CSS Forums

CSS Forums (http://www.cssforum.com.pk/)
-   News & Articles (http://www.cssforum.com.pk/general/news-articles/)
-   -   JWT Articles (http://www.cssforum.com.pk/general/news-articles/70652-jwt-articles.html)

Naveed_Bhuutto Thursday, November 15, 2012 11:18 PM


Dr Mujahid Kamran is a genuine scholar who also serves as the vice chancellor of the University of the Punjab. He writes on diverse topics ranging from theoretical physics to mass media, and from politics to literature. He has written books on Physics and Politics with the equal honesty and sincerity for the nation. His book “Jadeed Tabiaat kay Baani” is in fact a made-easy history of the modern physics which has been written with the intention of inculcating scientific inquisitiveness among the minds of his otherwise dogmatic minded readers.

The book “THE GRAND DECEPTION: corporate America and perpetual war” is a translated version of the compilation of his columns, which were previously published with the title Pas e Parda: Aalami Syaasat kay Makhfi Haqaaeq in Urdu by Sang e Meel in 2001. The columns had been being published in daily Waqt from August to December 2007. Dr Mujahid has recently been writing for The Nation as well.

Despite the fact that Dr Mujahid loves reading and writing poetry; and experiences great affiliation with the literary great masters (to name a few George Orwell, Majeed Amjad) of both the languages; his language in the columns remain dry and descriptive. He avoids adding layers of meanings with the creative use of words. Instead, he believes in explaining the crude facts the way they are.

Since he is a professor of Physics, therefore his insight into the discipline should not be a matter of surprise. However, what pleasantly surprises us is his patriotic voice which draws our stray attention to the need of never forgetting the services of a Pakistani physicist Dr Abdus Salam; the only Nobel Laureate of Pakistan.

The Grand Deception is a well-thought-over and well-composed compilation of the articles written with a vision. Although it is a compilation of the articles which have been written on various topics, yet there is an invisible association among all; which makes the book valuable for those who aspire to know about the dynamics of Political Science, Mass Communication, International Relations; and those who aspire to serve the state after getting through the CSS and PMS exams.

The subtitle although suggests that the book discusses the perpetual war ignited by the US world over, yet, through this periscope, Dr Mujahid looks at the calamities the humanity is suffering from due to the pandemonium of a heartless monster we know as capitalism.

In a way, the writer in this book advocates the ideas of Chomsky, Gramsci, Habermas, Adorno and those who talk and act against the oppressor ruling capitalist class. He deeply analyzes the American Media which are virtually moaning in the claws of the riches.

Dr Mujahid, in light of Zbigniew Brzezinski’s ideas (The Grand Chessboard, and Second Chance), warns the US to be aware of the sentiments of the world grown against the government and the establishment of the US.

Dr Mujahid, in the book in question, very profoundly discusses, rather unveils, the reality of the Pearl Harbor attack. Since he is a scientist by nature, this is why he does not produce and rely on mere sweeping statements only. He asserts his point of view with the help of references and statistical data wherever he deems inevitable.

Dr Mujahid’s Letter to the US ambassador, which is the part of the book and appears at the end as chapter 35 is a must-read piece. The way he makes his points and presents the case of a common Pakistani is commendable. If other articles are a reflection of his rational soul, this letter is a reflection of his emotional soul. We meet a sensitive, patriotic, thinking and enlightened Pakistani in here. He not only illustrates the picture of the mental torture he had to undergo, but also shows the gloomy picture of America’s future through the mirror of this letter, if at all, the US do not realize the tightening noose of the atrocities the capitalism is casting upon the American society.

The results of the recent French Elections where the Socialists have won; and the Egyptian elections where Brotherhood have won strengthen the points made in The Grand Deception, that, the masses wherever they are, are urging for an alternative system. This relevance to the ever-changing world adds value to the dynamicity-rich book.

As a matter of fact, each of the articles of the book deserves a full-blown and thorough review; for it contains substance and things to ponder over. Unfortunately, the constraints of the space over here refrain us from doing so.

[B]Ahmad Hammad[/B]

Naveed_Bhuutto Thursday, November 15, 2012 11:20 PM

[I][SIZE="4"][CENTER][B]A Magna Carta of Pakistan and the Muslim World[/B][/CENTER][/SIZE][/I]

Objective resolution of 1949 was presented to negate the national and international conspiracies upraised right after the formation of Pakistan to make the nation secular, but unfortunately this resolution was not that much discussed. Liaquat Ali khan made it clear that this resolution is no less than a Magna Carte for the future constitutional build-up of Pakistan. Having a close and intellect eye on this resolution shows that it was justified not only in the contest of the then situation of the world but also in contest of the bitter references and happenings of history related to theocracy and secularism. He filtered out the confusion of theocracy by giving reference that, it is and has been a problem of Christian's majority areas especially that of Europe (Christian Club) who suffered the cruelties of theocracy in the middle Ages.

[B]He said:[/B]
If anyone talks of Theocracy in the context of government of Pakistan, he has either some misgiving or intends mischievously to discredit us
Adequate provision shall be made for the minorities to profess and practise freely their religions and develop their cultures.

Fundamental rights including equality of status, of opportunity, social, economic and political justice, freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality.

It is God-consciousness alone which can save humanity, which means that all power that humanity possesses must be used in accordance with ethical standards which have been laid down by inspired teachers known to us as the great Prophets of different religions

Formidable features, no less than a paradigm, will be based on equality, democracy, freedom, tolerance and social justice.

Pakistan will not only take care of minorities but also those of backward and oppressed people (in the current constitution of Pakistan quota system is in operation which is the manifestation of this particular point).

In Pakistan, there will be no margin of Machiavellism (Machiavelli was an western political theorist believing in absolute and cruel use of power. 'Prince' is the name of his book)

Here his views ,according to the objective resolution, closely indicate that objective resolution is not all about good citizens but good human beings, unlike western democracy, which, after minimizing religion from their everyday life and politics, confronted and absorbed so many economic and social evils as well.
We have a great record in tolerance, for under no system of Government, even in the Middle Ages, have the minorities received the same consideration and freedom as they did in Muslim countries. When Christian dissentients and Muslims were being tortured and driven out of their homes, when they were being hunted as animals and burnt as criminals - even criminals have never been burnt in Islamic society

Islam has shown accommodation, in the history, for the minorities by accommodating Jews Diaspora from Europe to Ottoman Empire. Similarly Muslims supported the translation of Hindu religious doctrine or writings into Bengali language.

After passing of this resolution, perplexity was shown by the two superpowers as Pakistan was one of the largest Muslim populous countries and could have risen as the role model of a true not only Muslim but Islamic state on the map of the world

Communist-minded leaders in Pakistan showed a reservation that it might cause upraise in the Muslim majority, Central Asian States. On the other hand, Americans felt Islam, being substitution of capitalism and communism, as a threat and they tried to get some changes in this resolution by using their influence that was strongly criticized by Muslim intelligentsia.
Do You Know?

Minister of law and founder of Indian constitution, Dr B. R. Ambedkar, got converted into Buddhism due to the sham secularism of India, and later on, in early 1980s, a Sikh nationalist, Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, demanded to abolish the Indian constitution clause calling, Sikhs are from Hindus/Hinduism .This demand ran into a conflict and Indian prime minister ordered to attack the golden temple to kill all the Sikhs having shelter there. Later on, in revenge, Indira Gandhi was killed by her two bodyguards in 1984.
Real astonishing point over here was that, Americans did not raised their fingers towards most of the Arab countries where kingdom rule was a way of life up to the extreme of monarchy and in many of the countries it still is the case.

It is pertinent to mention that some people threatened the government of Liaquat Ali Khan that if Pakistan becomes declared religious/Islamic state, then India might also become Hindu state whereas India was a country with the population of all the religions not only of the region but those of the world. So India had to become secular by chance not by choice, as 20 % population of India was non-Hindu, whereas in West Pakistan only 2% were non Muslim. So, joint percentage of East and West-Pakistan of non Muslim people was no way more than 6%. So excuses and reservations on the issue of minorities was not a big deal in Pakistan.

No doubt many of the points of objective resolution were preamble in the first constituent and then second and third constitution of Pakistan but it were more in the written form then in the practical shape. No sooner, the first dictator of Pakistan Ayub khan took over the rule in 1958 most of the religious parties became obvious and psyche fiends of the military dictator as they were quite aware that they cannot win public support to have access to the corridors of the power. This military mullah alliance continued during the regimes of two dictators of zia ul haq and musharaf. Ayub khan presented the constitution of 1962 and eliminated the word of Islamic from the constituent which was opposed widely. So he had to rename it Islamic republic of Pakistan. The neutral analysis clearly indicate that Liaquat ali khan was closest personality of Quaid e Azam would not have gone against the perception of Quaid e azam ,but Pakistan as an independent state was not a domestic or regional happening but was a point of international concern due to its location and ideology. So foreign intervention started immediately especially by USA to change and manoeuvre the ideological outlook of Pakistan and make it as a subservient state to materialize its future plans in this regions especially against the former USSR. Now, as a secret document has surfaced about the US involvement in the murder of Liaqat Ali khan who was the last charismatic personality after Quaid e Azam. It becomes widely proven fact that US got rid of him to materialize all the wish list by using this piece of land, Pakistan.

[B]Dr. Munawar Sabir[/B]

wannabe Friday, November 16, 2012 09:00 AM

Chicago summit and afghan future
Friday, June 01, 2012

Militarily powerful nations around the globe, in a summit held in Chicago on May 20-21, endorsed the plans to conclude Isaf's mission in Afghanistan by the end of 2014. However, they reiterated that Afghanistan would not stand alone and reaffirmed that their close partnership would continue beyond the end of the transition period. The nations contributing to Isaf further pledged to continue to support Afghanistan on its path towards self-reliance in security, improved governance and economic and social development. The purpose of remaining ‘engaged’ in Afghanistan was said to prevent Afghanistan from ever again becoming a safe haven for terrorists that threaten Afghanistan, the region and the world. Given the significance of Nato/Isaf Summit, it becomes imperative to analyse the outcome of Chicago Summit in the context of Pak-US relations. It is equally significant to discuss the emerging scenario of this relationship from different perspectives.
President Asif Zardari's presence in the ISAF/NATO Summit highlighted the future role of Pakistan. Such a factor was also acknowledged by the NATO Declaration that “the countries in the region, particularly Pakistan, have important roles in ensuring enduring peace, stability and security in Afghanistan and in facilitating the completion of the transition process”.
and social development. The purpose of remaining ‘engaged’ in Afghanistan was said to prevent Afghanistan from ever again becoming a safe haven for terrorists that threaten Afghanistan, the region and the world. Given the significance of Nato/Isaf Summit, it becomes imperative to analyse the outcome of Chicago Summit in the context of Pak-US relations. It is equally significant to discuss the emerging scenario of this relationship from different perspectives.

Chicago Summit set certain roadmaps for handing over the security responsibility entirely to Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) by the end of 2014. President Karzai announced on May 13, 2012 the third wave of provinces to be handed over to ANSF. This means that 75% of Afghanistan's population will soon be living in areas where the ANSF have taken the lead for security. The Isaf will be, gradually and responsibly, drawing down its forces to complete its mission by 31 December 2014. The Chicago Summit announced that the completion of transition, however, will not mean the end of the international community's commitment to Afghanistan's stability and development. Afghanistan and Nato reaffirmed their commitment to further develop the Nato-Afghanistan Enduring Partnership signed at Lisbon in 2010 in all its dimensions, up to 2014 and beyond, including through joint programmes to build capacity. As transition of security responsibility is completed, Nato will have made the shift from a combat mission to a new training, advising and assistance mission, which will be of a different nature to the current Isaf mission.

Nato/Isaf pledge notwithstanding, the crucial question remains of the financing for ANSF beyond transition period. At the International Afghanistan Conference in Bonn on 5 December 2011, the wider international community decided to support the training, equipping, financing and capability development of the ANSF beyond the end of the transition period. The preliminary model for a future total ANSF size, defined by the international community and Afghanistan, envisages a force of 228,500 with an estimated annual budget of US$4.1billion, and will be reviewed regularly against the developing security environment. It was decided in Chicago that Afghanistan's yearly share will increase progressively from at least US$500m in 2015, with the aim that it can assume, no later than 2024, full financial responsibility for its own security forces.

The Chicago Summit's commitment with Afghanistan beyond 2014 was not unconditional. The Summit recalled the firm mutual commitments made at the Bonn Conference, which formed the basis of long-term partnership. In the said context, Afghanistan will have to deliver on its commitment to a democratic society, based on the rule of law and good governance, including progress in the fight against corruption, where the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens, including the equality of men and women and the active participation of both in Afghan society, are respected. For attaining these objectives, the Summit touched certain elements in terms of political reconciliation. It advocated that a political process involving successful reconciliation and reintegration is a key to a peaceful and stable Afghanistan.

Pak Factor
President Asif Zardari's presence in the Isaf/Nato Summit highlighted the future role of Pakistan. Such a factor was also acknowledged by the Nato Declaration that “the countries in the region, particularly Pakistan, have important roles in ensuring enduring peace, stability and security in Afghanistan and in facilitating the completion of the transition process”. Similarly, Nato Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen also made it clear that Nato was “counting on Pakistan's commitment to support Isaf and Nato efforts in Afghanistan”, while demanding “reopening of the land routes very soon”, because he said “we need these”.

NATO Supplies
The question of reopening of Nato Supply routes or Ground Lines of Communications (GLOCS) through Pakistan has been a hot cake since the Salala attacks of November 26. It has both short-term as well as long-term implications both for Pakistan and Nato/Isaf nations. For the last many weeks, Pakistan and the United States have been working closely to sort out this question. The two sides are reportedly stuck at rates for each container passing through Pakistan. For many years, Pakistan was not charging a single cent. However, it started to charge a mere amount of $250 per trawler till the termination of the supply routes for Nato after Salala attacks. On its alternate northern supply routes, the United States and Nato are paying $17000 per trawler which is far higher and costlier than the routes through Pakistan. In the ongoing talks, Pakistan has proposed levy of $5000 per container but it is still not acceptable to the United States. Pakistani negotiators press that the United States is paying $17000 on northern routes but unwilling to pay less amount of $5000 to Pakistan. The perspective of Pakistan is that the Nato routes have badly damaged its roads and infrastructure. Ministry of Communication claims that Nato supply process has caused a damage of Rs 100 billion to infrastructure and road networks in Pakistan. The United States and Nato are expected to pay for the damage caused to Pakistan roads. However, the US officials are heard of talking that it is not the only Nato trucks that use the roads because Pakistani transporters of any kind also use the roads. Many critics suspected that President Asif Ali Zardari would succumb to the pressure and announce reopening of GLOCs. However, President Zardari frustrated his critics and did not make any announcement. Contrary to such expectations, President Zardari categorically told the Summit that our Parliament gave a roadmap for future engagement with Nato and Isaf and the Defence Committee of the Cabinet of the Government of Pakistan has considered the issue. The Defence Committee of the Cabinet in its meeting on May 15 “authorised officers of the relevant ministries/departments to conclude the ongoing negotiations on the new terms and conditions for resumption of GLOCS”. In fact, the talks are still going on. Such a process of talks was echoed in the Chicago Summit that “Nato continues to work with Pakistan to reopen the Ground Lines of Communication as soon as possible”. Similarly, the question of seeking apology on Salala attacks and opposition to drone attacks are consistent from Pakistan and President Zardari did not announce doing away with from these demands.
It was decided in Chicago that Afghanistan's yearly share will increase progressively from at least US$500m in 2015, with the aim that it can assume, no later than 2024, full financial responsibility for its own security forces.

The very invitation to Pakistan to attend the Chicago conference was not a small gesture. It reaffirmed the quest for engagement from the United States/NATO/ISAF with Pakistan. Not being invited would have given a clear signal that the international community thinks Pakistan part of the problem. And declining to attend like boycott of the Bonn conference, would have given terrible signal from Pakistan that we do not want to be part of the solution. Chicago Conference and participation of Pakistan has given a clear message that the international community is still by and large willing to engage Pakistan. The expectation remains the same that Pakistan works with the international community to help stabilize Afghanistan and to address some of the internal security challenges that Pakistan has failed to come to terms with as yet. It must be understood that the International community would never allow return of 1990s in Afghanistan that the soil of Afghanistan becomes a breeding ground for international terrorism. The disengagement of the international community beyond 2014 would also be a nightmare for Pakistan as the civil war in that case, would be catastrophic for Pakistan. It will unleash another unending tide of refugees for Pakistan. If the international community abandons Afghanistan and let the religious fanatics take over Kabul once again, Pakistan would again suffer an onslaught of ideologues.

[B]Shaukat Piracha[/B]

wannabe Friday, November 16, 2012 09:03 AM

Social challenges of Pakistan and Media
[CENTER][B]Social challenges of Pakistan and Media[/B][/CENTER]

The social constitution and safety of the people are necessary ingredients for a broad-based and inclusive growth of a nation, but Pakistan after 65 years of its creation, is still far away from properly addressing the confronting social challenges.

Friday, June 01, 2012

Resultantly, today Pakistani society is polarised and is beset with social and economic injustice, religious and ethnic sectarianism, gender and class discrimination, terrorism and extremism, unemployment and inflation, illiteracy and health sector problems, high population growth rate and insufficient food supply, energy crisis and lack of foreign investment and so on. Although Pakistan, the 7th nuclear power with a strong army, is the sixth most populous country in the world yet in the recent UNDP human development indicators, it stands at 145th position.

Keeping in view the current growth rate, it is predicted that Pakistan will be the world's third most populous country by 2050. However, the silver lining is that nearly 67% of more than 170 million Pakistanis comprises the youth with an average age of less than 30 years. We are comparatively a young, vigorous and energetic nation with loads of potential. Ironically, no proper strategy has been devised yet to channel the abounding talent and élan of youth in the right direction.

Rapidly growing population, internal and external political tensions and a debt-ridden economy, all serve to thwart Pakistan's progress that it needs to develop and perhaps even to survive. Massive foreign debt eats up half of budget every year. Hence, it doesn't remain possible to allocate sufficient funds for economic and social development. This has pushed a considerable portion (34%) of Pakistanis to live in abject poverty while the unemployment rate is also on the rise.

With the highest rate of urbanisation in the region, the extent and intensity of the socioeconomic problems of Pakistan has soared to alarming level. Due to poverty, unemployment and unmanageable urbanisation, the basic amenities i.e. shelter, food and clothing are not being adequately provided. This deprivation has become the apparent cause of different other menaces. Social evils like street crimes, robbery, beggary, drug addiction, etc. are becoming common. The caste system and superstitions are also deep-rooted in the society. This state of affairs has made social reforms imperative for the development of the society and the masses.

We need to focus on diverse approaches to combat these menaces as the goal of social stability is unachievable without spreading education compatible with the requirements of the contemporary world and advancements in science and technology. Pakistan needs reforms and innovation in political, education, health and agriculture sectors and above all economic reforms are the most urgently required. We have to adopt the policies which facilitate local solutions for our problems and media can play a significant and supportive role in this regard.

Being the fourth pillar of the state, it plays the role of a watchdog in a democratic society. It also enhances the knowledge by communicating the happenings from around the world. Media in Pakistan is working rather freely. It is poised to serve the nation in having a bright future. A variety of TV channels are on air nowadays and their content comprises diverse programmes ranging from news and talk shows to sitcoms, dramas, music and sports. It also highlights multiple issues related to education, social crimes, politics, religion, etc.

This unprecedented growth and range of Pakistani media make someone believe that it is playing and can play a constructive role to overcome the social challenges. Media has effectively highlighted the important issues, particularly, war on terror, energy crisis, water shortage, social crimes, poverty, etc. It has helped in formulating public opinion against the war on terror which has caused a great deal of economic and human loss to Pakistan.
Ironically, no proper strategy has been devised yet to channel the abounding talent and élan of youth in the right direction.
The importance and role of media is undeniable especially with reference to social challenges of Pakistan. It reveals the truth to the people about all the social issues. Its diverse programmes not only reflect the social evils but also present solution to them. It is playing a significant role in changing and reshaping the social attitude of Pakistanis. The media plays a pivotal role in national identity building within and outside the country. Professional journalists strive to create a sense of belonging in the disillusioned youth and encourage them to be the responsible citizens of Pakistan.

However, it is observed that Pakistani media, sometimes, does not maintain balance between political and social issues rather more time is given to the politics and political activities. The role of various media houses, in the recent years, has become quite irresponsible. The journalists frequently cross the limits and exaggerate the facts in a bid to improve their readership, and channels, their viewership. This harum-scarum and irrational approach creates unrest and leads to chaos which ultimately negates development. TV channels and newspapers should develop a responsible and balanced approach and show a responsible behaviour while addressing the social issues. Many journalists are also blamed for their political affiliation and that they work on a defined agenda. This state of affairs requires improvement and professionalism to play its role effectively.

In prevailing situation, media should work to create consciousness and awareness among the masses through their programmes. It should motivate and boost up the morale of the public and the government as well. This motivation and guidance can inspire them to resolve conflicts and work together for the common interests and resolve the social problems. The media should refrain from biased criticism and provide fair and balanced analysis to the public. It should show both sides of the picture. Programmes of broadcast media should be aimed at providing guidance to the general public and have solution-oriented approach.

It is the responsibility of media to highlight and project the positive aspects and activities while discourage the unethical factors of the society to achieve the goal of social development. The sensitive social issues must be reported sensibly and with great care.

Media should strive toward stabilising and strengthening the country and play its important role through disseminating information and education. It should also work to spread awareness and knowledge as only those societies develop that have a high literacy rate and are knowledgeable.

The media should criticise the government for improvement in governance and good aspects and steps should also be admired.

Social media can be a strong motivator when it comes to mobilise the youth as youth is now socialising online because such conversations are more interactive. The examples of the Tunisian and Egyptian revolution manifest the impact of social media. Media can be used to sensitise and motivate the youth for adopting positive attitude towards the betterment of society.
[B]Dr. Anjum Zia[/B]

Naveed_Bhuutto Friday, November 16, 2012 03:17 PM


[I]It is generally believed that observance of merciless discipline and accountability are the hallmark of our armed forces.

No doubt there are lots of reasons for this belief, but the unpardonable lapse of security of Mehran Base at Karachi, and now the verdict of the Court Martial has shaken this belief and disappointed us. After a year elapsed, yesterday the verdict of Court Martial was announced by spokesmen of Pakistan Navy. This verdict is reported in the national media of today the 22nd May 2012, whereby only one Commodore and two Commanders of Navy are penalized by the Court Martial for the devastating attack on Mehran Base of Pak Navy located next to the runway of Air Force at Karachi. This gruesome attack on Mehran Base resulted in loss of invaluable lives of several naval officers and other security agencies, by handful of about 12 terrorists.

Commodore Irfan Ul Haq, the Chief Spokesmen of Pakistan Navy, on the pretext of confidentiality, refused to disclose the names or sentences, if any, awarded to the Naval Officers against whom the Court Martial proceedings were conducted. The reports in national media, however, disclose that some sort of a mild penalty was given by the Court Martial to only three concerned officers of Pak Navy. None of them was awarded any rigorous imprisonment. The number of officers tried by the Court Martial is also not disclosed. Nor it is known if anybody has been acquitted, or whether all the concerned Officers named in the first report of investigation were court-martialed or not. The courts of armed forces are known for their unparallel speedy justice. Strangely in this case, the court-martial prolonged the trial and after several months elapsed, if not a year, awarded such penalty which appears to be negligible keeping in view the gravity of the disaster and security lapse. I wonder why? The negligible penalty can only be justified, if the accused did not have any major role or responsibility for such a great national disaster. If this was the case, then why they were penalized at all. And who on earth were responsible for such a blatant security lapse. The investigators, prosecutors and the Court should have identified and prosecuted such personnel of Pak Navy and Pak Air Force for such indefensible disaster of Mehran Base. Why was this exercise not carried out? These pertinent questions arising from the verdict of the court-martial, creates doubts in the minds of the people about the degree of discipline or accountability being presently observed in our armed forces. I am sure all will agree that none of the personnel of the armed forces should give rise to such doubts by any of their act or omission.

It may also be noted that despite the reports appearing in the media that the security lapse had occurred both at the end of the officers, responsible for the security at the Air Base and Naval Base. But none of the concerned officers of Air Force was tried by the court nor was top brass of Pak Navy made accountable for this inexcusable security lapse. The gravity of this lapse had warranted that the Naval Chief should have been made to resign or sacked. Instead, to our horror, the Naval Chief was conferred one of the highest awards early this year by our President. It can only happen in Pakistan, unfortunately. No wonder that our critiques in the world embarrass us by calling Pakistan a “Banana Republic”.

There is no tenable reason or justification for maintaining secrecy even in the accountability and judicial process in such incidents of national tragedy, which are also reported all over the world. Not only several of our brave Naval Officers were martyred but national assets of billions of rupees were also destroyed in this incident. It is always in our national interest to show zero tolerance for such blatant security failure of any officer, howsoever high ranking he may be, and none should escape severe punishment for such criminal negligence. There is no cavil about the policy to exercise complete secrecy about the vital facts and information relating to the affairs and functioning of our armed forces. I fully agree that national interest must not be compromised or exposed by disclosure of any information, which may harm our armed forces and the country. Nevertheless, I have noted that in today’s age of global information technology, more facts are known to our adversaries than the people of Pakistan. It is high time that the top brass of our armed forces should realize that policy of maintaining secrecy on all issues even in processes of all trial and accountability of our soldiers may prove to be counterproductive. It neither meets ends of justice nor satisfies the people at large about the fairness of trail and accountability. Only a transparent process of trial and accountability without any favour or fear will give confidence to the people that no civilian or member of armed forces is above the law or shall go unpunished for their dastardly acts. It is, therefore, necessary that like the Judicial Commission investigating the most embarrassing incident of violation of our sovereignty in Abbotabad on May 2, 2011, the Mehran Base disaster and national tragedy must also be investigated by an independent Judicial Commission. The Mehran Base destruction was not just a loss of our Pak Navy, it was a national loss, and it is in our national interest to ensure that none will go unpunished and such dastardly incidents may not occur in the future.

[B]Iqbal Haider Senator (retd)[/B]

Naveed_Bhuutto Saturday, November 17, 2012 02:00 PM

[B][I][CENTER][SIZE="5"]Women Empowerment in Balochistan[/SIZE][/CENTER][/I][/B]

[I]It is very tricky and misleading to pass judgment on any process that is in its initial stage, at least in this part of the world.[/I]

True, that in the developed countries the process of Women Empowerment, stretched over two centuries of struggle, has gone way ahead and cannot be termed as a process in its initial stages. Equally true is the fact that even in the developed countries it is still an ongoing process.

The issue of Equal Rights for Women came to the limelight in early nineteenth century in places like USA and Europe and, after gradual successes, gained a totally new, forceful and dynamic character in 1960s/70s in the form of Women's Liberation Movement.

Beginning with the very basic demand that women, like men, were created as equal beings and, like men, they too had certain natural rights, they progressed towards more substantial demands like the right to have education, then the right to have higher education, access to jobs, then access o profitable jobs, the right to own property, then the right to acquire and retain assets, the right to equal wages for women, and then came the attainment of the most valuable right – the right to vote – that was given to the American women in 1920.

In the Modernistic decades of 60s and 70s of the last centuries, the Movement for the Rights of the Women (or call it Women Empowerment) turned in a new direction known as the Women's Liberation Movement. With this came a whole new set of ideas that were considered too immoral even by the Western standards. The reproductive right and the right associated with sexual liberalism like sex marriages are two examples of where all this has led to.
Is the Woman in the West free from all forms of exploitations that she has fought against over the last two centuries?
Answer is a big NO.
Two important questions come up at this point:
Is the Western woman more empowered today?
Is the Woman in the West free from all forms of exploitations that she has fought against over the last two centuries?
Answer to the first question is in the affirmative while answer to the second question is a big NO.


Women Empowerment, as we understand it today, is essentially a Western concept and carries connotations that cannot be adopted by us in its totality. With Women's Liberation, unisexualism, and equality of sexes as its core values, this doctrine is bound to come into collision with our social, moral and religious values. However, there is still a lot in it that is both suitable and worth achieving for us.

Focusing on the national scenario and then zooming in on the provincial scene, we find that women in Pakistan already enjoy a good number of rights for which the Western women had to fight tooth and nail. This includes the right to vote, the right to inheritance, the right to contest elections for the highest positions in the government, the right to seek divorce and many more rights.

What actually denies them the benefits of all these rights is the socio-cultural setup in Pakistan in general, and in Balochistan in particular. Even if they are well aware of all of these rights, they neither have the resources nor the capacity to avail these rights for their well-being.

Before writing anything about the subject, and prior to pointing out the social ills stunting the empowerment of women in Balochistan, it would be pertinent to mention here that the issue of women empowerment is basically the same throughout the country. Only, in areas where tribal customs and traditions play a decisive factor, the literacy rate is too low, and the feudal system is still strong, the issues of women empowerment not only hamper their well-being, but are also more difficult to resolve.

1. Poverty: It is indeed ironic that Balochistan, despite being the largest, the least populated, and the richest province of the country happens also to be the poorest one. Average household income is very low and poverty rates at 47% in this province. Despite its huge reservoirs of natural gas, its enviable deposits of gold and silver, and its abundance in precious metals and minerals, this province has the lowest GDP and the lowest per capita income. Abject poverty is visible even within the provincial metropolis. Job market is very inadequate because industrial activity is almost non-existent. Most of the existing jobs are either in agriculture or in mining. Scarcity of water and frequent droughts has further increased the poverty level in the rural Balochistan.

The budgetary allocations for Balochistan, although doubled this time, have always remained very low. This has been causing bad blood between the province and the federal government. Moreover, the huge sums of unpaid money, that the federal government owes to this province, have made matters worse.


It is indeed highly unfortunate that Education and Health have never found their rightful place in the priority list of policy makers, both at the federal and provincial levels. Pakistan claims to have achieved a literacy rate of 51% - a claim skeptically viewed by experts.
Balochistan, being the most backward province, has a pathetic 30.1% literacy rate. Female literacy rate presents a more dismal picture. Reportedly, this province has the lowest budgetary allocation for female education in the Third World. Dropouts at primary school level stand at a highly disturbing rate of 50. %

To make matters worse, majority of educational facilities are based in cities and towns – denying rural female population from this basic right.


The health sector in Balochistan is even more depressing. There are 96 hospitals, 545 dispensaries and 93 mother & child health centres – and the quality of services provided are not satisfactory. There are only 1564 registered doctors in the province, which means that for every 4861 provincial citizens there is only one doctor.

These recommendations have been provided by ladies active in the local political and social circles. The author has also incorporated his personal views where necessary. The ladies whom I am grateful for sharing their views on the subject include:
It is a fact that many injustices and cruelties suffered by women in the Third World are a direct or indirect consequence of their economic dependence on their male family members.
Ms Zarina Zehri
Mrs Surriya Allahdin
Ms Haseen Bano Rukhshani
Ms Shami
These recommendations cover a wide range of actions to be taken – a detailed version of which is given below:

Free and compulsory female education up to the Matriculation Level:
Education on Human Rights/Women Rights

Increase in the number of female educational institutions:

Both the government and the civil society must come forward and launch forceful campaigning initiatives to shatter the mindset against female education. It is their mindsets that need to be changed first.

Women have recently been able to enter the provincial assemblies.
The following recommendations were given by the local female political/social activists for the possible remedial measures:
Economic Empowerment or economic self-reliance
It is a fact that many injustices and cruelties suffered by women in the Third World are a direct or indirect consequence of their economic dependence on their male family members.
Fixed quotas for women in governmental jobs
Establishment of small scale cottage industries:
Establishment of Women Skills Centres at a larger scale.
Education on entrepreneurial and marketing skills for women.
Formation of gender-sensitive economic policies.
Poverty Alleviation through different programmes
It should be ensured that women get equal wages as men labourers.

Considering the high level of maternity deaths, infant mortality rate, absence of adequate post – natal care and alarming malnutrition conditions, rapid remedial measures have to be taken to achieve a satisfactory health situation for women.

Women, especially rural women, should be trained in safe motherhood practices and child survival practices to reduce maternal mortality and child mortality.

Although restructuring the society is a daunting task and there is still a lot to be done, yet we can say that the progress made so far has been satisfactory. Women Empowerment is no longer a myth; it is now a reality that promises a better future for women of this country.

Women in Balochistan, however, will have to go a few extra miles to be able to change the local perspectives vis-à-vis Women Rights and Women
Empowerment. The ongoing progress in terms of general awareness, better education and participation of women in the developmental process in Balochistan is very promising and we can hope for a better life for the women of this province in the coming years.

[B]Rukhsana Rukhsar[/B]

Naveed_Bhuutto Monday, November 19, 2012 03:34 PM

[B][I][CENTER][SIZE="5"]Nuclear Security Summit, Seoul 2012[/SIZE][/CENTER][/I][/B]

[I]The nuclear summit includes both states and non-state actors and is designed as a collective effort to resolve issues of nuclear security and terrorism. At the heart of the Summit's agenda is the concern relative to nuclear safety measures, its proliferation and illegal trafficking as well as efforts to reduce the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU).[/I]

According to the Federation of American Scientists, the world's combined stockpile of nuclear weapons remains at a very high level: more than 19,000. Of these, some 4800 warheads are considered operational, of which nearly 2000 US and Russian warheads are on high alert, ready for use on short notice. The world has lived with both the threat of nuclear weapons since the Second World War as well as their expansion in the military arsenal of states as a weapon designed to ensure the national survival and security of states. However, the presence of nuclear weapons as a measure of ensuring the security of states poses a security paradox and a security dilemma. The paradox is that states possessing nuclear weapons have never used nuclear weapons (except for the United States in Hiroshima and Nagasaki) in an actual theatre of war. This begets the essential question that if nuclear weapons are, or will never be, used then why they are needed in the first place? The security dilemma, on the other hand, pertains to the fact that nuclear weapons designed for the security and survival of states might in the end become the very undoing of their existence. In this sense, the use of nuclear weapons poses an existential threat to both the domestic security of states as well as global security!

The idea of a nuclear security summit was first proposed by President Barack Obama in 2009 when he singled out nuclear terrorism as the most serious threat to international security and announced his plan to lead a global effort to secure all vulnerable nuclear material around the world in four years. In line with President Obama's predilection, the first Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington in 2010 and the second held in Seoul on March 26-27, 2012. The nuclear summit includes both states and non-state actors and is designed as a collective effort to resolve issues of nuclear security and terrorism. At the heart of the Summit's agenda is the concern relative to nuclear safety measures, its proliferation and illegal trafficking as well as efforts to reduce the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU). In the recently concluded nuclear security summit, the attendees included 53 heads of state and government, as well as representatives of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, European Union and INTERPOL. The Seoul Communique built on the first nuclear security summit by identifying 11 areas of priority and importance in nuclear security including: the global nuclear security architecture, the role of the IAEA, nuclear materials, radioactive sources, nuclear security and safety, transportation security, combating illicit trafficking, nuclear forensics, nuclear security culture, information security and international cooperation. The Seoul Summit noted with much pleasure that concrete results had indeed been achieved in the areas identified above since the Washington Summit. In particular, around 530 kilograms of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from eight countries have been removed for disposal, an amount enough to produce about 21 nuclear weapons with Ukraine and Mexico accomplishing a total cleanout of all stockpiles of HEU just prior to the Seoul Summit by returning them to Russia and the US respectively.

Pakistan also attended and made its presence felt in the two-day summit. It made its adherence to the nuclear security culture a priority and assured its full cooperation with the IAEA and its regulations. Pakistan has been in the limelight for all the wrong reasons with the United States expressing fear last year that Pakistani nuclear weapons might fall in the hands of terrorists. During the summit, Pakistan reiterated its commitment to nuclear safety and security by emphasizing that it possesses 'a rigorous regulatory regime covering all matters related to nuclear safety and security including physical protection of materials and facilities, material control and accounting, transport security, prevention of illicit trafficking and border controls, as well as plans to deal with possible radiological emergencies.' Based on its experience with nuclear technology, Pakistan, during the summit, asserted that it qualifies to become a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and export control regimes on a non-discriminatory basis. Moreover, Pakistan also committed itself to opening up a Nuclear Security Training Centre to act as a regional and international hub and deploying Special Nuclear Material Portals on key exit and entry points to counter the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials.

Based on its experience with nuclear technology, Pakistan, during the summit, asserted that it qualifies to become a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and export control regimes on a non-discriminatory basis.
Though the nuclear security summit was designed to ensure nuclear security, it still does not address the critically important issues relative to nuclear disarmament or nuclear non-proliferation. Such controversial issues are deemed to have a negative impact and political fallout on the all-important critical issue of state sovereignty. This implies that far-reaching measures needed for global security are still difficult to achieve. What we have is arms control measures in which states through mutual consent establish to ensure that their nuclear weapons technology is safe and secure enough so that a regional/global nuclear war does not break out. According to the anti-nuclear weapons theorists and activists, the problem with nuclear weapons is that their existence locks states into a permanent state of conflict whereby permanent peace is never ensured. If, they argue, the presence of nuclear weapons reduces the prospects of war then they in the same instance reduce chances of peace!

By way of the nuclear security summit, President Barack Obama intended to highlight the American agenda to ensure a safe and secure world (with nuclear weapons, not without them). The United States is a close second to Russia in the list of states with the most nuclear weapons. Though exact numbers are still not known due to the propensity of states to guard their intelligence data, it is estimated by the Ploughshares Fund that Russia possesses 10,000 nuclear weapons and the United States 8,500 respectively. It is perplexing to assume why a huge stockpile of weapons is needed when even ten or at the most twenty high yield nuclear weapons could destroy the world and make it inhospitable for every single living creature. The lucky ones, in this case, will be the dead not the survivors!

[B]Farhan Hanif Siddiqi[/B]

This article was published in May 2012

Naveed_Bhuutto Friday, November 23, 2012 07:47 PM

[B][I][SIZE="5"][CENTER]Pakistan–Turkey relations[/CENTER][/SIZE][/I][/B]

[I]Pakistani–Turkish relations are foreign relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of Turkey. “One Nation – Two States” is the phrase that best describes the relations between Turkey and Pakistan.[/I]

The people of both countries have brotherly relations which date back to centuries. Moreover, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has called Pakistan his second home. Both Turkey and Pakistan are Muslim-majority states and share extensive cultural and geopolitical links.

[B]Development of bilateral relations[/B]
Turkey established diplomatic relations soon after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 and bilateral relations became increasingly close important owing to cultural, religious and geopolitical links between the two countries. On 26 October 2009, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was awarded with the Nishan-e-Pakistan and was the fourth world leader who spoke to the Pakistani parliament. Erdoğan said that Pakistan had always occupied a special place in the hearts and minds of the Turkish government and people.

Turkey and Pakistan are founding members of the Economic Cooperation Organization and part of the Developing 8 Countries (D-8) organization. Both nations have worked to negotiate a preferential trading agreement, aiming to considerably increase trade and investments, especially in transport, telecommunications, manufacturing, tourism and other industries. Both governments have sought to increase the volume of bilateral trade from $690 million to more than $1 billion by 2010. Pakistani exports include rice, sesame seeds, leather, textiles, fabrics, sports goods, and medical equipment. Turkey's exports to Pakistan include wheat, chickpeas, lentils, diesel, chemicals, transport vehicles, machinery and energy products. Turkish private corporations have also invested significantly in industrial and construction projects developing highways, pipelines and canals.

[B]Strategic ties[/B]
Pakistan and Turkey have maintained long-standing military ties, with Turkey supplying arms, military equipment and training Pakistani officers. On 2 April 1954, Pakistan and Turkey signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. Both countries, valued as important states in their regions, joined the U.S.-led Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) aimed to bolster military and strategic cooperation and counter the spread of communism and Soviet influence in the region. Turkey has openly supported Pakistan's stance on the Kashmir conflict and maintained political and military support during its wars with India. Pakistan has reciprocated by expressing support for Turkey's policy on Northern Cyprus. Both nations have sought to expand cooperation to fight terrorism. Both countries are also members of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC).
Military relations[/B]
Both Nation were part of Cold War alliance called the Central Treaty Organization. Military-to-military contacts remain resolute, uncompromising and stalwart as ever, as the two countries now vigorously aiming and exploring the co-production of weapons ranging from armored vehicles to new-generation corvettes. Significantly, both sides also wish to boost defense exports to Islamic countries as an alternative to "expensive" Western weapons.

[B]Aid to Pakistan[/B]
In the aftermath of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, Turkey stepped up its efforts to help the people of the affected areas. Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, paid an official visit to Pakistan in order to share the grief and agony of the brotherly people of Pakistan. Turkey announced a package of $150 million for the quake-hit people. The Turkish aid organization Kizilay (Turkish Red Crescent) also constructed a mosque in the Pakistan-administered Kashmir region. The mosque is being built in the Ottoman Style in Bagh province, it would have a capacity to accommodate 300 people, besides a guesthouse, a lodging facility and a teaching area for 250 students.

In response to the 2010 Pakistan floods, Turkey issued a rallying cry for flood-hit Pakistan. Apart, from the state and its organizations, a number of Turkish businessmen also initiated aid campaigns for Pakistan. Turkey also sent a train carrying humanitarian aid for the flood stricken Pakistan. The Turkish government also announced building of a Turkish town in the flood stricken Pakistan. Turkey has donated a total of $11 million to Pakistan. Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan also visited parts of flood stricken Pakistan, Erdoğan travelled from Islamabad to Karachi with six ministers, flying by helicopter to witness aid efforts, including the completion of a village of 2,000 prefabricated houses built by the Turkish Red Crescent near Multan, in the eastern province of Punjab. After the flood when the Turkish Prime Minister could not come to Pakistan due to his engagements he sent his wife to look after the flood victims and after success in referendum he immediately came to Pakistan and personally gave the keys of the houses constructed by Turkish welfare organization to the flood victims.

[B]JWT Desk[/B]

Naveed_Bhuutto Sunday, November 25, 2012 05:18 PM

[B][I][CENTER][SIZE="5"]“Unless we have a system of check and balance, this institution cannot be reformed.”[/SIZE][/CENTER][/I][/B]

[I]Mr. Khalid Sultan joined Pakistan civil services in 1980. He was an army officer and still believes that of any institution of this country Army takes the cake in structural and procedural discipline.[/I]

He came to the civil services from the 10 per cent quota reserved for the army. He has no qualms about his appointments though many around him have been critical of army men joining civil services. However, giving priority or seniority to an army incumbent over a civilian is the only reservation that pinches him. He believes that people joining bureaucracy through regular procedure deserves to be treated senior above all others.

Mr. Khalid is serving as Director General Civil Services Academy, how well is the academy fairing under his supervision and where does he think the public administration is heading are part of the interview Jahangir’s World Times had with Mr. Khalid…….we have tagged his key thoughts as the lead to his deliberations….

Civil service Academy is a place where students from all over the country come together to join in a collective effort to become an effective member of public administration. We are doing our best to make them part of the ordinary masses; somebody who would be accessible and reachable.

Talking about training procedures at the Civil Service Academy Mr. Khalid’s views are diverse and succinct. He believes that a probationer can be easily trained in six months. The present batch is enrolled for the same period and the results would prove the conviction of Mr. Khalid regarding the duration of the course. Since 2007 all federal training institutions have come under the ambit of National School of Public Policy (NSPP). Since NSPP follows the guideline given by the HSE therefore, it reserves the right to give degree to the trainees. The governing body of NSPP is thinking awarding the probationers degree on the completion of their total training period, covering both common and specialised training. Mr. Khalid has a different point of view in this regard. He personally believes that this particular course should not be driven by any degree but by the will to learn the ropes so as to guard the interest of the public at large.
The objectives of common training programmes is to promote harmony amongst probationers.
Mr. Khalid is proud to state that he has bought some rudimentary changes in the overall working of the CSA training. Punctuality and dress code are strictly observed. Class room study is no more monologues, presentations and case studies have given new life to the training. Co-circulars activities form the basis of the overall course structure.

“Besides laying down some disciplinary rules I have also eliminated the provision of reappearing in competitive exam during training. As a penalty we reserve the right to expel the candidate from the course. Only recently two candidates cheated on us and reappeared in the CSS exam, they are caught and are on trial.”

“The objectives of common training programmes are simple yet effective; the essential one is to promote harmony amongst probationers and for this we keep them as day scholars, arrange cultural nights and held class discussion on inter-provincial and inter-regional issues. We try our best to create unity among the probationer.”

On asking what makes a bureaucrat corrupt Mr. Khalid became quizzical and tried to shift the onus on the system but as we rummaged through the debris of some wasteful behaviours he murmured that some bureaucrats had actually lost the spirit of nationalism. Becoming subservient to their master’s whims and wishes has set in jeopardy the whole idea of putting the house of the masses in order. Status, luxury and short-cut to success are the icons for which the race to an administrative job is joined. Mr. Khalid wonders why would an engineer, a doctor or a LUMS graduate having a lucrative career in the private sector opt for civil service knowing that private sector offer better remunerations. What could it be other than a ploy to make dough?
Unless we have in place the process of accountability nothing good can come to this nation.
Getting stronger in argument as our talk progressed Mr. Khalid rather emotionally said that “unless we have in place the process of accountability nothing good can come to this nation.” He was so firm on this particular notion that throughout our discussion accountability became the buzz word. “Unless we have a system of check and balance and the procedure of putting the accuser on trial, the system cannot be reformed.” We need to check people, keep an eye on their behaviour, put them under trial and punish them, he reiterated.”
Selective justice is what has eaten into the fibre of this country.
Mr. Khalid certainly believes that at the end of the day it is the value system and the humanistic element of a given person that makes all the difference. He takes a deep breath and rumbles a well-known note that rings so true that one cannot ignore it. “But the system has tremendous capacity to take in even the strongest into its clutches.” He goes on saying that justice has stopped flowing from the offices of a civil servant. Instead the dispensation of justice depends largely on the discretion of the person sitting in these offices, bringing in the notion of selective justice. Selective justice is what has eaten into the fibre of this country. Why the trend of suo moto notices has become so common today in this country, not because the judiciary has become overactive but because the office of a civil servant has stopped to be the guardian of justice.

No doubt, transfers and postings depend on the political clout of certain politicians, I am at pain to see that a lot of bureaucrats are serving out of context to their aptitude or competency. Their relevancy falls in altogether different field while the postings demand something else from them. In such an enigmatic situation how can we expect any progress or efficiency? So surely not only ad-hocism should be eliminated but security of the tenure must be ensured as well.

I strongly believe that incompetency is a form of corruption as well, which is a major challenge to our nation today. We are doing what we are not cut for. From Patwari to the person sitting at the higher echelon of power has no clue of the rudimentary of his business. Every Patwari has a Munshi appointed with a salary package of one hundred thousand rupees to carry out work for him, the same is true for the SHO, usually he does not know how many cases are registered in his thana.
Here at CSA we prepare the probationers for the tough times ahead.
I agree that the salary package is quite low and needs lots of attention from the government. But people who join us, they come with the understanding that they would be paid less. I do believe that an officer should be given at least as much that he could live a respectable life. I would come to the same point that unless we have a functional and sustainable system we will not be able to get out of the rut. Now look at the priorities, official residences in Islamabad are given to journalists, but not to the CSP officer. Here at CSA we prepare the probationers for the tough times ahead. We tell them not to expect that a just and equitable system will be working and you will get your share accordingly.

“I would conclude that in the 30 years of my service I have learnt that in every department it is the absence of dedication and devotion that has caused more malice to this service.”

Durdana Najam[/B]

Naveed_Bhuutto Sunday, November 25, 2012 05:19 PM

[B][I][CENTER][SIZE="5"]The Iranian Revolution[/SIZE][/CENTER][/I][/B]

[I]An overview of Iranian revolution[/I]

Between 1953 and 1963 much poverty remained among the Iranian people, and the gap between the rich and poor grew. There was talk of the oligarchy of one thousand families. One of the great landowners was the Shah (king), Muhammad Reza Pahlavi. Another was the Shia clerical establishment, which had acquired land through religious endowments. But under the Pahlavi dynasty, secularism increased and the power and influence of Shia scholars decreased, and the Shah allied himself with secularists in conflict with Muslims who held traditionalist values on such matters as tobacco, alcohol, movies, gambling and foreign dress.

The Shah launched an effort to modernize Iran economically and socially. He sought to balance his increase in power with reforms that would win more favor from common Iranians. Landlords and some clerics were outspokenly opposed to these reforms. Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa (religious edict) against the reforms. The government-owned radio station responded to Khomeini with a ridicule. The Shah announced that his reforms would take Iran into the jet age while the mullahs wanted to remain "in the age of the donkies." Numerous clerics went over to the side of Khomeini. Fearing opposition, the Shah cracked down on dissent. On March 22, 1963, in the holy city of Qom, theological students who were agitating against a scheduled opening of liquor stores were attacked by the Shah's paratroopers and by his security agents -- SAVAK. The disturbance spread to students in the city of Tabriz. There and in Qom, according to some, government forced killed hundreds.

When speaking to honor the dead, Ayatollah Khomeini called the Shah's rule tyrannical. Then the government retaliated against Khomeini. For many Iranians Khomeini became an anti-Shah hero. His arrest on June 5 caused anti-government demonstrations and rioting in a variety of cities. The Shah declared martial law. Tanks and troops with orders to shoot to kill were sent against the rioters. Iran's airforce strafed a great column of marchers. In two days the rioting was crushed. Many had been arrested, including twenty-eight ayatollahs. A Western academic in Iran estimated that many thousands had died. An Iranian, Dr. A.R. Azimi, put the number at 10,000, while the government estimated the number of dead at 86.

The Shah's government sent Khomeini into exile, Khomeini settling in a Shiite community in southern Iraq. From Iraq Khomeini continued his attacks on the Shah, sending into Iran pamphlets and tape recordings. Khomeini stated that Islam was opposed to monarchy. He described the title "King of Kings" used by the Shah as the most hated of titles in the sight of God. Monarchy, he said, was shameful, disgraceful and reactionary.
The Pahlavi Monarchy Falls[/B]
In 1976 the Shah upset some clerics by replacing the old Islamic calendar with a new secular calendar. And when a prominent critic of the change in calendar was found murdered, many assumed that it was the work of the Shah's security agents, SAVAK.
It was too late. Too many of those who had at least tolerated the Shah's rule had been lost. Demonstrations continued.
The Shah declared martial law again and a curfew, following a fire at a theater that killed 410 people. From Iraq, the Ayatollah Khomeini was giving guidance to people eager to overthrow the Shah, and he ordered work stoppages that swept the nation. The Shah responded by managing to have Khomeini expelled from Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and Khomeini flew to Paris, where he found that he had more freedom of action, and to newsmen he began giving four to five interviews per day. There were more demonstrations in Iran and more killings by the army. The work stoppage spread. Oil workers, postal employees, bank employees, journalists, mineworkers, customs officials, transportation workers all went out on strike. So too did almost all universities and high schools. There were demands for better wages, for the dissolution of SAVAK, the ending of marital law and for allowing Khomeini's peaceful return. Iranians with a lot of money, including high ranking military officers, were sending their wealth abroad. Everywhere people were destroying portraits of the Shah.
Two men had been prominent in the rising against the Shah. One was Khomeini, whose education was parochial, in other words he was Madrasa-trained. The other, Ali Shariati, had both a traditional education in religion and he was also a sociologist with a Ph.D. from France's Sorbonne University.
Political Divisions, Cleric Power and Totalitarianism
The portraits of both Shariati and Khomeini were carried on placards in demonstrations and the portraits of both were displayed side by side in people's homes. Shariati had been popular with students and Iran's religious communities, with thousands of students and non-students having flocked to his lectures, fascinated by his point-of-view. He had been imprisoned under harsh conditions by the Shah's regime and in 1975 released following popular and international pressure. Shariati favored a reinterpretation of the Islamic faith in order to take it back, he believed, to its true meaning, including its commitment to social justice. He was hostile to "Westernization." He has been described as a utopian. His mentor, the French existentialist Jean Paul Sartre, said that if he were to choose a religion "it would be that of Shariati's." Shariati disliked U.S. influence in Iran. He was driven into exile as Khomeini had been. In June 1977, three weeks after having arrived in England, he was found dead in his apartment. His followers suspected the Shah's security agency, SAVAK.

From France, Khomeini denounced Prime Minister Bakhtiar for having accepted the Shah's appointment as head of the new government, and Khomeini called upon his followers to disobey the Bakhtiar government. Bakhtiar allowed Khomeini's return anyway -- a part of the liberal spirit of the day. On February 1, 1979, after nearly fifteen years in exile, Khomeini returned in triumph from France.

On February 4, Mahdi Bazargan became the revolution's first prime minister. His revolutionary credentials included having been imprisoned several times during the 1960s and 1970s for non-violent opposition to the Shah's regime. As prime minister his power hardly existed. Governors and millitary commanders were inclined to reject the authority of officials appointed by the prime minister. Hundreds of revolutionary committees were performing a variety of functions in major cities and towns across the country. Factory workers, civil servants, white-collar employees, and students were demanding their say. A range of political groups were pushing rival agendas and demanding immediate action from the prime minister.
Clerics led by Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti established the Islamic Republican Party (IRP) and with Khomeini this became the country's leading political organization.

On February 11, government buildings and radio station were seized by bands of youthful revolutionaries. Huge quantities of arms had been seized, and armed militias roamed the streets and looted. Various factions tried to exercise power. The 40,000 or so Americans, who had been serving in various technical capacities in Iran, were returned home, fearing for their safety. The followers of Khomeini were more numerous and dominated. Khomeini was allied with a largely anonymous committee of clerics and civilians and in contact with local supporters, and he established what many recognized as legitimate authority.

Khomeini and his ulama allies wanted a judiciary government -- rule by Islamic law: sharia. Something unprecedented was happening in the history of Islam. Scholars were the backbone of sharia, but the scholars had not ruled. Noah Feldman of Harvard University writes that "scholars had traditionally functioned as a balance against the executive authority of the ruler, now the scholars for the first time actually were the ruling class." Feldman writes of a Platonic structure called the Council of Guardians, scholars who would "review all legislation for its Islamic content" and eventually "play a key role in vetting candidates for office and even selecting a new supreme leader after Khomeini's death."
On March 3, Khomeini announced that no judge was to be female. On March 6, he announced that women were to wear the hejab head covering. Khomeini declared that all non-Islamic forces were to be removed from the government, the military, judiciary, public and private enterprises and educational institutions. Corrupt behavior and customs were to be ended. Alcohol and gambling were to be banned and so too were nightclubs and mixed bathing. Friday noon prayer and sermons were to be the focal point of the week, and all Friday prayer leaders were to be appointed by Khomeini. Men and women were to be publicly segregated, women to enter busses through one door, men through another, each with a separate seating section. In school classrooms prayers were to become mandatory. Khomeini spoke of music corrupting youth, and he banned all music on radio and television and closed twenty-two opposition newspapers.

On March 30-31 a national referendum was offered for choosing a political system, but the only form of government to appear on the ballot was an Islamic republic, Khomeini proclaimed the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Newspapers were banned. Protests by a left-of-center political movement, the National Democratic Front, led to the group being banned. The Khomeini regime weakened Iran's bourgeoisie by nationalizing banks, insurance companies, major industries, expropriating some urban land and expropriating the wealth of some families and by appointing managers to various companies.

Students seized the U.S. embassy on November 4, 1979. Khomeini wavered at first but then gave the students his support. Khomeini called the United States the "Great Satan" and the U.S. embassy a "den of spies." Prime Minister Bazargan and his cabinet resigned on the 6th following the hostage taking. Bazargan compained about the " atmosphere of terror, fear, revenge and national disintegration." Those occupying the U.S. embassy held fifty-three Americans hostage and demaded that the U.S. deliver to Iran the Shah as an exchange. The Carter Administration refused, and Americans were to remain as hostages until November 1980.

Carter's attempt to rescue the hostages in April, 1980, failed. The Shah died of cancer in July. The Khomeini regime began new negotiations to free the hostages, fearing perhaps the tougher man, Reagan, more than they had Carter. In January 1981, on the day that Reagan was inaugurated president, Iran agreed to free the hostages in exchange for $8 billion in frozen assets and a promise by the United States to lift trade sanctions.

Khomeini and the Shia clerics around him relished the success of their return to what they saw as Islam's fundamentals, and they wished it to be an influence outside Iran. Many in the Middle East were enthusiastic about the creation of Khomeini's Islamic Republic -- much as the Bolshevik capture of state power had encouraged socialists in the West. Half of the people of the region was under twenty-five years of age, and many tried shaming their parents into adopting Islamic dress. Sermons at Mosques increased the demand for militant action in behalf of advancing Islam.
PLO chairman, Yasser Arafat, had been the first foreign dignitary to visit Khomeini, back in 1979,

[B]JWT Desk[/B]

08:48 AM (GMT +5)

vBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2021, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.