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Journalism (Mass Communication)

Total Marks-100

Note: Candidate will be asked to attempt total five questions including one compulsory (objective type) question. They will attempt at least two questions from each Section. Short note within the question (without choice) can also be given.


  • Concept and process of communication : Source, Message, Channel, Destination. Encoding, Decoding, Noise, Feedback Oral vs. Written Communication, Two step flow of Communication, Role of Opinion Leader.

  • Information and Journalism--Functions : Scanning the Horizon and reporting back.

    1. News function
    2. Educational Function
    3. Opinion for motives
    4. Entertainment function
  • Pakistan Press, An overview of the evolution of the Muslim Press in South Asia before 1947 and development of the Pakistan Press since 1947, its social economic aspect; Trends and Characteristics: Problems and Prospects.

  • Mass Media Components, functions and effects, Mass Media in Pakistan: Size and dispersion: Role in national development, Prospects and problems.


  • News. Principles and techniques of News writing. Editorial Definition, ingredients, Types and functions of writing of Editorials.

  • Public Relations : Definition, Purpose and scope, Ethics, PR in Pakistan Duties of PRO: PR Procedures and Processes.

  • Magazine Journalism: Mag-Journalism in Pakistan. Types, Functioning Purpose its social aspects and scope.

  • Press Release, Press Note, and Press Communication: Definitions and Basic ingredients, Writing of Press Release, Press Note and Press Communique.

  • Advertising: Definition, functions, types and purpose. Its social and economic aspects, principles of successful advertising.

  • Press Laws: Press Laws in Pakistan (gradual developments) and the Right to Know concepts of press freedom and responsibility, Ethics of Journalism.

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Suggested Readings

Title Author
Advertising Operations and Management Beinton
Contemporary Public Relations Garkan Gene & Scott
Communication in Power Herbert Brucver
Exploring Journalism Wosley and Campbell
Editor and Editorial Writing A Gayle Waldrop
Handbook of Public Relations Stephenson, Howard
Journalism in Pakistan Dr. Abdus Salam Khurshid
Mass Communication Wilbur Schram
Newspaper Organization and Management Rucker
Practical Newspaper Reporting Geofrey Haris & David Spark
Process and Effects of Mass Communication Wilbur Schram
Radio & T.V. Writing Max Wylic
Iblagh-e-Aama (Urdu) Mehdi Hassan
Sahafat Pakistan-o-Hind Mein (Urdu) Dr. Abdus Salam Khurshid
Fun-e-Idarat (Urdu) Dr. Maskin Ali Hijazi
Fun-e-Sahafat (Urdu) Dr. Abdus Salam Khurshid
Fun-e-Idaria Naweesi (Urdu) Dr. Maskin Ali Hijazi

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