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Old Tuesday, July 15, 2008
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Default What is Criminology?

I believe that knowledge and information should be shared, freely available to all and hopefully discussed in an open and informative manner. The essays and seminar discussions here are all my own work and are intended to assist students of the social sciences. please feel free to leave your opinion here too. All I ask is that any quotations from my work are acknowledged and referenced in accordance with intellectual property conventions. If I have misreferenced something or someone please email me and I will correct it immediately. Have fun reading and hopefully we can get some interesting discussions going here on some of the topics raised.

What is Criminology?
Criminology is the scientific study of crime, criminals, criminal behavior and corrections. Criminology also studies societyís response to crime and to prevention. This includes examination of evidence, hereditary and psychological causes of crime, different modes of investigation and conviction and efficiency of punishment and corrections.

Crime is measured three ways.
The Uniform Crime report, this method is based on crimes that are reported to the police, these crimes are then divided into two types of crime, the High profile crimes are known as indexed crimes, these are likely to carry stiffer penalties than non-indexed crime and are also likely to receive higher media coverage, Indexed crimes are as follows, Homicide, Aggravated Rape, Aggravated Assault Robbery, Burglary, Larceny/theft, Motor Vehicle Theft and Arson all other crimes are Non-Indexed crimes. The difficulty with obtaining realistic figures based on crimes, which are reported is that not all crime is reported and it is sometimes impossible for someone to know that a crime has actually been committed. Crimes most likely to be reported are missing persons, Murder and Property crime this usually must be reported before an insurance claim can be made. There are crimes, which cannot be reported such as rape when the date rape drug has been administered to the victim they will probably have no recall of events for approx 48 hrs and then it may only be flashbacks. Some offences are unlikely to be reported because the victim is unable to report the crime due to fear of retaliation or because of the victims ignorance that laws are being broken e.g. child abuse. Domestic violence is also unlikely to be reported because the victim is unwilling to report the crime, Blackmail is also unlikely to be reported for the obvious reason that the victim has done something they would rather no-one else knew about. Those who commit fraud are unlikely to turn themselves in and the victims of the fraudulent act are unlikely to know that the fraud has taken place. Driving offences and Drugs offences are also unlikely to be reported to the police because the victim is likely to be involved in the crimes. There is also the problem of the police being able to manipulate crime statistics and arrest figures may be biased or not uniform from county to county, furthermore some crimes are particularly difficult to detect and may not be included in the figures, there are crimes which are outside the jurisdiction of the police force such as Vat fraud which is monitored by customs and excise and industrial crimes which come under the umbrella of the health and safety executive. Therefore some types of crime may be omitted from the figures giving an unrealistic picture of crime.

Self report Studies rely on the honesty of the respondent and therefore the accuracy of the figures can be questioned, those commissioned by Government Agencies are not likely to get the full picture of the level of crime being committed because the respondent may tell lies to avoid prosecution for their offences and those self report studies commissioned by unofficial interest magazines on Drug Crime for instance may well feature instances of bravado in the respondents answers. These Self Report studies often indicate that trivial crimes are more common than official statistics show and that they are spread among all classes. Self Report studies help to assess the Dark Figure of Crime and can be used to supplement the official figures giving a clearer picture of unreported crimes.

The final method of compiling crime figures is through Victim Crime Surveys, it would appear that this method is more accurate than the preceding two because these studies indicate the victimisation level. These studies are taken from randomly selected population samples and ask for the individualís experience of certain types of crime. Victim Surveys are regarded as being valuable to indicate crime trends public attitudes towards law enforcement agencies, can provide information on unrecorded crimes, can provide other additional relevant information such as the age of the victim, Government figures do not record this information. Victim surveys are also a good way of measuring how accurate crime statistics are and can help determine risk assessment. Victim Surveys can be flawed because they cannot measure certain types of crime such as white collar offences, accuracy cannot be guaranteed because of the victims recall of events, the victim may not recall all the incidents and the dates on which they occurred, there may be bias in the type of sampling used and certain areas such as inner cities may be over represented in sampling, there is also the issue of a victim being stigmatised or embarrassed at being the victim of the crime and therefore they may not wish to divulge the required information regarding the crime. The victim may not understand the questions accurately and therefore may give the wrong answer. There is also the issue of what are portrayed as victimless crimes such as prostitution and drugs offences, there are other issues such as the victim perceiving the crime as being too trivial to bother the police for instance.

The unrecorded levels of crime are collectively known as the Dark Figure of Crime, it has been estimated that this figure is possibly 50% higher than official crime statistics. This estimation can be made by using the supplementary information provided by self report studies and victim surveys.

Although there are problems in measuring the true figure of crime a combination of all of the methods of collecting data at least provide those who theorise about how to tackle crime and which laws need amended or revoked or implemented with a basis from which to start, by combining the methods criminologists can reasonably estimate the dark figure of crime and thus give a more accurate picture from which to tackle the crimes which occur and devise crime prevention programmes and initiatives.

What is a Criminologist and what do they do?
A criminologist studies normal social behaviors and deviations from the norm. The criminologist is often an academic who studies crime and the law. They provide theoretical explanations of delinquent and criminal behavior, analyze criminal law and criminal behavior.

A criminologist studies crime by analyzing criminal behavior and methods of criminals. Criminologists work with and for law enforcement agencies developing profiles of particular types of crimes as well as gathering statistics on crime rates.
The criminologist not only studies or investigates the crimes they analyze the entire criminal justice system and its processes.

What do qualifications do criminologists generally need?
A criminologist needs an interest in human well-being and behavior A good criminologist is also a good communicator and listener. A criminologist needs to demonstrate responsibility, creativity, analytical thinking and problem-solving.
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Old Saturday, October 09, 2010
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Default Pakistan criminal justice system

Pakistan Criminal Justice System


As a student criminologist, I submit a casual and secular comparison of the status of Pakistan's criminal justice system. Being no religious scholar, I have absolutely and intentionally not included any religious concepts. It is a purely secular and social comparison on a personal scale. I also have intentionally avoided taking any names due to obvious reasons. It is also hoped that this reflection would arouse constructive criticisms from the knowledgeable and in turn evolve from a mere thought process to a practical application level.

Before proceeding further, it is necessary to substantiate that crime and punishments have been part of the human system of existence since antiquity. From Kane and Able to the Mosaic Laws; from the Aztec's and Incas of South America to the barbaric Mongol hordes of central Asia; from the code of Hammurabi to the post modern criminal judicial systems; crime and punishments have existed in one form or the other. No community, society, statenation or empire; historically or contemporarily; has been void of crime and punishments.

Europe awakened from its dark ages to secular enlightenment and modernization in the aftermath of the Industrial and the French revolution. In the pre revolutionary era people of the book began to question traditional and orthodox thoughts, philosophies and practices. New thoughts, philosophies and researches took birth not only in the physical sciences but also in the social sciences. The study of crime and punishments also In Europe crime and punishment evolved from private vengeance by the victim towards the offender, to trial by battle, to trial by ordeal. The inquisitionist considered crime to be a sin and the evil in the offender was punished by extreme physical torture which in many cases led to or was death. No authentic laws or justice system were existent in the pre French revolution era. Crimes were offences against the State, against the Church or against the Crown. Some of these crimes were specified and many were not. The church still enjoyed much influence in the society and in the Kings Courts even after the renaissance. The King was considered the 'Shadow of God on earth' and the Church and the Monarch enjoyed an interdependent relationship. Judges were appointed by the monarch and were of the nobility. These judges had arbitrary and discretionary powers which were exercised with bias and prejudice and favoritism. Accused and convicted were treated in the same manner. In sense an 'accused was guilty until proven innocent' and in most cases the innocent succumbed to the tortures in practice to obtain a confession.

During this age of substitution of rule of law for human arbitrariness and excess of prejudice, nepotism and bias; arose a name from anonymity which today is unanimously accepted by all in the discipline as the 'founder of modern criminology.' Cesare Beccaria (1738- 1794) was an undistinguished student of law, who after much investigation and examination of the works of D. Hume, J. Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau among others; produced his publication 'Dei delitti e delle'- 'On crimes and Punishment' in July 1764. This work of Beccaria contained an all-embracing and reasoned design for an enlightened criminal justice system which served not the purposes of the few but that of the masses.

It was thus approximately two and a half centuries ago when the controversy between the rule of law and the rule of men were raging in Europe and beyond, further west. It is noticeable that the concepts and practices of the arbitrary and whimsical legal system prevalent then are having many similarities of what is the norm of the judicial system in Pakistan today. Beccaria's philosophy was though based on certain unscientific assumptions of 'Free Will' and Hedonistic nature of man; however, here I am not attempting to criticize his beliefs. I attempt here to compare the conditions prevalent two and a half centuries ago in the west - which led Beccaria to produce his work; with what is in vogue two and a half centuries later in Pakistan.

Beccaria's masterpiece can be summed into certain basic rules or principles. These were the principles which according to Beccaria would undo the then existing rule of men and replace it with the rule of law. I shall briefly shed light upon some of the main principles. It is necessary to remember that this principle given in retaliation to an existing practices and it remains my intention to compare those practices which led to Beccaria's work with what is the practice in Pakistan today.

Principles proposed by Beccaria:
. Laws should be used to maintain the 'Social Contract':This is a theory of how rules, regulation and laws developed in society. For those who are not familiar with the term; Social Contract theory supports the opinion that people were originally without government. They then created a state through a 'Social Contract' by which they surrendered many of their 'natural liberties'. In return, people received the security that government could provide 'against anti social acts.'
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Its good to see that some one is sharing the knowledge of CRIMINOLOGY on this forum. Our PSPs really need this knowledge.

I recommend all PSP aspirants to study criminology extensively. It will help you out in your duties in a scientific way.

I am a halfbreed criminologist as well.
Linked to Pakistan Society of Criminology.
If you need any help in criminology, this humble fellow will be glade to help you out.
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Old Friday, August 23, 2019
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hello sir! would you please be kind enough to share some guiding material regarding database investigation and principles of criminal investigation. I searched for it but could not find reliable material.
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Old Friday, August 23, 2019
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Behan is folder main shaid apko apk desired topic mil jayain.

https://drive.google.com/folderview?...sfWvfedzPoJ_m3

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Behan is folder main bry bhtr r concrete notes hain criminology k. Mazeed ye k books b mojood hain criminology ke.

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thank you so much sir!
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Thank you so much
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May be experienced lawyer can explain it thoroughly
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