondary or fixed memory and RAM etc. Mobile phones uses either mobile data or Wifi connection for internet. It works on WAP( Wireless Application Protocol) to connect to internet. It has bluetooth and infrared for connecting to different devices.

It has also navigation feature having GPS( Global Positioning System) technology. Like Computer, those are the fastest mobile phones whose processor is neither less or very much in hz, secondary memory is neither less or very much in memory, and RAM should be as maximum as it can be. Such mobile phones give you the fastest speed and they donít hang.

Network defines as group of computers connected with each other. Computers are the clients on network connected to each other. Network combines of Server and the clients. Server is main Computer on Network having central control of its clients.

Network is made through topology.
Network topology is the arrangement of the elements of a communication network. Network topology can be used to define or describe the arrangement of various types of telecommunication networks, including command and control radio networks, industrial fieldbusses and computer networks.*

There are two well known types of topology. One is Bus topology and second is Star topology. Bus topology is oldest one whereas star topology is favourable. There are three types of network. LAN( Local Area Network), MAN(Metropolitan Area Nework), WAN( Wide Area Network). LAN is supposed to be network within a building, MAN is network within the city, WAN is network within a Country or within the Countries. There are cables, Switches, Router, Modem, Hubs, Repeators used for connecting computer clients on different types of networks.

There are two types of cables. Coaxial Cable and Twisted Pair Cable. Coaxial Cable uses connectors are BNC, Barrel Connector, and End Connector. Whereas Twisted Pair Cable uses Rj45 connector.

Protocol, in computer*science, a set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between electronic devices, such as*computers. Perhaps the most important*computer protocol*is OSI (Open Systems Interconnection), a set of guidelines for implementing networking communications between*computers. There are different protocols used for different connections of either network or internet for personal computers or mobile phones. TCP/IP ( Transmission Control Protocol), (Internet Protocol). HTTP( Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), SMTP( Simple Mail Transmission Protocol), WAP(Wireless Application Protocol).

Software is a set of programs. Program is a set of instructions, code developed or generated through computer languages or tools. Software is made of either desk based or web based. Desk based software used on desk tops or network whereas web based software used on web WWW( World Wide Web) sites online on Net. Operating Systems such Windows, Linux etc help computer start. In addition Apps are the applications made for Mobile phones. AI( Artificial Intelligence) based software or systems developed for an automation. AI softwares are made through defining diverse rules with different conditions in order to automate the things.

Written By Shahjehan Soomro

Rizzzk Wednesday, July 28, 2021 09:09 AM

Over the years, I've gone through a lot of printers, both laser and inkjet. If you only print once in a while, stay away from inkjet printers because the ink can dry out before you even get to use it all.

Other things to consider are that some of the new printers keep track of how many pages they print and report that they are out of ink when they aren't. Without purchasing a new toner, these counters cannot be reset.

I spent a lot of time looking for a all in one printer..., that doesn't worry if you refill the toner on the cheap and doesn't care how many pages you print! I ultimately chose a Brother color laser 3170.

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