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Old Sunday, May 13, 2012
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Default Digital Glossary

A

Ac Adapter : External power supply, used by some external peripherals,that concert AC power in to DC power that the peripherals requires





Accelerated Graphics ports(AGP)-: Expensions bus designed by Intel to improve the speed with 3-D graphics and video transmit .



Access providers[/B] : Business that provide individuals and companies access to the internet free or for a fee.

Access Time : Measurement of the amount of time it takes the process to read data, instruction and information from the memory

Accounting Software: Software's that helps companies record and report their financial transactions.

Active-matrix Display : LCD monitors or screen technology that uses aseparate transistors to apply charges to each liquid crystal cell and thus display high quality color that is viewable from all angles.





Adapter: A circuit board that plugs into a computer and gives it additional capabilities.

Adapter Card : Circuit board that enhances functions of a components of a system unit and provides connection to the peripherals.



Add on : Programs that extend the capability of a browser ; often used to enhance the multimedia

Address : Unique number that identifies the location of a byte in memory .

Address Book : List of names and e-mail addresses,created and stored by a user , also called contact folder.

Address Bus : Types of bus (electrical channel) that transfer information about where data should reside in memory.




Advance Transfer Cache (ATC) : L2 cache built directly on the processor chip



Adware : Program that display an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on Web pages, e- mail, or other internet services.

Ad-ware Remover: Programs that detects and delete ad-wares from the under computer.

Air Mouse : Motion-sensing mouse that, in addition to the typical buttons , allows to control objects , media players and slides shows by moving the mouse in predetermined directions through the air.



Algorithm: A step-by-step procedure designed to solve a problem or achieve an objective.

All in one devices : output devices that looks like a copy machine but provide the functionality of a printer ,scanner , copy machine and fax machine, also called Multifunction peripherals.



Allocation Unit : Smallest unit of disk space that store data and information.

Alpha Testing: First-stage testing of computer products, typically done in house by the developer.

Alphanumeric: Consisting of letters, numbers, and symbols

Analog : Continuous signals or signal in wave form.

Animated GIF : Animated techniques that combines several GIF images in a single GIF file .

Anonymous FTP:- Features of many FTP sites whereby anyone can transfer some, if not all ,available files.

Anti- spam Program:- Program that remove the spam before it reaches a user's inbox.

Antivirus programs : Programs that protect a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer virus found in memory, on storage media and on incoming files.

Applet : A small application, that is, a program designed to perform a simple task. An applet is usually embedded within a larger program or downloaded from the Internet when needed

Application : A program designed to perform information processing tasks for a specific purpose or activity.

Application Service provider (ASP) : Third party organization that manages and distributes software and services on web.

Application Software : programs designed to make users more productive and assist them with personal tasks.

Archive. files compressed for more efficient use of storage space.

Archive CD: CD that stores photos from online photo center i.e jpg file format , usually at a maximum resolution of 7200 pixels per photo.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU ) : Component of processor that perform arithmetic , comparison and other operations.

Arithmetic operations : Basic calculation such as addition , subtraction, multiplication and division.

Artificial intelligence (AI) : Computer systems that attempt to imitate human processes for analyzing and solving problems

APRA : Advance Research Project Agency : Agency of the U.S Department of Defense that built an early computer network called ARPANET .

ARPANET : Network developed by the Pentagon's Advance Research Project Agency that linked scientific and academic researcher across the United States.

ASCII : American Standard Code for information Interchange ; it is seven bit code and most widely used coding system to represent data .

Aspect Ratio : Defines a display 's width relative to its height.

Assembler : program that translates from a symbolic version of instructions into a binary version. The symbolic language that the assembler translates is called assembly language.

Atom : Specification sometime used by content exaggerators to distribute contents.

Audio : Music, speech or any other sound .

Audio editing Software : Applications software that allows a user to modify audio chips , produce studio- quality sound tracks and ad audio to video clips.

Audio Input : Process of entering any sound , such as speech ,music and sound effects , into the computer.

Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) : Special - Purpose terminal, connected to host computer through a network that functions as a self- service banking machine

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B

Back Up :To make a copy of selected files or a entire hard disk to another storage media , can be used if the original is lost damage or destroyed.

Background : Programs that are running but not in use.

Background printing. The ability of a computer to print a document while other work is being done on the keyboard and the display screen at the same time.

Backup Utilities : Programs that allows the users to copy or bachup the selected files or entire disk to another media , which can be used if original lost.

Band printer: Line printer that prints fully formed characters when hammers strikes a horizontal , rotating band that contains shapes of numbers ,letters of the alphabets and other characters.



Bandwidth : The volume of information that a network can handle; usually expressed in bits per second.

Bar code : Identification code consisting of either vertical lines and spaces of different widths or a two dimensinal patterns of dots ,square and other images that represent a manufacturar and an item.



Bar Code Reader/Bar Code Scanners : Optical reader that uses LASER beam to read the bar code by using light patterns that passes thriugh the bar code lines.



Basic Input/ output System (BIOS) :Firmware or program stored in read-only memory that contains the computer's start up instructions.

Beta testing : Second-stage testing of computer products, typically done by potential customers and outside experts to identify problems that need to be fixed before the product can be released for sale.

Bay : Opening inside the system unit in which additional equipment can be installed.

BD-R : High capacity DVD -recordable format.



BD-RE : High Capacity rewritable DVD format.

Binary Code : The language used by computers in which data and instructions are represented by a series of 1s and 0s.

Binary Digit (bit) ; smallest unit data a computer can process and is based on a binary code, either the number 0 or 1.

Binary System : Number system used by computers that have just two reading 0 and 1 .

Biometrics : Technology of authenticating a person 's identity by verifing a personal characteristics.

Biometric Devices: Devices that translates a personal characteristics into a digital code that is comapred with the digital code stored in a computer.



Biomatric Identifier : physiological or behavioral characteristic;such as finger prints ,hand geometry ,facial features and eye patterns etc.



Bit Depth/Color Depth :The number of bits a video card uses to store information about each pixel.

Bitmap : Method of storing a graphic image as a set of bits in a computer’s memory.

Bits per second (bps) : Measurement or transfer rate that describes the speed of data transmission between two devices.

BlackBerry : Operting system that runs on handheld devices supplied by RIM(Reseach In Motion).

Bloatware. A program that uses an excessive amount of disk space and memory.

Blog: It is short for Web log.Infromal website consisting of time-stamped articles in a diary or journal format,usually listed in reverse chronological order.

Blog Software/Blogware : Software needed by blogger to create and maintain a blog.

Blogger: Author of weblog.

Blogsphere : Worldwide collection of blogs.

Blook : A blog that has been turned into a book or an online book that is published on a blog.

Blu-ray Disc-ROM(BD-ROM) : Newer, expansive type of DVD with storage capacities of 100 GB, expectations of exceeding 200 GB in future.



Bluetooth : Network standard, that defines how two Bluetooth devices use short range radio waves to transmit data.

Bluetooth Printing: Type of printing process that uses radio waves to transmit output to a printer.

Blue tooth wireless port Adapter : Adapter that convert an existing USB ports or serial port into Bluetooth port.

Bookmark: The way to mark a site on the Internet that visit again and again , just like putting a bookmark where you left off in a story you are reading.

Boot: Term use for “ to start up” the computer.

Booting : Process of starting a computer.

Boot Disk : Spacial disk that contains a few system files capable of starting a computer which is used when computer cannot boot from its hard disk.

Boot Drives : Drives from which a personal computer starts(boot).

Braille Printer : Type of printer that prints the information on paper in Braille for use by the visually impaired Users.



Broadband. High speed Internet connection provided through DSL,cable television networks,fiber-optic cables radio signals or satellites

Browser/Web Browser: Application software that allows a user to access and view web pages.

Buddies/Buddy List : Established list of friends , family and coworkers used in internet massaging .

Buffer : Segment of memory or storage that stores information temporarily while waiting to be transferred from an input device to an output device.

Bug: Little errors in either programs or equipment that sometimes cause them to stop running properly.

Burning : Process of writing on an optical disc.

Bus : A pathway along which electronic signals travel between the components of a computer system . it is Electrical channel that that transfer electronic bits internally within the circuitry of a computer ,allowing the devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other.

Bus Width : The size of a bus, which determine the number of bits that a computer can transmit at one time.

Business Software : Application software that assists people in becoming more efficient while performing their daily business activities.

Business-to-business(B2B)e- commerce : Online transactions that takes place between businesses.

Business-to-consumer(B2C) : The online sales of goods and services to the general public.

Button : Graphical element that is activated to cause a specific action to takes place.

Byte: Eight bits that are grouped together as a unit ,can represent 256 individual characters.
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Old Tuesday, May 15, 2012
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C


Cable Modem : Digital modem that sends and receive digital data over the cable.



Cache : Area of memory that stores the contents of frequently used data or instruction.

Candela : Standard unit of luminous intensity

Capacity : Number of bytes a storage medium can hold.

Card Reader/Writer : Devices that reads and write data, instructions and information stored on flash memory cards



Carpal Tunnel Syndrome : Wrist or hand injury caused by using a keyboard for long periods of time.

CD/DVD Burner : Utility program that write text, graphics, audio, and video files to a recordable or rewritable CD/DVD

Compact Disc-recordable/CD-R : Optical Disk on which user can write ,but not erase, their own items,data, information,graphics or audio.



CD Recorder/CD-R drive : Device that can read both audio CDs and standard CD- ROM



Compact disc read only memory/CD- ROM : Type of optical disc that uses laser technology to store data, instruction and information that user can read but not write on or erase.

CD-RW: Erasable multi-session optical disc on which users can write data, instruction and information multiple times.

Celeron : Inter processor used by less expensive basic PCs.

Cell : Intersection of a column and row in worksheet.

Central processing Unit(CPU) : Electronic component on a computer 's mother board that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer.



Centrino/Centrino Pro : Mobile Technology that integrates wirless capabilities in notebook computers and Tablet PCs.

Character : A single letter, figure, punctuation mark, or symbol produced by a keystroke on a computer.

Character set : Compelete set of characters, alphabetic, numeric, and symbolic.

Character String. Specified sequence of typed characters, representing a word or phrase ;often used to locate a particular word or phrase wherever it appears in a document.

Charged- coupled Devices (CCD) : Digital camera chip that generates analog symbol that represents an image.



Charting : Spreadsheet software feature that depicts data in a graphical form.

Chassis : Case of the system unit made of metal or plastic that protects the internal electronic components from damage.



Chat : Real-time typed conversation that takes place on a computer .

Chat Client : program that allows a user to connect to a chat server to participating in a chat session.

Chat room : Locations on an Internet server that permits user to chat with each other.

Check box : Small box that appears on screen alongside each option displayed in a dialog box. When an option is selected, an X or a check mark appears inside the box.



Chip :[/B] Small piece of semiconducting metrial , usually silicon , on which integrated circuits are etched.

Click : The act of moving mouse pointer to a button and then pressing and releasing a button the mouse.

Click Wheel : Touch sensitive scroll pad on portable media player that users rotate to browse through song, picture, or movie lists and press to play or pause media, display a menu and other actions.



Client Operation System/ Stand alone operating System: Complete operating system that works on desktop computer , notebook computer or mobile computing devices and also works in conjunction with a network operating system.

Clip Art : Collection of Drawing , photos, and other images that can insert in documents.

Clipboard : Temporary storage location for document content that is used in cutting and pasting or copying operations.

Client/server computing. A network of computers that consist of a file server and individual clients.



Clock Cycle : One tick of system clock.

Clock speed : pace of the system clock ,measured by the number of ticks per second.

Cold Boot : process of turning on a computer that has been powered off completely.

Color Library : Standard set of colors used by designers and printers to ensure that colors will print exactly as specified.

Compatibility : Ability of one type of computer to share information or to communicate with another type of computer.

COM ports/Communication ports : Serial ports on the system unit.



Compiler : Program that translates from a higher level language to assembly language.

Command :Instruction that causes a program to perform a specific action.

Command Line Interface(CLI) : Type of user interface in which a user types command or presses special keys on the keyboard ;such as function keys to enter data and instructions.



Communication Devices : Hardware components that enables a computer to send and receive data,instruction and information to and from one or more computers.

Compact Flash : Type of miniature mobile storage medium that is a flash memory card capable of storing between 64 MB ad 16 GB data.

Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) : Technology used by some chips that provides high speeds and consumes little power by using battery power to retain information even when power to a computer is off.

Compress : To shrink the size of a file .

Computer : Electronic device ,operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory , that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results and store the information and results for future use.

Computer Aided Design(CAD)Software : Sophisticated type of application software that assist a professional user in creating engineering ,architectural and scientific design.

Computer Aided Manufacturing(CAM) : Use of computer to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and assembly.

Computer-Aided Software Engineering(CASE) :Use of computers to help with the process of designing software.

Computer Based Training (CBT) : Type of education in which students learn by using and completing exercise with instructional software, also called computer -aided instructions(CAI).

Computer literacy : Having a current knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses.

Computer output microfilm recorder : Devices that record the images on microfilm and microfiche.



Computer Trespass : The crime of using a computer without the owner’s permission

Connector : Device that joins a cable to a port.

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce : E-commerce that occurs when one consumer sells directly to another ,such as in an online auction.

Content aggregation : Business that gathers and organized Web content and then distributes,the content to subscribers for free or a fee.

Continuous-form papers : Type of paper, used by dot-matrix printer, which consists of thousands of pages connected together end to end.

Continuous Speech : Flowing conversation tone recognized by most of today's voice recognition softwares.

Contrast Ratio : Difference in light intensity between the brightest white and darkest black that can displaced on LCD.

Convergence : Trend of offering similar functions that makes it increasing difficult to differentiate between two similar devices.

Cookie : A small text file to identify and collect information about every user who visits the site .It stores users information on a user’s hard drive when the user visits certain Web sites in order to gain access.

Copy : To reproduce information elsewhere such that the original information remains in place.


Cordless Keyboard : keyboard that transmit data using wireless technology ,such as radio waves or infrared light waves.



Core : Family of Intel processors used in most high-performance PCs.

Cracker : Computer criminal who penetrates a computer program to steal information or damage the program in some way.

Crash : A malfunction in hardware or software that keeps a computer from functioning.

Crawler : Program that automatically explores the WORLD WIDE WEB and collects information; also called a spider.

Create : To enter text or numbers, insert images and perform other tasks with a document using an input devices such as mouse, keyboard or digital pens etc.

Creeping Featurism : Practice of trying to improve software by adding features in an unsystematic way, ultimately making it less reliable and harder to use.

Crippleware/Freewares: Software that is distributed free as an incomplete or time-limited version in the hope that the user will purchase the fully functional version.

Crossfire : Technology allowing the use of multiple graphics cards to enhance the computer’s ability to display graphics, developed by ATI.

Cross platform : Program that runs the same on multiple operating system.

CRT monitor : Type of desktop monitor that contains cathode ray tube.



Crunch Mode : Work situation in which a deadline is near and everyone is working hard, keeping extended hours; usually the result of a mistaken estimate made by management.

Cryptography: The technology of encoding information so that it cannot be read by an unauthorized person.

Cuil :A search engine that was created to be a rival to Google. It delivers search results in tabs and menus that help the user to narrow the search.

Cursor : Symbol on a computer screen , usually a blinking vertical bar, that indicates where the next character a user will display.

Custom Softwares : Software that perform specific functions developed at a user's request.

Customer Relationship Management(CRM) : Software for keeping track of past customers, sales prospects, and the like.

Cybernetics : Study of the processing of information by machinery, especially computers and control systems.

Cyberpunk : An antisocial person who uses computers as a means of self expression, often performing destructive acts.

Cyberspace :Referred to as virtual reality;that exists in networked computer systems rather than in any particular physical location,used to refer to the world of the Internet as a whole.

Cybrarian : A person who makes a career of online research and data retrieval ;equivalent of a librarian.

Cyburbia (cyber suburbia) : Community of computer users that exists in cyberspace.

Cylinders : The vertical section of a hard disk track that passes through all platters.
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D


Daemon : program that runs continuously in the back-ground, or is activated by a particular event without human intervention.

Dance Pad : Flat electronic devices divided into panels that user presses with their feet in response to instruction from music viedo games.



Data : collection of unprocessed information , which can be text, numbers, images, sound, audio and viedo.

Data collection devices : Devices that obtains data directly at the location where the transaction or event takes palce.



Data compression. Procedure for reducing the volume of data so as to shorten the time needed to transfer the data.

Data projectors : Output device that takes the information displaying on computer screen and projects them on larger screen so that audienec can see the image directly.



Database : Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access , retrival and use of that data.

Database Softwares : Application softwares used to create, access and manage a database.

Database Management System (DBMS). The software needed to establish and maintain database and manage the stored information.

DDoS(Distributed Denial of Service) : A malicious act intended to shut down a Web site or a network by flooding it with too much information. Users who attempt to visit the site will be denied access.

DDR SDRAM/Double Data Rate SDRAM : Type of RAM that tranfer the data twice for each clock cycle instead of just one; is even faster than SDRAM.



Dead Link : An HTML address that is no longer valid. When a dead link is selected, the browser returns an error message.

Deadlock : Situation in which each of two processes is waiting for the other to do something; thus, neither one can proceed.

Deblurring : Process or method of digital image processing to correct a blurred image.

Debug : Locating and fixing defects n computer hardware or software.

Decoding : processor operations that translate a program instruction into signals the computer can execute.

De facto Standard : Standard that is not official but is established by wide-spread usage.

Default settings : The pre-established settings that a program will follow unless the user changes them.

Defragmenting : Reorganizing a disk so that the files are stored in contineous sectors,thus speeding up disk access and performance of entire computer.

Density: Number of bits in a area on storage medium.

Deployment : Act of installing software on computers.

Deprecated : a software feature from a previous version that still exists in the current version, but the developers recommend that it no longer be used


Desktop : On-screen work area that has graphical user interface.



Desktop Computers : Computer designed so that the system unit,input/output devices and other peripheral fits entirely on or under adesk or table.



Desktop Publishing Softwares (DTP) : Application Softwares used by the professional desiners to create sophisticated documents that can contain text, graphics and many colors.

Developer/programmer : A person who writes and modifies computer programs.

Device : Any component of a computer that is used for input or output, such as a printer, modem, disk drive, or sound card.

Device Contention : The situation in which several computer programs, running concurrently, are trying to use the same device (such as a modem or printer) at the same time.

Device Dependent : Programs that runs only on specific types of Devices .

Device Drivers : Small programs that instruct the operating system how to communicate with a specific device.

Device Independant : Operating system that run on the computers provided by the variety of manufactures.

Diagnostic utility : Utility program that compiles technical information about a computer 's hardware and certain system software programs and then prepare a report out lining any identified problems.

Dialog box : Special window that provides information , presents available options ,or request a response.



Dial-up Access : Method of connecting to the Internet using a modem in computer and standard telephone line.

Die : Individual piece of silicon containing a transistor or integrated circuit.

Digerati : People knowledgeable about the Web and other digital communications media. (From digital and Italian litterati.)

Digital :Representing of data using only two discrete states ; on and off.

Digital Camera : Camera that stores its photographed images digitally, instead of on traditional film.

Digital light processing (DLP) Projector : Projector that uses tiny mirrors to reflect light, which produce crisp , bright ,colorful images that remain in focus and can be seen clearly even in well-lit room.



Digital Pen : Input Device that allows users to write or draw on the screen by pressing the pen and issue instruction to a Teblet PC by tapping on the screen.



Digital photo printer : Thermal printer that uses heat to tranfer colored dye to spcially coated paper.



Digital rights management (DRM) : Strategy designed to prevent illegal distribution of music and other digital contents.

Digital Signal Processing (DSP): Use of computers to process signals such as sound or video. Applications of DSP include decoding modulated signals (e.g., in modems), removing noise, and converting video to different formats.

Digital Signature : a way of authenticating that an electronic message really came from the person it claims to have come from.

Digital Subscriber line (DSL) : Type of digital tehnology that provides high speed Internet connections using regular copper telephone line.

Digital versatile disc read-only memory/Digital Viedo Disks (DVD) : Extremely high capacity optical storage disc on which users can read , but not write or erase , capable of storing 4.7 GB to 17 GB.

Digital Viedo Interface (DVI) port: Viedo card port that enables digital signals to transmit directly to an LCD monitor.



Digitizer : Large-scale application term for a graphics tablet.




Disk Drive : The component of a computer into which a disk is inserted so that it can be reads or written on.

Disk Farm : Large set of disk drives used by a single computer or network.



Disk Mirroring : Technique in which all or part of a hard disk is duplicated onto one or more other hard disks,



Disk Scanners : Utilities that searches and removes unnecessary files.

Diskette : Portable,inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin, circular, flexible plastic Mylar film with a magnetic coating ,enclosed in square shaped plastic shell.

Display : Output devices that visually conveys text,graphics and video information.

Distance learning (DL): Delievary of education at one location while learning takes place at other location.

DNS Server : Internet Server that usually associates with the internet access provider.

Docking Stations : External devives that attaches to a mobile computer or device and contains a power connection and provides connection to peripherals.



Document management System : Appilcation software that provides a mean of sharing ,distributing and searching through documents by converting them into a format that can be viewed by other user.

Documents Explorer : Windows Vista feature that helps users locate documents by showing thumbnails that preview documents' content and allowing users to adjust thumbnail size to view document without opening it.

Domain: Referred to as the zone, indicates the type of organization that owns the computer being identified in the address that is linked to the Internet. It is found after the “@” in a URL, or Web address. There are different types of domains, for example, “.com” stands for company, “.gov” is government, “.org” is organization, and “.edu” stands for education.

Domain name : Text version of IP address.

Domain name system (DNS) : Method that the Internet uses to store domain names and their corresponding IP address.

Doorway Page : Web page that functions as a doorway into a Web site. Usually a doorway page contains keywords, which Internet search engines seek when they scan the Internet. Placing the correct keywords on a doorway page can increase the number of viewers visiting a site.

DOS: Stands for Disk Operating System. A program that allows the computer to to manage the storage of information on disks and control as other aspects of a computer’s operation.

Dot Matrix Printer.A printer that uses pins to produce characters made up of small dots.



Dot pitch : The distance in millimeters between pixels on a display device.

Download : process of receiving information through computer ,such as webpages ,from server on the internet.

Drive Bay: Rectangular opening in the system unit that typically holds disk drive.



Drivers : Small program that instruct the operating system how to communicate with specific device.

Dual-core processor : Processor chip that contains two separate processors.

Dumb Terminal : Terminal that has no its own processing power and cannot fucntion as an independant device.

Duplexing. A procedure that permits two computers to transmit data to each other simultaneously.

Dye-Sublimation printer : Thermal printer that uses heat to transfer color dye to specially coated paper, creating images of photographic quality.



Dynamic RAM (DRAM) : Type of RAM chip that must be refresh constantly or lose its contents.

Dynamic Web pages: Web pages that allows vistors to customize some or all of the viewed contents.
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Last edited by Amna; Sunday, June 24, 2012 at 05:17 AM.
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E



Easter Egg. An unexpected image or message that pops up on the display screen when the user innocently enters a secret combination of keystrokes.A way of surprising and amusing users engaged in more serious tasks.

E-book. A small reading device that displays downloaded digital text.



E-commerce/Electronic Commerence : A buniess trasaction that occurs over an electronic network such as the internet.

E- Learning : Delivery of eduction via electronic methods such as internet , networks , or CDs/DVDs.

Ellipsis Marks. Three spaced dots (. . .) that appear as part of a menu option. Ellipsis marks indicate that a dialog box will appear if that option is selected.

E-mail : Transmission of massages and files via computer network .

E-mail address : combination of user name and a domain name that identifies a user to receive E-mails.

E-mail program : Software use to create ,send , receive, forward , store ,print and delete e-mail mssages.

Earbuds/Earphones : Audio output device that rests inside the ear canal.

Edit : to make chages to the existing content of a document .

Educational Softwares : Application softwares that teach a particular skill.

Electrically eraseable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) : a chip that allows a programer to erase microcode with an electrical signal.



Electronic storefront: Online busniess, a customer visits that contains products descriptins ,graphics and a shopping cart.

Embeded Computers : special- purpose computers that function as a component in a large product.

Embeded Operating System : Operating System that reside on a ROM chips inside most PDAs and small devices.

Emoticons : Symbols used on Internet to express emotions.

Encryption : The process of encoding data and information to an unreadable form.

ENERGY STAR Program : Program that encourages manufacturers of computer components to create energy- efficient devices ,requiring little power when they are not in use ,developed by the U.S.Department of energy and U.S environmental Protection Agency .

Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics(EIDE) :Interface that uses parallel signals to transfer data, instruction and informations ,can support up to four hard disks at 137 GB per disk.

Enhanced Resolution : Digital camera resolution calculated by special formula that add pixels between those generated by the optical resolutions.

Enterprise ASP : Application service provider that customized and deliver high-end busniess applications, such as finance and database.

Enterprise Computing : the use of a huge network of computers that meets diverse components needs.

Erogonomics : The science of incorporating comforts, efficiency and safety into the design of the workplace.

Ergonomic Keyboard : Keyboard whose design reduce the chance of wrist or hand injuries.



eSATA Ports:Special purpose ports that allows to connect an external SATA hard disk to a computer.



Escalate : to transfer a customer’s help request from the person who originally handled it to someone more highly trained, and/or to mark it as more urgent.

Ethernet. A type of computer network, originally developed by Xerox Corporation. Communication takes place by means of radio-frequency signals carried by a coaxial cable.

Ethical Hacking :the practice of breaking into computers without malicious intent, simply to find security hazards and report them to the people responsible.

Ethernet Card : A circuit board that allows a computer to be connected to a network by cable.

Evil Twin : Malicious wireless hot spot that seems legitimate, but is designed to trick unwitting users into revealing personal information.

Exception : Situation that prevents a computer program from running as specified, such as unexpectedly reaching the end of a file or trying to divide by zero.

Execute : To perform an instruction or action specified by the user or the program.

Expension Slot : Socket on motherboard that can hold an adapter card.



Explorer : Part of Windows that is used for exploring directories, files, and desktop menus.

Export :To save information from one computer or program to another.

Express Card Module : Removeable flash memory device that adds memory ,communication, multimedia and security capabilities to mobile computers.

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange(EBCDIC) : coding scheme used primarily on mainframe computers and high end servers.

External Bay : Drive bay that allows users to access openings in the bay from outside the system unit.

External hard disk : Separate freestanding hard disk that connects with a cable to a USB port or FireWire port on the system unit.

Extranet : Technology that permits users of one organization’s intranet to enter portions of another organization’s intranet in order to conduct business transactions or collaborate on joint projects.

Extrude :Special effect provided by drawing programs that creates a three-dimensional shadow.

E-zine. A magazine published in an electronic format. Also called Webzine.
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F


Face Recognization System : Biometric device that captures a live face image and compares it with a stored image to determine if the person is a legitimate user.



Fair Queuing : A technique used to improve quality of service that gives each session flow passing through a network device a fair share of network resources. With fair queuing, no prioritization occurs.

FAQ/Frequently Asked question : A document listing common questions and answers on a particular subject that help the user to find answers.

Favorites : A customized list of a user’s favorite Web sites that permits the user to access a particular Web site with a single command ;also referred to as a bookmark list or a hot list.

Fax : Shortened form of the word facsimile. To transmit a copy of a document electronically from one machine to another via Fax Machine.

Fax Machine : Output device that codes and encodes documents so that they can be transmitted over telephone lines.



Fax Modem : A device built into or attached to a computer that serves as a facsimile machine and a modem.



Feasibility Study : An evaluation of a prospective project for the purpose of determining whether or not the project should be undertaken.It normally consider the time, budget, and technology required for completion.

Fetching : Processor operation that obtains a program instruction or data item from memory.

Fiber to the Premises(FTTP) : Technology that uses fiber-optics cables to provide heigh speed Internet access to home and busniess users.

Field : The area reserved for the entry of a specified piece of information.Each column in a database that contain a specific category of data within a record.

Field Camera: Portable digital camera with many lenses and other attachments.

File : Named collection of information,data or instructions stored electronically and treated as a unit by a computer.

File Allocation Table(FAT) : the part of the disk that contains information about the sizes and locations of the files.

File Compression Utility : Utility program that shrink the size of file ,so that file takes up less storage space then original file.

File conversion Utility : Program that transform a file from one format to another ,eliminating the need to reenter/rewrire/recompose data in a new program

File Manager : Utility program that performs the functions related to file management.

File Transfer protocol (FTP) : Set of guidelines/standards ,establish the format in which files can be transmitted/transfer from one computer to another on Internet.

Filters: Audio editing software feature designed to enhance audio quality.

Fishing : The act of pulling a cable through the interior of a wall, or through some other inaccessible space, by using a fish tape

Fish Tape : Tool for pulling cables through inaccessible spaces.It is a very long metal strip with a hook at the end which can be used tograb a wire .

Firewall. Software that prevents unauthorized persons from accessing certain parts of a program, database, or network. They can be implemented in both hardware or software.

FireWire : Data ports/interfaces designed for high speed data transfer by Apple, faster than USB interfaces.



Firefox : Free Web browser introduced in 2004 by Mozilla

Firmware : Software that is stored in some fixed form on chips, such as read-only memory (ROM) , contain permanently written data, instruction or information when were manufactured.

Fixed Wireless : High speed Internet connection that uses antenna on a house or busniess to communicate with a tower location via radio signals.



Flame : Abusive or insulting e-mail message sent deliberately designed to insult and provoke the recipient.

Flame Wars: Exchange of flames using the Internet.

Flash Memory : Type of nonvolatile memory that can be ereased electronically and rewritten.



Flat-panel Display : Display device with a shallow depth and flat screen that typically uses LCD or gas plasma technology.



Flatbed scanner : Type of light-sensing input device that scans a document and create a file of the document in memory instead of a paper copy.



Floppy disk : Portable ,inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin ,circular ,flexible Mylar film with a magnetic coating,enclosed in a square shaped plastic shell.



Folder : Specific named storage area on a disk that contains related documents, used to organize files.

Font : A typeface of a certain size and style. Includes all letters of the alphabet, figures, symbols, and punctuation marks.

Footer : Repetitive information or text that appears at the bottom of every page of a document.

Footnote Feature : The ability of a program to automatically position footnotes on the same page as the text they refer to. If the text is moved to another page, any related footnotes will also be transferred to that page.

Force Feedback: Technology that sends resistance to a joystick or wheel in response to a actions of the user.

Forelash. Negative reactions to a technology not yet in existence but excessively promoted in advance.

Foreground : Program with which the user currently is interacting .

Format. The physical specifications that affect the appearance and arrangement of a document, for example, margins, spacing, and font.

Formating : Process of dividing a disk into tracks and sectors so that operating system can store and locate data and information on disk.

Forms mode. the format of a document or form so that it can later be viewed on the display screen and completed by the user. Once a fill in has been entered, the cursor automatically advances to the beginning of the next area to be filled in.

Forum : A medium provided by an online service for users to carry on written discussions of a particular topic by posting messages and replying to them.

Frame : Block of data that is transmitted as a unit over a network.

Frame buffer : Specialized memory that holds at least one screenful of data.

Fragmented : State of a file whose contents are scattered across two or more noncontiguous sector of a disk.

Freenet : Local network that offers free (or low-cost) access to host computers located in libraries and to other public-interest groups in the community. A freenet may also offer limited access to the Internet.

Freeware. Copyrighted software that is available for use without charge.

Fringeware : Freeware whose reliability and value are questionable.

FTP Server : Computer that allows users to upload or download files using FTP.

Functions : Predefined worksheet formula that performs common calculation.

Function keys. Special Keys programmed on a keyboard that issue special commands to the computer.

Fuzzy computing :A computing technique that deals with vague, incomplete, or ambiguous data in a precise mathematical way while providing solutions based on the human way of thinking.

FWIW : Online abbreviation for “for what it’s worth.”
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Gadgets: Small applications ,tools or service that can provide additional functions such as displaying the weather ,calender etc. Generically, device that has a specifica purpose and a fuctions commonly call gadgets such as PDAs, phones, smartphones, MP3 players etc.



Game Console: Mobile computing device designed for single player or multiplayer videos games.



Game Controller/gamepad : Input device that directs movements and actions of on screen objects in viedo and computer games.



Gaming Keyboard: Keyboard designed spcially for users who enjoy playing games on computer.



Gamma Testing : Software testing, performed before commercial release. In gamma testing, the software is believed to be complete and free of errors, but the manuals and packaging may not yet be in final form.

Gamut : The complete range of colors, a display or printer is capable of producing.

Gantt Chart : Bar chart that shows individual tasks of a project as bars against a horizontal time scale ;are used as a project-planning tool for developing schedules.



Garbage : Incorrect or corrupted data.

Garbage Collection :Clearing out objects that are taking up space in memory but are no longer in use by a program.

Garbage in,Garbage out(GIGO) : Computing phrase that points out the accuracy/quality of a computer's output depends upon the accuracy/quality of input.

Gateway : Device that links two networks using different protocols.



Gatored : To have been the victim of a hijackware program that seized control of an Internet shopping or surfing experience and caused the victim’s browser to display ads and Web sites chosen by the program

Geek : Computer expert or specialist , generally, a person who enjoys cerebral activities more than the mainstream population does.

Gender changer : Device that joins a port and connector that are both female and male.



Gesture Recognizer : Computer's capability of detecting human motion.

Ghosting : The permanent etching of images on a monitor's screen.

GIF : Graphics format that uses compression techniques to reduce file size.

Gigabyte (GB) : Measurement of the storage capacity of a device. One gigabyte represents 1024 megabytes or approximately 1 billion bytes.

Gigahertz (GHz) :Measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit. One giga-hertz is equal to 1 billion cycles/ticks of the system clock per second.

Glitch : Hardware problem that causes a computer to malfunction or crash.

Global : Any function that can be performed on an entire document without requiring individual commands for each use.

Gopher. A protocol used for locating and transferring information on the Internet. The use of Gopher has diminished as the Web’s hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) has become the dominant protocol.

Gradient : Smooth progression of colors and shades, usually from one color to another color, or from one shade to another shade of the same color.

Graphics : Digital representaion of nontext information such as drawing ,chart,images or photo .

Graphics Card. Adapter cards that converts output into viedo signals that travel through a cable to monitor, which displays an image on the screen.



Graphics Processing Unit(GPU) : Chip that controls the mainipulation and display of graphics on a display device.



Graphics Tablet : Flat, rectangular ,electronic plastic board that is used to create drawing and sketches.



Graphical user interface (GUI): Type of user interface provides visual computer environment that permits the user to click on icons or select options from a menu.

Grok: To research and comprehend something in great detail and great depth.

Groupware: Software that lets network users collaborate on a variety of documents.

Guru : A technical expert who is available to help solve problems and to answer questions in an intelligible way.

Gutter : The blank area between two or more columns of text or between two facing pages in a publication.
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H


Hacker : Dedicated computer programmer or expert who work at a high level of expertise with computer systems and software;can be good or bad. The term hacker is sometimes used erroneously to refer to a computer criminal who penetrates and tampers with computer programs or systems.

Ham : Legitimate e-mail message that is blocked because it contains one or more keywords associated with spam messages.

Hand Geomertry System : Biometric device that measures the shape and size of a person 's hand and compare these measurement to stored measurements.




Handheld Computer :A portable computer small enough to fit in one hand and smaller then a notebook computer, also called a palmtop computer.



Handshake : Prescribed sequence of digital electrical signals exchanged by two devices in preparation for data transfer.

Hang : To stop responding ; hung program or computer system does not respond to user input,but the screen looks as if everything is running normally.

Hard copy : Text , graphics or information that exist physically ; printed on paper; also called a printout.

Hard Disk : Type of stirage device that can store large amounts of information; contains one or more inflexible, circular platers that store data.



Hardware : physical (Electric, electronic and machnical) components of a computer that includes: central processing unit, the display screen,the keyboard, the disk drive, the modem, the mouse, and the printer etc.

Hardwired : Describes something physically built into a system using hardware, instead of being accomplished by programming.

Head Crash : Type of hard disk failure that occurs when read/write head touches the surface of a platter.

Header : Text or information that appears at the top (the head) of every page of a document.

Heat Pipe : Small cooling device used to cool processors in notebook computers.



Heat Sink : Small ceramic or metal component with fans on its surface that absorbs and ventilate heat produced by electricalcomponents.



Hertz : One clock cycle of system per second.

Hibernation : State in which a computer shuts down after saving everything in memory to the hard disk ;when the computer is powered on, programs and documents that were open are restored to the desktop.

High-defination Media Interface(HDMI)port : Ports that combines DVI with high defination telecisions and viedo.



High-defination Televisions(HDTV) : the most advance form of digital television ,working with digital broadcast signals,transmitting digital sound ,supporting wide screens, and providing resolutions up to 1920x1080 pixels.

Higher-level language : Language, used for programming a computer programs that is closer to the user's language.

Hit : A single request for information made by a client computer from a Web server or web pages names displayed by a search engine that contain the search text specified by the users. The popularity of a Web site is often measured by the number of hits it receives.

Home: The starting position of a page or document;the upper left corner of the display screen

Homebrew :Hardware or software developed by an individual or by a company for its own use rather than as a commercial product.

Home page : The main/first page for a Web site established by an organization or an individual to display;serves as the entrance for a series of related pages.

Home User : User that spend time on computer at home.

Host : Any computer that provide services and connections to other computers on a network.

Hot key. A keyboard shortcut that allows quick access to a command or menu option.

Hot Plugging : Features that allows you to insert or remove a removeable flash memory device and other devices while computer is on/running.

Hot Spots : Wireless networks that provide WiFi Internet connections to mobile, computer and other devices.

Hover Button : Text or an image on a Web page, usually in the form of a button, that changes appearance when a cursor passes over it, button may change color, blink, display a pop-up .

Hub : In a network, a device joining communication lines at a central location, providing a common connection to all devices on the network.

Hybrid Computer : Computer that contains both digital and analog circuits.

Hybris virus : A slow-spreading but persistent self-updating Internet worm ;activated whenever an infected computer is connected to the Internet. It attaches itself to all outgoing e-mail messages, maintains a list of all e-mail addresses in the headers of incoming e-mail messages, and sends copies of itself to all e-mail addresses on the list.

Hypertext Transfer protocol(http): Rules that defines how pages transfer on the Internet and allows programmers to embed hyperlinks in Web documents, using hypertext markup language. permits Web clients (Web browsers) to communicate with Web servers

Hyperlink : Built-in connection to another related Webpages or part of webpages.When a user clicks on these connects with another page in the same document/website or another document/website.

Hypermedia : An extension of hypertext that integrates audio, video, and graphics with text.

Hypertext : Term that refers to links in text based document; links text in one part of a document with related text in another part of the document or in other documents. A user can quickly find the related text by clicking on the appropri-ate keyword, key phrase, icon, or button.

Hypertext markup language (HTML). The formatting language used to establish the appearance of a Web page;the way that web browsers read and show text on web pages.

Hyperspace : The set of all documents that can be accessed by following hyperlinks in the World Wide Web.

Hyper Threading(HT) Technology : Technology used in Intel's processor chips , which improves processors power and time by allowing a processor chip to mimic the power of two processors.

Hyphenation : The ability of a program to automatically hyphenate and divide words that do not fit at the end of a line. If the text is later revised so that the divided word no longer begins at the right margin,the hyphen is automatically removed and the word prints solid.
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I



Icon : Small image displayed on acomputer screen that represents a program, a document or some other object.



Image processing : Practices that consists of capturing ,storing ,analyzing ,displaying ,printing and manipulating images with scanners.

Image Stitching : Process of combining multiple images into a large image.

Image viewer : Utility that allows users to display ,copy and print the content of graphics file ,such as picture.

Impact printers : Type of printer that forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper by striking a mechanism against an inked ribbon that physically contacts the paper.

Import : To reterive information from one system or program to another.

Index : search utility feature that stores a variety of information about a file ,including its name ,date created ,date modified,author name and so on.

Information : processed data that convey meaning and useful for the user.

Information processing cycle : series of input , process, output, and storage activities performed by a computer.

Information Superhighway (I-way) : The Internet.

Information System : Hardware,software,data,people ,and procedures that a computer requires to generate information.

Infrared Data Association (IrDA) : Network standard used to transmit data wirelessly via infrared (IR) light wave.

Infrared Printing : Printing that uses infrared light waves to transmit output to a printer.

Ink-jet Printer : Type of nonimpact printers that forms characters and graphics by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink on a piece of paper.



Input : Any data and instructions eneterd into the computer for processing.

Input Devices : Any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instruction into a computer such as a mouse, a keyboard, or a microphone.



Insert : To add information to a file.

Insertion point : Symbol on a computer screen ,usually a blinking vertical bar, that indicates where the next character a user types will be displayed.

Installing : Process of setting up software to work with the computer and other hardware components.

Instant messaging (IM) : Real time Internet communications service that notifies a user when one or more people are online and then allow the user to exchange messages or files or join a private chat rooms with these people.

Instant messangers : Software/programs that provide facility to people to communicate over the Internet in real time.

Instructions : Stepts that tells the computer how to perform a particular task.

Integrated Circuit : Electronic component that contains many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current combined on a tiny silicon chip.



Intel-compatible processors: Processors that have an internal design similar to that of Intel processors,perform the same functions as Intel ,and can be as powerful ,but often are less expensive.

Interactive whiteboard : Touch-sensitive devices,resembling a dry-earse board,that display the images on a connected computer screen.



Interface: The electrical connection that links two pieces of equipment so that they can communicate with each other and the software that controls the interaction between the hardware and the user.

Internesia: Forgetting where one obtained a piece of information on the Internet.

Internet : worldwide collection of computer networks that connects millions of busniesses, government agencies ,educational institutes and individuals to transfers and share information.

Internet community: Group of individuals with common interests who frequently exchange ideas on the Internet.

Internet Coporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) : Gruop that assigns and controls top-level domains.

Internet-enabled : Technology that allows mobile devices to connect to the Internet wirelessly.

Internet digital subscriber line (IDSL): high-speed digital communications service that provides fast Internet access .

Internet Explorer : Web browser included with windows operating system.

Internet Postage : Digital postage technology that allows users with an authorized postage account to buy and print digital postage.

Internet Protocol (IP) Address : Unique set of numbers that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet.

Internet service provider (ISP): Regional or national organization/companies that provides access to the Internet for a fee.

Internet Telephony/ Voice over IP(VoIP) : Technology that allows users to speak to other users over the Internet.

Intruder : Unauthorized user or program, that have malicious intent, on a computer or computer network.

IPv6 : New IP addressing scheme that may increase the number of available IP addresses.

IrDA port : Port that uses infrared light waves to transmit signals between a wireless device and a computer.

Iris recognization system : Biometric device that uses iris recognization technology to read patterns in the iris of the eye.



Internet service provider (ISP) : Internet access provider.

Itanium : Intel processor used by workstations and low end servers.
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J

Java : Programming language designed for programs or applets used over the Internet.

Jack : Term used to identify an audio or viedo port.

Jewel box : Protective case ,used to store CDs and DVDs when not in use.



Jitter : Small vibrations or fluctuations in a displayed video image caused by irregularities in the display signal.In digital communication, distortion caused by lack of synchronization of signals.

Job : Specified amount of processing performed as a unit by a computer.

Joysticks : Handheld vertical lever mounted on a base used to control actions of a simulated vehicle or player.



JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) : ISO/ITU standard for storing complex images in compressed form using a discrete cosine transform.

Jukebox : Software that is designed to play a list of sound files in a user-specified order reminiscent of juke-boxes used to play vinyl records.

Justification : Aligning lines of text at the left margin, the right margin, both margins, or the center. Text aligned at both margins is considered fully justified.



K


KBps: Kilobyte per second.

Kalman filter : Adaptive filter used to estimate the state of a system from measurements that contain random errors.

Kern :To alter selectively the distance between pairs of letters for readability and to make the type spacing more balanced and proportional.

Kernal : The core of an operating system that manages memory and devices , maintains the computer's clock, starts programs and assign the computer 's resources.

Keyboard : Input device that contains keys,user press to enter data and intrustion into computers;resembles a typewriter keyboard and that conveys information from a user to a computer or data communications circuit.

Keyguard : Metal or plastic plate placed over the keyboard that allows users to rest their hands on the keyboard without accidently pressing any keys.



Keystroke : The depression of one key on a keyboard.

Keywords: Words or phrase entered in a search engine's text box that describe the item you want to find.

Kluge : An expedient but often inelegant way to solve a problem when time is of the essence.

Kill : To stop or abort a process in a program or operating system ,without hope of reversing the action.

Kilobyte(KB or K) : Measurement of the storage capacity of a device , represent 1024 bytes.

Kilocycle : Unit of measurement representing 1000 cycles, generally meaning 1000 cycles per second. .

Kiosk : Freestanding computer that provides information to the public, , through multimedia dispaly , used by some busniess in public locations.



knockout : In multicolor printing, the process of removing overlapping parts of image that are to be printed in a different color to print in the correct color such that ink colcors will not mix.

knowbot (knowledge robot) : Artificial intelligence program that follows a set of predetermined rules to perform work, such as searching for files or looking for documents that contain specific pieces of information on a network.

knowledge acquisition :Process of translating knowledge from one or more human experts into a form of representation usable by a computer, for the purpose of developing an expert system.

knowledge engineer : Computer scientist who builds an expert system by acquiring the needed knowledge and translating it into a program.


L


L1 cache : A type of memory cache that is built directly into the processor chip, with a capacity of 8 KB to 16 KB.

L2 Cache : A type of memory cache that is slightly slower than L1 cache, but has a much larger capacity, ranging from 64 KB to 16 MB.

L3 Cache : Cache on the motherboard that is separate from processor chip.

Label printer : Small printer that prints on adhesive-type material that can be placed on item such as envelopes,packages, floppy disks ,CDs,DVDs, audio cassettes, photos ,file folders and toys.



Land scape Orientation : A printout that is wider than it is tall with information printed across the widest part of the paper.

Laptop Computer : Portable,personal computer designed to fit on a user's lap.

Laser Printer : Type of high speed , high qualilty nonimpact printer that creates images using a laser beam and powdered ink called toner.



LCD Monitors : Desktop monitor that uses a liquid crystal display instead of a cathode ray tube to produce images on screen , resulting in a sharp, flicker-free display .

LCD Projector : projector that uses liquid crystal display technology that attaches directly to a computer and uses its own light soucrce to display the information shown on the computer screen.



Legal Software : Application software that aasists in the preparation of legal document and provides legal information to individuals ,families and small busniesses.

Light Gun : Input device used in video and computer games to shoot targets and moving objects after you pull the trigger on the weapon.



Light Pen : Handheld input device that can detect the presence of light.



LightScribe Technology : Technology used by some optical drives that can etch lables directly on a specially coated optical disc, as adhesive label on the disc.

Line Printer : Type of high-speed impact printer that prints an entire line at a time.

Link : Built-in connection to another related Web page or part of a Web page.

Liquid Cooling Technology : A continuous flow of fluid ,such as water and glycol, that transfers the heated fluid away from the processor, cools the liquid ,then returns the cooled fluid to the processor.

Live CD : Bootable CD drive, which allows users to preview an operating system without installing it.

Live USB : Bootable USB drive,which allows users to preview an operating system without installing it.

Loaded : Copied from a computer's hard disk into memory.

Loads : Process of a computer copying a program from storage to memory.

Log on : To access a computer or network as a user.

Longitudinal Recording : Storage techniques in which magnetic particles are aligned horizontally around the surface of the disk.
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Last edited by Amna; Saturday, June 23, 2012 at 09:01 AM.
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