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Old Wednesday, November 11, 2009
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Turns from Russian to western arms Procuments policy.
India an important departure from the past where India was more inclined to assert “nonalignment” in international relations and avoid entanglements. Instead of avoiding alignments all together, India is now seeking to align with (just about) everyone, or become “poly aligned.” India still perceives and presents itself to be “nonaligned” many of its actions are increasingly in the direction of “poly-alignment.”

The emerging struggle between the Soviet Union and the countries forming North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in the post-World War II period. Eventually, this policy led to India becoming one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in 1955. Nehru’s approach is often described as noncommittal, neutralist, and even immoral. The basic principles of nonalignment also governed the military relationships of the Indian defense establishment, resulting in limited military-to-military contact, and those usually under the auspices of United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions2 or training at foreign military schools.3 These practices were generally followed by his successors until the early 1990s

Despite being one of the pioneers and founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, India developed a closer relationship with the Soviet Union during the Cold War. India's strategic and military relations with Moscow and strong socialist policies had an adverse impact on its relations with the United States. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, India began to review its foreign policy in a unipolar world following which; it took steps to develop closer ties with the European Union and the United States.

India plans to buy more than $30 billion in arms over the next five years to fight the low-intensity war in the northern state of Jammu and Kashmir, head off terror attacks in cities, and prepare for potential battle with Pakistan or China. it harbored a notion that the US was viewing India as a counterweight to China. Delhi was also becoming susceptible to the US stratagem to "woo India away from Russia and China and, in the meantime, feeding India's ambition to match China force by force by its ever burgeoning arms sales to India".11th Plan (2007-2012) period is to also induct armed drones like the American ‘Predators’,

Constrained by limited resources and Cold War politics, depended significantly on the single-source, 'cheap' Soviet-era weaponry for its armory. With the end of Cold War and the global political realignment, especially post-9/11, Indian security requirements are no longer viewed adversely by the West.

Nonalignment did not protect India from China in the way that Nehru envisioned it would, nor did the other nonaligned countries rally to India’s aid; (2) in an ironic twist of fate, it was the United States and other powers that India specifically wanted to remain unentangled from that came to India’s rescue with support and equipment. India continued to hold to the lofty ideals of NAM, but the war itself was a wakeup call and a
5-year defense plan was introduced that called for expansion and modernization of the military through foreign purchases, and nearly doubled the defense budget

In 1995, India's defence expenditure was $8.34 billion, and that of Pakistan was $2.96 billion. In the 2004-05 defence budgets, the figures stand at $16.7 billion for India, an increase of $2.23 billion from the fiscal year 2003-04 and $3.32 billion for Pakistan, $0.6 billion more than that for 2003-04. As percentage of GDP, the Indian defence expenditure comes to 2.89, whereas for Pakistan it comes to 5.19.

The Indian budget for 2004-05 witnessed nearly 60 per cent hike in allocation of capital expenditure; parlance for funds provided for arms purchases, from $4.57 billion in 2003-04 to $7.31 billion in 2004-05 India Budget documents showed the defense ministry has spent more than 200 billion rupees (US$4.5 billion, A€3.4 billion) in the current fiscal year to buy aircraft and airplane engines, including installments on Hawk jets purchased from Britain's BAE Systems .2005-06 -830 billion rupees (US$18.9 billion, A€14.2 billion) would be set aside for the defense forces in the federal budget for the next fiscal year, up from the 770 billion rupees allocated in fiscal 2004-2005.

2006-2007 India defense budget was 85509.6 crore rupees This is 7.23 per cent more than the budget in FY 2004-05. As a percentage of GDP, the budget is 2.29 per cent as against 2.39 per cent in the previous year. Taking the revised allocation of Rs 81, 700 at RE (Revised Estimate) stage in FY 2004-05, the increase is 8.94 per cent...2007-2008 india defense budget was 92500 Crore rupees.2008-09 India defense budget 105600 crore rupees10 percent to $26.5 billion for 2008/09 and Share of world defense expenditure is 2.1. Defence spending grow by 25 percent in 2009-10 to $30.176 billion. - Army accounts for the largest share of the 2009-10 budget with an approximate allocation of Rs. 76,680 crores, followed by the Air Force (Rs. 34,432 crores) and the Navy (Rs. 20,604 crores).While the Ordnance Factories (OF) have a budget of Rs.1,505.45 crores, the DRDO’s budget is Rs. 8,481.54 crores.
Arms imports by India increased by more than 100 per cent in 2003 over 2002,
maintaining a constant increase since 2000. According to the same report, India stands second in the list of the recipientsof major conventional weapons in a period 1999-2003, with a total arms import bill of $11,800 million;

After the Cold War, India’s foreign relations have become multi-directional and diversified. Growing realisation that international defence cooperation can supplement diplomatic initiatives towards issues of common interests is increasingly being acknowledged the world over. New geo-strategic realities necessitate improvement of relations with the major powers, such as the US, EU, Russia, Japan.

By 1990, only two other countries had entered into defense agreements with India. Mauritius signed a defense agreement in 1974 whereby India would provide leadership
to the Mauritius Coast Guard from the Indian Navy. Then in 1982 India signed a memorandum of understanding on the supply of defense equipment with France.

As an illustration of the changes, in 2001 Aero India was dominated by Indian companies, attended mostly by Russian, Ukrainian, French, and Israeli companies and had 10 other lightly represented countries. The DefExpo 2008, the fifth biennial defence exhibition on land and maritime systems held recently in New Delhi, conveyed most emphatically India's growing clout in the international arms bazaar, albeit mostly as a buyer. The exhibition, which saw a record 475 participants, including 273 foreign companies from over 30 countries At Aero India 2009, 25 foreign countries were heavily represented and for the first time, the number of foreign exhibitors exceeded the
number of Indian exhibitors.

Indian capital expenditures in defence have been on a steady upswing since 2004-05 when acquisitions went up from around $3.5 billion in value to around $7.5 billion in each of the following three years and then rose to around $11 billion in 2008-09. Adding to the need for, and cost of, the military modernization programme has been the so-called “Revolution in Military Affairs” (RMA)

Indian acquisitions of military hardware are the hot topic in the global armaments bazaar. India is expected to spend around $30 billion on arms imports over the next few years. India is perhaps the world’s largest importer of armaments with annual expenditure of around $6 billion on this count, a sizeable proportion of India’s defence budget of $28 billion for 2009-10. Security analysts are fond of pointing out that this is only around 2.5% of GDP compared to India’s neighbours Pakistan and China whose annual defence budgets are around 4.5% ($4.4 billion) and 4% ($100 billion) of their GDP respectively

By the end of the 1990s, India was seeking to develop other sources of supply for military equipment and had signed an additional three agreements on defense equipment with Italy, South Africa, and the UK in addition to the aforementioned agreements with the United States. In 2002, India published the first iteration of its Defence Procurement Procedure, which was meant to establish processes for defense purchases, to include
competitive .

India is now engaged in a wide range of activities with other friendly countries, ranging from Chile and Brazil in the Far-West to Japan and Korea in the Far-East and has concluded suitable defence cooperation agreements with over 30 countries.India concluded only seven new bilateral agreements from 1947 to 2000, and four of those were in the decade between 1990 and 2000; however, from 2000 to 2008 India
concluded 19 new agreements.

Australia- Relations between Australia and India are evolving into a strong partnership, Bilateral Agreements -Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Defense Cooperation (2006) - Information Sharing Agreement (2007), Bilateral Forums - Maritime Security ,Operations Working Group, High Level Delegations -To India -Chief of Australian Defense Force (May 07) - Australian Naval Chief (Aug 07)8 - Australian Defense Minister (Jul 07). Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises - Milan multilateral naval exercise. India’s military will directly benefit from Australian uranium exports. Australia’s deal to export uranium to India - which is not a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - will strengthen India’s nuclear capabilities and could lead to a heightened arms race on the subcontinent

Brazil-“India has a strategic partnership with both Brazil . Bilateral Agreements-Agreement on Defense Cooperation (2003), Bilateral Forums - Joint Defense Committee .High Level Delegations -To India- Army Chief (Dec 06).Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises - Ibsamar Trilateral Naval Exercise (May 08). India purchased six executive jets from Brazilian airplane manufacturer Embraer in 2003 for the Air Force and recently entered into a deal with the same company to jointly develop an airborne early warning and control aircraft based on the EMB-145-$378 million - Embraer ERJ-145

Cambodia- Bilateral Agreements- MoU on Defense Cooperation (2007), High Level Delegations -To India - Commander-in-Chief, Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (2006). China- India strategic and cooperative partnership should be based on strong, diversified and mutually beneficial economic ties.” Bilateral Agreements - MoU On Exchanges and Cooperation in the field of Defense (2006), - Annual Defense Dialog . High Level Delegations To India- Peoples Liberation Army Navy Commander (Nov 08). Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises - Hand-in-Hand, 2008 annual anti-terrorism exercise22 - Naval exercise

Russia India are satisfied with the overall development of our partnership.” Bilateral Agreements - Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Co-operation (1971) - Bilateral Defence Cooperation Agreement (1998- Joint Development Agreement on 5th gen fighter (2007), ), Bilateral Forums - India-Russia Inter- Governmental Commission on Military Technical Cooperation (DefMin)-- subgroups on aviation, shipbuilding and landforces. High Level Delegations To India - Defense Minister (Jun 06)- Commander-in-Chief of the Russian land forces (Jun 07)- Defense Minister (Sep 08). Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises - Indra annual Army and AF anti-terror and search and destroy exercise- Indra biannual Naval exercise.

Unhappiness with Russia as a defense supplier in terms of both quality of defense articles
and perennial problems with price escalation and delayed delivery has created a significant motive for diversification of the supply base.

Defense Sales to India (2003-08)- $13.5 billion - AT-14 Kornet- Gorshkov aircraft carrier - Tunguska AD system - Smerch MRL - MiG-29s - Talwar frigate - Akula nuclear sub (lease) - Mi-17 helicopters- SU-30s - T-90 Tanks - BMP-2 IFV - Mi-17V-5 (armed), nine Ka-31 helicopters, inducted in 2003-2004, which operate from its solitary aircraft carrier INS Viraat and three Talwar-class "stealthy" guided-missile frigates as well as shore-based air stations. starting from 1960, India has bought some $50 billion worth of Soviet and Russian arms till 2009. India has also entered into joint design and development collaboration agreements related to several systems it wants for the third to fifth decades of this century such as with Russia’s Mikoyan Bureau for co-development of a 5th Generation fighter aircraft. In January 2004, India signed a $1.5 billion dollar deal with Russia to overhaul and procure a Soviet-era aircraft carrier, Admiral Gorshkov, and to supply 28 MiG-29 maritime jetsto India. In December 2004, India and Russia signed a $1.5 billion contract for exporting 40 warplanes to India. The Gorshkov was essentially gifted to India for the price of one dollar, and India signed a contract for $1.5 billion in 2004 for the refurbishment and aircraft, with a 2008 delivery date. As of February 2009, the Russians had increased the cost of the carrier to $2.9 billion for the package, up from $2.1 billion in November 2007. Delivery is now projected for 2012

Singapore “India’s relations with Singapore have evolved into a strong partnership. - Bilateral Agreements -India-Singapore Defense Cooperation Agreement (2003) - 5 year agreement for AF training on Indian AF bases (2007) - Agreement for joint Army training on Indian Army bases (2008). ), Bilateral Forums - India-Singapore Defence Policy Dialogue (DefSec)-- Joint Working Group Intelligence. High Level Delegations To India - Minister for Defense (Oct06) - Permanent Secretary of Defense (Oct 07) - Chief of Defense Forces. Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises - Sindex annual AF exercise118 - Participant in Malabar 2007 - Milan multilateral naval exercise. Singapore is also using India’s military training facilities due to its own lack of large training areas as evidenced by theagreements for training on Army and Air Force bases.These agreements are unique for India and provideSingapore a training location much closer than the United States and Australia, where it currently conducts much of its training. Singapore is also interested in tapping the Indian defense market and was marketing its Pegasus lightweight howitzer to the Indian Army. However, this deal has already become embroiled in a corruption scandal.

South Korea-South Korea is a potential source of technology for India’s emerging shipbuilding industry and potential partner for development and marketing of other defense equipment. Bilateral Agreements- MoU on Defense Industry and Logistics Cooperation (2005)- MoU on Coast Guard cooperation (2006). High Level Delegations
To India. - Minister of National Defense (May 07)

United Kingdom- imparted a fresh momentum to our strategic partnership.” Bilateral Agreements - Defence Equipment Cooperation Memorandum of Understanding (1997), - , Bilateral Forums -India-UK Defense Consultative Group (DefSec)--3 sub-groups: -- Mil-Mil Contacts -- Defense Equipment -- Research and Technology. High Level Delegations To India - British Chief of Defence Staff (May 02)- Permanent Under Secretary for Defence (Apr 04)- Defence Minister (Oct 04)- British Army chief (Oct 07. Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises -joint exercise (Mar 05)- Konkan Naval exercise in India and UK on alternate years - Himalayan Warrior Army-Marine exercise in India (Oct 07)- Lion’s Strike and Wessex Warrior Army Exercises in UK (Sep08) - Indradhanush AF Exercise.

Defense Sales to India (2003-08) - $3.7 billion - Jaguar aircraft - Hawk trainer aircraft. UK had moderate defense trade with India peaked during the Indo-China war and tapered off during the 1970s and early 1980s. Trade began to expand again in the 1980s with India’s purchase of Sea King helicopters and a second aircraft carrier. In the 1990s, Indian defense purchases from the UK included Jaguar and Harrier aircraft, and a Leanderclass frigate. issues. In 2004, India and Britain entered into their first co-production agreement for the Hawk advanced jet trainer aircraft and have a number of on-going projects involving VVIP helicopters, networks, naval support vessels, and upgrades to existing equipment. Between 2003 and 2007, India signed contracts for approximately $1.7 billion in defense sales.

There is a military meaning under Washington's pledge to "help India to become a 21st century world power." Some U.S. officials have discussed about an idea of an Asian version of NATO, a military alliance among the United States, India, Japan and Australia.

United States- “developing and strengthening the strategic partnership with the United States” Bilateral Agreements - Kicklighter Agreement on Defense (1991) - Agreed minute of defense Cooperation (1995) - General Security of Military Information Agreement (2002)- New Framework for the U.S.--India Defense Relationship (2005). - ), Bilateral Forums -Defense Policy Group (DefSec)--4 sub-groups: -- Defense Procurement and Production Group -- Joint Technical Group -- Military Cooperation Group -- Senior Technology Security Group. High Level Delegations To India - PACOM Commander (May 09)- Secretary of the Navy (Mar 08)- Chief of Naval Operations (Apr 08) - Secretary of Defense (Feb 08)159 - Chief of Army Staff (Oct 08)- Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (Dec 08). Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises - Yudh Abhyas bilateral Army exercise (May 02)- Malabar Naval Exercise - Cope India Air Force Exercise- Red Flag Air Force Exercise (Aug 08)- Vajraprahar Army CT exercise - Multiple special forces exercises annually.

Defense Sales to India (2003-08)- - $5.4 billion - TPQ-37 firefinder radars - Trenton landing platform dock - UH-3H helicopters - C-130J aircraft - P-8I Maritime Patrol aircraft. India is in a major drive to replace its outdated, Soviet-vintage equipment for the Army, Navy and Air Force with latest and contemporary generation precision strike systems and their supporting infrastructure. Boeing itself is trying to sell heavy lift C 17 Globemaster III transport aircraft, heavy lift Chinook helicopter, Apache combat helicopter, F 18 Super Hornet attack aircraft, Harpoon missiles, and more Boeing P8-I and other Boeing 737-based aircraft

France- “India and France enjoy a close and wide ranging strategic partnership, Bilateral Agreements- MoU on Supply of Defense Equipment (1982) - Gov to Gov agreement on defense (1998)27 - Defense Cooperation agreement (2006). Bilateral Forums- Indo-French Strategic Dialog - Indo-French High Committee on Defense Cooperation (DefSec) -- Sub Committee on Military Cooperation -- Sub Committee on Strategic Issues -- Sub Committee on Defense IndustryProcurement and Research and Technology, High Level Delegations To India - French Defense Minister (Apr 03) - Chief of French Army (Nov 07). Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises - Varuna annual Naval exercise - Garuda annual AF exercise. In April 2009 the Indian and French navies took part in anti-submarine exercises off the coast of the western state of Goa. France began selling defense equipment to India in 1949, The Indo- French relationship did not really take off until 1962 when France finally relinquished its possessions in India, France joined with the United States and UK sanctioning India in 1965 during the war with Pakistan, France was the first to lift sanctions and resume defense trade a year later. Consequently, France was the second major power to sign a defense agreement with India when both countries signed the “Memorandum of Understanding on Supply of Defense Equipment” in 1982.

Defense Sales to India - among the purchases from France in the 1980s were Mirage-2000 fighter aircraft, air surveillance radars, and anti-tank missiles. Defense sales expanded in the last 10 years as India purchased additional Mirage-2000s and Exocet missiles and leased Scorpene submarines from France (2003-08)- $4.5billion - Mirage 2000 - SM-39 Exocet - Mirage 2000-5. French state-controlled group Areva has signed a draft accord for the sale of up to six nuclear reactors to India, a huge new market now open after a nuclear trade embargo on New Delhi was lifted.France is one of the key arms suppliers for India's technology-hungry military, and the French firm Dassault Aviation is in the race for a mammoth contract to supply 126 fighters to the Indian air force.A jet contract could be worth up to 12 billion dollars (8.6 billion euros).2004 $2.5 billion o import six Scorpene submarines and 36 SM-39 missiles from France,

Germany-have reaffirmed strong mutual commitment to the strategic partnership that was launched in 2001. Bilateral Agreements-Defense and Security Cooperation Agreement (2006)- Agreement on the Mutual Protection of Classified Information (2007). Bilateral Forums- Defense Secretaries Meeting (DefSec) -- Strategic Defense Cooperation -- Defense Technical Cooperation -- Military to Military Cooperation. - High Level Delegations To India-Defense Secretary (Apr 07)- German Defense Minister (Jun 07). Defense Sales to India - $169 million - Dornier 228 Aircraft

Switzerland- approved the sale of hundreds of rifles and machine guns to India to equip the police in various parts of the country, India, which was struck off a list of banned countries by the government in 2005, acquired Swiss arms and components worth SFr0.3 million. Czech -exports went above all to India in 2007, which accounted for a fifth of the country's exports of military material EUR 35 million. Bulgaria In 2004 it won a contract to supply the Indian government with 64,000 AK-47 assault rifles, a deal worth approximately EUR8 million

South Africa “India has a strategic partnership with South Africa.” Bilateral Agreements- MoU concerning Cooperation in the Field of Defense Equipment (1996) - Agreement on Defense Co-operation (2000) - Agreement on Supply of Defense Equipment (2003). Bilateral Forums- India-South Africa Joint Defense Committee. High Level Delegations To India- Chief of S. African Army (Sep 07)1- Chief of S. African Navy (Feb 07). Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises- Ibsamar Trilateral Naval Exercise (May 08). In the 1970s, India supplied Centurion tanks to South Africa and in the late 1990s and 2000s received Casspir armored personnel carriers from South Africa

Israel-India shares a number of cherished values. Israel and India enjoy close defense ties and In 2008 Israel overtook Russia as the number-one supplier of military platforms to India after breaking the $1 billion mark in new contracts signed annually. ” Bilateral Agreements- Intelligence Sharing (2007). Bilateral Forums- India-Israel Joint Defense Committee (DefSec) -- India-Israel Joint Working Group on Defense Cooperation. High Level Delegations To India- Israeli Air Chief (Feb 04)49 - Israeli Naval Chief (Aug 07)- Israeli Army Chief (Sep 08). Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises- Army Exercise - Air Force Exercise. Defense Sales to India - $7.3 billion - Phalcon (AWACS) – BVRAAM - EL/M-2032 Radar - Barak-8 SAM - SPYDER SAM. India is working with Israel on submarine-launched cruise missiles, ballistic missile defense systems, laser-guided systems, satellites as well as unmanned aerial vehicles. 2004 $230 million deal with Israel to acquire 50 Eagle/Heron unmanned aerial vehicles. Israel also sell three Phalcon airborne early warning systems worth $1 billion to (UZI diplomacy)

Italy- India and Italy work towards the establishment of a strategic partnership. Bilateral Agreements- MoU for Defense Cooperation in the field of Defense Equipment (1994/2003).Bilateral Forums- Joint Working Group on Defense. High Level Delegations To India- Italian Defense Minister (2003)- Under Secretary of State for Defense (Nov 06) - Italian Defense Minister(May 07)- Italian Army Chief (Nov 08). . Defense Sales to India -1993 when India placed an order for anti-submarine warfare torpedoes for it Bhramaputra and Shivalik-class frigates. Italy is also providing design consultancy to India for parts of its indigenous aircraft carrier project. C-27C transport aircraft, Augusta Westland helicopters, and a variety of naval weapons.

Sweden.- Sweden’s relationship with India is also almost exclusively defense trade. 1986 sale of the FH-77 Bofors howitzers to India.This particular deal later became embroiled in one of the largest cases of graft and corruption in defense sales and was a major factor in the defeat of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s party in 1989 parliamentary elections.The ensuing scandal eventually led to stricter laws.

Japan- “They reaffirmed the importance of the Strategic and Global Partnership…” Bilateral Agreements- MoU On Maritime Security And Coast Guard Cooperation (2006) - Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation (2008). Bilateral Forums- Defence Policy Dialogue (DefSec)-- military-to-military talks. High Level Delegations To India- CoS Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (Feb 06)- CoS Japan Ground SDF (Mar 06)- CoS Japan Air SDF (Apr 06)- Japanese Defense Minister (Aug 07). Bilateral / .Multilateral Exercises- Participant in Malabar 2007 - Sahyog-Kaijin Coast Guard anti-piracy exercise

Malaysia- Bilateral Agreements- MoU on Malaysia- India Defence cooperation (1992). Bilateral Forums- Malaysia-India Defense Cooperation Meeting (DefSec)-- Sub-Committee for Military Cooperation. High Level Delegations To India- Defense Minister (Jun 06, Jan 08) - Chief of Malaysian Army (Dec 06) - Malaysian Chief of Air Force (Feb 07). Bilateral/Multilateral Exercises- Milan multilateral naval exercise - “passage exercise” (May 08).

Oman-“Oman and India are united into cement their relationship into a mighty strategic relationship,” Bilateral Agreements- MoU on Defense Cooperation (2005). Bilateral Forums - Joint Military Cooperation Council (Def Sec). High Level Delegations To India- - Under Secretary for Defense (May 06). Bilateral/Multilateral Exercises - Biennial Naval Exercises.

Poland - Bilateral Agreements - Agreement on Defense Cooperation (2003). ). Bilateral Forums- Joint Working Group on Defense Cooperation (Sec(Def Prod). High Level Delegations To India- Defense Minister (Nov 08). Defense Sales to India. 80 WZT-3 ARVs to the Indian Army in 2001 $260 million - WZT-3 Armored Recovery Vehicle. The final batch of 40 WZT-3 ARVs were assembled in India from kits supplied from Poland In February 2003 during the visit of the Prime Minister of Poland Leszek Miller to India. India awarded contracts worth US $ 600 million to Poland for modernization of tanks and the acquisition of air defence missiles. The T-72 tank with 800 horsepower engines were fitted with 1000 hp engine and also fitted with modern fire control systems and night vision equipments. India also acquired 625 assault parachutes from the Polish company Air-Pol with automatic devices ensuring their reliable opening, with a total value of US $1.5 million.

Philippines- Bilateral Agreements - Agreement on Defense Cooperation (2006). Nigeria- Bilateral Agreements- MoU on Defense Cooperation (2007). High Level Delegations To India - Defense Minister (Feb 06). Mozambique- Bilateral Agreements - Agreement on Defense Cooperation (2006). Bilateral Forums - Joint Working Group. High Level Delegations To India - Defense Minister (Mar 06).
Mauritius- Bilateral Agreements - Defense Agreement (1974 ). High Level Delegations To India - Commissioner of Police (Jan 06, Feb 08). place since 1974 whereby the Indian Navy provides military leadership to the Mauritius Coast Guard on deputation. India has also transferred naval vessels and equipment to Mauritius over the years.

Madagascar- Bilateral Agreements - Lease for Naval Listening Post (2006). Iran- a continuing close and rich bilateral relationship between both countries but came a lot of tension in these days. High Level Delegations To India - Iranian Navy Commander (Mar 07)- Iranian President (Apr 08). Bilateral/Multilateral Exercises - Naval Exercise
(2003,2006). Indonesia- Bilateral Agreements - Defense Cooperation Agreement (2006). Bilateral Forums - Joint Defense Cooperation Committee -- Navy-to-Navy Staff Talks. High Level Delegations To India - Indonesian Navy Chief (Apr 07).

Tajikistan- India building a wide ranging and intensive relationship…” Bilateral Agreements - Bilateral Defense Agreement for Air Base Access (2002). High Level Delegations To India - Defense Minister (Jan 05) - First Deputy Defense Minister (2006). India has signed a basing agreement with Tajikistan that gives it access to a Tajik Air Force Base that is also shared with the Russians

Thailand- Bilateral Forums - Indo-Thai Joint Working Group (Navy). High Level Delegations To India - Commander-in-Chief Royal Thai Air Force (Sep 06) - Commander-in-Chief Royal Thai Navy (Mar 07). Bilateral/Multilateral Exercises - Maitree Army counter-terrorism exercise (2007).Ukraine -The Ukraine inherited much of the former Soviet defense industry and is licensed to produce a number of Russian military systems. It currently has contracts to service many of India’s Soviet-era aircraft and vehicles. The two countries are also working on a bilateral defense agreement and possible sales of major end items, much to the chagrin of Russia.

Government of India Funded Foreign Military Students Studying in India.
In 2000- 25 Countries 197 military student were studying in India.2003-27 countries 220 military student were studying in India.2004-30 Countries 218 military student were studying in India.2005-35 countries 328 military student were studying in India.2006-36 Countries 386 military student were studying in India.2007-35 countries 400 military student were studying in India.2008-32 countries 420 military student were studying in India.

Under the new Defence Procurement Procedures announced in 2007, all import orders worth more than $60 million must be executed by spending at least 30% of the value on products and services sourced from Indian firms. In exceptional cases of high value, this could even be increased to 50%.

Tata Advanced Systems has been set up as a joint venture (JV) with an investment of $150 million and 76% holdings by the mammoth Tata Industries and $50 million by Israel’s IAI to manufacture Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), electronic warfare systems, missiles, radar systems and security systems. Tatas have also tied up with US aviation company Sikorsky for helicopter sub-assemblies. Similarly, Indian automobile major Mahindra & Mahindra has linked up with UK’s largest and the world’s fourth largest military manufacturer British Aerospace for land-based armament systems and with a subsidiary of Italian Finmecanica for underwater systems. Engineering and construction giant Larsen & Toubro has started joint ventures with several international defence firms such as European conglomerate and Airbus manufacturer EADS Defence & Security and US aerospace major Boeing

India’s interests have changed over the past 2 decades from a position of nonalignment to one of having specific strategic interests that lead it to a path of “poly-alignment.” Develop “strategic partnerships” with countries perceived as leaders of a global, multipolar order, and seek modern military capabilities from many of those countries. This includes modern weapon systems as well as the technology and licensed production associated with those weapon systems. Many of the recent changes in India’s global defense relationships represent a vast departure from past policy and practices. India will likely emphasize balance in its defense relations, especially with the larger powers of
the United States, Russia, the EU, UK, and Israel.

Beyond poly-alignment, India has also begun to directly assert itself as a regional power, especially as it acts on its concerns about Chinese expansionism in the Indian Ocean. To facilitate this, it is seeking to convert its brown-water navy to a blue-water navy, evidenced by the acquisition of new aircraft carriers, submarines, and larger surface vessels. India’s Air Force is also expanding its reach through purchases of air-to-air
refuelers and longer range transport aircraft.
Usman Karim based in Lahore Pakistan
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