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Default The Sunrise Of Afghanistan With Independence

The history of Afghanistan*as a state*began in 1880 with its establishment following the end of the Second Anglo-Afghan War.*Its history is tied to that of other countries in its region, mostly Pakistan, India, Iran, Tajikistan*and Uzbekistan.*The written recorded history of the land presently constituting Afghanistan can be traced back to around 500 BCE when the area was under the Achaemenid Empire,*although evidence indicates that an advanced degree of urbanized*culture has existed in the land since between 3000 and 2000 BCE.*Bactria dates back to 2500 BCE.*The Indus Valley Civilisation*stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north.*Alexander the Great*and his Mecedonia*army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after the fall of the Achaemenid*during the Battle of Gaugamela. Since then, many empires have established capitals in what is now Afghanistan,

The Gandhara region centered around the Peshwar Valley and Swat*river valley, though the cultural influence of “Greater Gandhara” extended across the Indus river to the Taxila*region in Potohar plateau*and westwards into the Kabul*and Bamiyan valleys in Afghanistan, and northwards up to the Karakoram*range.

Kamboja Kingdom (c. 1200 – 299 BCE)

The Kambojas/Asvakans*were an Iranic/Nuristuni group that resided and ruled over the Hindukush*region.

One capital of Kamboja*was probably Rajapura*(modern Rajauri) whilst the main heartland capital was Kapisi*(modern day Kapisa). The Kamboja region survived and evolved through many periods. From the Vedic Mahajanapada*age of sanskrit texts to zoroastrian periods and Buddhist period described in Pali scriptures. The Buddhist traditions refers to this region as Kapiśi.*The latest mentions of Kambojas was in late 10th century when they attacked India and formed the Kamboja-pala dynasty.

The Kambojas entered into conflict with Alexander the Great*as he invaded Central Asia. The Macedonian conqueror made short shrift of the arrangements of Darius*and after over-running the Achaemenid Empire he dashed into today’s eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. There he encountered resistance from the Kamboja*Aspasioi*and*Assakenoi*tribes.*The Region of the Hindukush that was inhabitanted by the Kambojas has gone through many rules such as Vendic Mahajanapada, Pali*Kapisi, Indo-Greeks, Kushan*and Gandharans*to Paristan*and modern day being split between Pakistan and Eastern Afghanistan.

Alexander and the Seleucids

Alexander the Great*arrived in the area of Afghanistan in 330 BCE after defeating Darius III of Persia*a year earlier at the Battle of Gaungamela His army faced very strong resistance in the Afghan tribal areas where he is said to have commented that Afghanistan is “easy to march into, hard to march out of.”*Although his expedition through Afghanistan was brief, Alexander left behind a Hellenic*cultural influence that lasted several centuries. Several great cities were built in the region named “Alexandria,” including: Alexandria-of-the-Arians (modern-day Herat); Alexandria-on-the-Tarnak*(near Kandahar); Alexandria-ad-Caucasum (near Begram, at Bordj-i-Abdullah); and finally, Alexandria-Eschate (near Kojend), in the north. After Alexander’s death, his loosely connected empire was divided. Seleucus, a Macedonian*officer during Alexander’s campaign, declared himself ruler of his own Seleusid Empire, which also included present-day Afghanistan.

Afghans attained independence when US left the Afghanistan in the end of August 2021 and The Taliban took control of Afghanistan back afer twenty years of invasion and conflict. The sunrise of Afghanistan accompanied with diverse dreams and hope with long awaited independence. As a matter of fact the Afghanistan has been in conflicts and invasions since forty years ago.

Russia invaded Afghanistan in late 1979 to 1989 and US invaded Afghanistan in late 2001 to August, 2021. US successfully ended unceasing war in Afghanistan whereas Talibans and their country, Afghanistan obtained long awaited independence.

Afghanistan needs to establish its best political setup having inclusive political system in its country and gravely steer clear of going apart in the world as well as neighboring countries, having been freed.

Afghani leaders ought to ponder having candid and trade ties with the world, especially with the neighboring countries and should have to abide by International law whereas International communities must collaborate with Afghanistan.


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What is the role of Taliban and future of Afghanistan?

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