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Old Thursday, May 15, 2008
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Default Literacy Rate

Literacy Rate:

• Literacy is the ability to read and write. In modern context, the word means reading and writing in a level adequate for written communication and generally a level that enables one to successfully function at certain levels of a society

• The number of people in a country who can read and write

Literacy situation in the British period In 1901, the literacy rate in British India was 5.6%. Growth in literacy rate was very slow and in 1941, it was 13.9% in India

Literacy situation in the Pakistan period Two censuses were conducted in Pakistan between 1947 and 1971, one in 1951 and the other in 1961. In the first census people were classified as literate if they could only read clear prints in any language. According to this definition, literates in East Pakistan constituted 24.7% of the population of age 5 years and above and 21.1% of the total population.

In the census of 1961, literacy was defined as the ability to read a short statement on everyday life in any language. The census estimated that the literacy rate was 21.5% of the population of 5 years and above and 17.6% of the total population.

The definition of literacy used in the 1981 census covered only persons of age 5 years and above and included those who could write a letter in any language.

The 1991 census also defined literacy as the ability to write a letter in any language but covered persons of age 7 years and above. The effect of change in definition of literate has been reflected in the literacy rates of different census years. Literacy rate among people of all ages rose from 17% in 1961 to 24.9% in census year 1991. For the 7 years and above age group, the literacy rate increased from 26.8% in 1974 to 32.4% in 1991. In all census periods, the literacy rates were higher among the males than among the females. The female literacy rate, however, rose significantly in the 1991 census. It was 16.4% in 1974 and 25.5% in 1991. Urban rural variation in literacy rate is also quite evident in all census periods. Literacy rates in urban areas are higher than in rural areas in all census periods.

ALL PAKISTAN RANKING OF DISTRICTS BY LITERACY RATES AND ILLITERATES

(BY 1O+ AND 15+ AGE GROUPS) 2003-2004
Sr. No. District Literacy Rate 10+ (%) Illiterates 10+ Pop Sr. No. District Literacy Rate 15+ (%) Illiterates 15+ Pop
1 Islamabad 72.38 166,708 1 Islamabad 70.20 149,027
2 Rawalpindi 70.45 740,625 2 Rawalpindi 67.50 670,956
3 Karachi 65.26 2,405,915 3 Karachi 63.58 2,093,633
4 Lahore 64.66 1,650,853 4 Lahore 62.98 1,421,602
5 Jhelum 63.92 247,880 5 Jhelum 60.00 225,975
6 Gujrat 62.18 562,450 6 Gujrat 57.87 513,255
7 Sialkot 58.92 799,630 7 Sialkot 55.72 703,653
8 Quetta 57.07 231,116 8 Quetta 54.56 200,362
9 Chakwal 56.72 346.276 9 Gujranwala 53.67 906,008
10 Abbottabad 56.61 273,570 10 Chakwal 51.57 319,963
11 Gujranwala 56.55 1,049,510 11 Abbottabad 51.41 245,001
12 Haripur 53.72 230,737 12 Faislabad 49.15 1,634,920
13 Narowal 52.65 416,642 13 Haripur 48.07 209,065
14 Faislabad 51.94 1,880,742 14 Narowal 47.26 371,339
15 Toba Tek Singh 50.50 575,767 15 Toba Tek Singh 46.95 504,959
16 Attock 49.27 474,779 16 Attock 44.65 426,784
17 Mandi Bahauddin 47.44 438,461 17 Sukkur 44.54 281,933
18 Sukkur 46.62 330,593 18 Mandi Bahauddin 42.93 391,738
19 Sargodha 46.30 1,023,488 19 Sargodha 42.81 893,353
20 Hyderabad 44.25 1,134,367 20 Hyderabad 42.15 967,317
21 Kohat 44.06 214,258 21 Multan 41.66 1,024,972
22 Sahiwal 43.90 740,641 22 Sahiwal 41.18 639,863
23 Shekhupura 43.78 1,309,213 23 Shekhupura 40.72 1,122,309
24 Multan 43.38 1,229,392 24 Kohat 40.10 180,929
25 Mian wali 42.76 421,329 25 Peshawar 39.43 662,160
26 Noshera 42.50 347,518 26 Noshera 39.32 293,339
27 Karak 41.92 159,831 27 Mianwali 38.69 365,175
28 Peshawar 41.75 801,665 28 Karak 37.51 133,682
29 Hafizabad 40.74 351,799 29 Khanewal 37.21 739,689
30 Khushab 40.50 386,715 30 Hafizabad 37.20 307,560
31 Chitral 40.30 13,031 31 Khushab 36.51 340,707
32 Khanewal 39.94 868,572 32 Naushahro Fero
36.16 377,487
33 Malakand P.A 39.14 440.045 33 Layyah 35.83 387,632
34 Naushahro Fer
39.14 440,045 34 Okara 35.12 836,240
35 Layyah 38.68 440,045 35 Malakand P.A 34,67 150,349
36 Okara 37.79 975,309 36 Jhang 34.28 1,085,460
37 Jhang 37.12 1,261,071 37 Vehari 34.10 781,575
38 Vehari 36.79 922,771 38 Chitral 33.80 109,955
39 Mardan 36.45 621,769 39 Kasur 33.57 875,298
40 Mansehra 36.32 506,766 40 Dadu 33.53 631,741
41 Kasur 36.21 1,044,193 41 Bahawalpur 33.35 901,908
42 Swabi 36.03 442,268 42 Bahawalnagar 32.68 794,054
43 Dadu 35.56 739,667 43 Khairpur 32.42 559,167
44 Khairpur 35.50 653,975 44 Mardan 32.29 523,256
45 Bahawalnagar 35.07 936,819 45 Larkana 32.03 698,785
46 Bahawalpur 35.03 1,084,887 46 Pakpattan 31.80 502,471
47 Larkana 34.95 814,889 47 Nawabshah 31.79 401,651
48 Pakpattan 34.70 588,309 48 Mansehra 31.76 428,816
49 Ziarat 34.34 14,293 49 Ziarat 31.71 11,965
50 Bhakkar 34.17 477,011 50 Swabi 31.27 378,604
51 Nawabshah 34.13 474,088 51 Bhakkar 31.03 401,935
52 Rahim Yar Khan 33.09 1,398,416 52 Rahim Yar Khan 30.93 1,170,401
53 Bannu 32.11 294,486 53 Shikarpur 29.85 334,356
54 Shikarpur 31.94 393,354 54 Pishin 29.62 123,272
55 Panjgur 31.35 95,140 55 Bannu 29.29 248,697
56 D.I. Khan 31.28 389,067 56 D.I. Khan 29.27 321,442
57 Pishin 31.14 157,231 57 Sanghar 28.93 564,260
58 Charsada 31.11 469,586 58 Panjgur 28.93 75,883
59 Sanghar 30.87 675,226 59 D.G Khan 28.71 596,503
60 D.G Khan 30.61 733,913 60 Mirpurkhas 28.57 599,216
61 Hangu 30.50 141,462 61 Lodhran 27.80 456,958
62 Mirpurkhas 30.40 722,547 62 Hangu 27.70 113,982
63 Lodhran 29.90 552,644 63 Charsada 27.34 394,596
64 Lower-Dir 29.90 313,515 64 Ghotki 27.26 376,149
65 Lakki Marwat 29.71 217,398 65 Muzaffargarh 26.92 994,168
66 Ghotki 29.01 450,081 66 Swat 26.58 472.079
67 Swat 28.75 588,304 67 Lower-Dir 26.40 254,530
68 Muzaffargarh 28.45 1,226,326 68 Lakki Marwat 25.86 183,644
69 Mastung 27.58 79,840 69 Mastung 25.26 67,761
70 Kech 27.51 194,428 70 Changhi 24.38 79,440
71 Chiaghi 26.99 96,575 71 Kech 24.36 165,303
72 Tank 26.25 113,459 72 Tank 23.95 93,182
73 Sibi 25.47 93,838 73 Sibi 23.82 79,172
74 Gawadar 25.47 92.828 74 Badin 23.09 480,463
75 Badin 24.63 572,742 75 Gawadar 22.40 78,118
76 Jacobabad 23.66 705,112 76 Jacobabad 22.03 597,147
77 Buner 22.62 252,534 77 Thatta 21.52 490,587
78 Lasbela 22.30 167,775 78 Loralai 19.99 133,680
79 Thatta 22.14 586,524 79 Lasbela 19.98 141,102
80 Upper Dir 22.21 285,151 80 Buner 19.55 207,032
81 Rajanpur 20.73 559,510 81 Rajanpur 19.35 460,327
82 Loralai 20.47 162,114 82 Upper Dir 19.03 223,786
83 Kalat 19.86 123,145 83 Tharparkar 17.57 374,684
84 Jafarabad 18.51 232,626 84 Kalat 17.53 101,245
85 Tharparkar 18.32 474,908 85 Batagram 17.34 132,329
86 Batagram 18.31 166,203 86 Jafarabad 16.53 199,687
87 Killa Saifullah 17.55 100,032 87 Killa Saifullah 16.45 78,909
88 Khuzdar 17.46 226,817 88 Zhob 16.27 110,402
89 Zhob 16.78 143,187 89 Khuzdar 15.93 187,275
90 Killa Abdullah 16.10 198,708 90 Killa Abdullah 15.53 157,385
91 Bolan 15.78 163,587 91 Bolan 14.55 135,863
92 Barkhan 15.67 58,290 92 Barkhan 14.07 49,060
93 Kharan 15.05 114,855 93 Kharan 13.98 93,238
94 Awaran 14.79 66,148 94 Shangle 13.87 192,427
95 Shangle 14.73 241,701 95 Awaran 12.57 55,101
96 Naseerabad 12.69 141,469 96 Jhal Magsi 11.57 52,350
97 Jhal Magsi 12.28 63,556 97 Kohlu 11.47 51,753
98 Kohlu 12.15 60,858 98 Naseerabad 11.45 120,665
99 Dera Bughti 11.73 101,919 99 Dera Bughti 11.36 84,232
100 Kohistan 11.08 274,919 100 Kohistan 10.50 213,399
101 Musa Khel 10.37 76,265 101 Musa Khel 10.24 58,482
Source: Ministry of Education, Islamabad.
EFA global monitoring report 2006 launched
‘Pakistan home to 6.2% of world illiterates’

By Irfan Ghauri

ISLAMABAD: Out of the 771 million total adult illiterate population, 60 percent are in Asian countries and Pakistan has 6.2 percent of the total world illiterates, says the 2006 EFA global monitoring report.

The report “Literacy for life” was launched on Thursday by UNESCO. According to the report, 48.7 percent of Pakistan’s population that falls between the age group of 15 plus was literate, including 61.7 percent men and 35.2 percent women In the adult literacy rate list of South and West Asian countries, Pakistan stands third last followed by Nepal at second last with 48.6 percent and Bangladesh at last with 41.1 percent adult literacy rate.

In the list of seven South and West Asian countries, Maldives is at the top of adult literacy that is 96.3 pc, including 96.2 percent men and 96.4 percent women. The report shows that 90.4 percent Sri Lankan adults were literate, including 92.2 percent men and 88.6 percent women.

Iran and India come at number three and four with 77 and 61 percent adult literacy rates respectively.

The UNESCO’s data shows that the number of illiterates and their percentage is increasing in Pakistan. According to census reports of Pakistan, 18.64 million people of were illiterate in 1951. In 1961, the number increased to 22.08 million, in 1972 it was 33.59 million, in 1981 it was 42.69 and in 1998 it increased to 50.38 million.

Likewise, the percentage of GDP spending on education continued to decline. It was 2.62 percent in 1996-97, 2.34 percent in 1997-98, 2.40 percent in 1998-99, 1.7 percent in 1999-00, 1.6 percent in 2000-01, 1.9 percent in 2001-02, 1.7 percent in 2002-03, 2.1 percent in 2003-04, 2.2 percent in 2004-05 and 2.1 percent in 2005-06, the UNESCO figures said quoting the census of Pakistan.

The report said that literacy was a right denied to over 50 million people in Pakistan and had been neglected in the policy agenda of the country.

The UN officials, in their presentations, reminded Pakistan of its commitment under national education policy 1998-2010 according to which literacy rate would be increased to 86 percent and 78 million people would be made literate by establishing 82,000 non-formal basic education schools and creating literacy corps comprising students and teachers. They recommended that the political leadership should lead the literacy movement and educational budget should be raised to four percent of the GDP.

According to the report, out of the 771 million adult illiterates, India had the highest share of 34.6 percent, China 11.3 percent, Pakistan 6.2 percent, Bangladesh 6.8 percent, Nigeria three percent, Ethiopia three percent, Egypt two percent, Indonesia 2.4 percent and Brazil two percent.

The report said that more than 380 million adults in South and West Asia lacked basic learning tools to take informed decisions and fully participate in the development of their societies. It said that on average, less than 60 percent of the total adult population in South and West Asia could read and write with any understanding, which is one of the lowest literacy rates in the world. The levels are even lower than 50 percent in Bangladesh and Pakistan. It says that regional literacy rate had increased to 11 percent since 1990, but still these countries found it difficult to reach the EFA adult literacy target of reducing levels of illiteracy by 50 percent by 2015 due to their current low literacy rates.

It says women constituted majority of the region’s adult illiterates with only 66 literate women for every 100 literate men. Indeed, most of the countries show substantial gender disparities in literacy, with the gender parity index (GPI) well below the regional average in Bangladesh 0.62, Nepal 0.56 and Pakistan 0.57 which are also the countries with lowest literacy rates, the report says.

It further says that in the countries where overall literacy rate is comparatively low, urban/rural disparities are also large. Pakistan is a typical example with 44 percent rural and 72 percent urban populations that are literate.

It said that the region as a whole had recently registered a sharp increase in primary enrolments but the goal of universal primary education remains a distant one as more than 30 million primary school age children were not enrolled, 58 percent of whom are girls. The net enrolment ratio varies from 59 percent in Pakistan to 92 percent in Maldives.

The report proposed a three-pronged strategy to enhance literacy that included universal quality basic education for girls and boys, scaling up youth and adult literacy programmes and development of environments conducive to the meaningful use of literacy. Anisa Zeb Tahirkheli, the minister of state for education, pledged that the EFA goals would soon be achieved. “We still have one decade left. The government is fully gearing up. We will go through the report. You will see significant change in these figures in the years to come,” she said.


Last edited by Princess Royal; Thursday, May 15, 2008 at 02:27 PM.
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