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Old Friday, November 18, 2005
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Default pak india relation 1947--2001

Gleanings from Indo-Pakistan relations
14-15: Pakistan and India gain independence respectively.
15: Pakistan replies in affirmative to the telegram of the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir (dated August 12, 1947) desiring to enter into a standstill agreement with Pakistan on all issues between the two as had been maintained with the outgoing British-Indian government.

22-24: North-West Frontier tribes pour into Kashmir in reaction to slaughter of Muslims in Jammu by the Maharaja’s troops and other anti-Muslim militants in an operation to disarm Muslims in Kashmir.
26-27: Maharajah of Kashmir writes letter (October 26, 1947) to Indian Governor-General, Lord Mountbatten seeking help from the Indian dominion against the tribal onslaught and also attaching the instrument of accession to India. Mountbatten replies (October 27, 1947) accepting accession in the special circumstances mentioned by the Maharaja, however, observing that the “question of accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the state, it is my government’s wish that, as soon as law and order have been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invader, the question of the state’s accession should be settled by a reference to the people.”
1: The Governors-General of Pakistan and India, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah and Lord Louis Mountbatten meet at Lahore to discuss the Kashmir issue. Both agreed to a plebiscite in Kashmir, however there was a difference on the method. Mr. Jinnah proposed the plebiscite to be held under the supervision of both Governors-General while Lord Mountbatten stressed upon a UN sponsored one. The meeting remained inconclusive.
1: India lodges complaint in the UN Security Council against Pakistan, accusing the latter of aiding the tribal attacks into Kashmir. Pakistan denies the accusation and counters that India is responsible for the genocide of Muslims.
13: India launches spring offensive in Kashmir as reported by The Times correspondent at Srinagar, marking the beginning of first India-Pakistan war over Kashmir. A week later, Pakistan army units are deployed in defensive positions in Kashmir on the advice of army chief General Douglas Gracy who apprehends grave threat to Pakistan’s borders if the Indian offensive is left unchecked.
21: UN Security Council passes a resolution allowing India to minimum retention of her forces in Kashmir to aid civil power, and empowering the UN Secretary General to appoint a Plebiscite Administrator to act as “an Officer of the State of Jammu and Kashmir).
7: The United Nations Commission on India and Pakistan (UNCIP) arrives in the subcontinent, landing in Karachi.
13: UNCIP adopts a resolution proposing a ceasefire to both the governments of India and Pakistan.
23-25: Indian and Pakistan respectively submit to UNCIP their acceptance.
5: UNCIP adopted the resolution, which put into effect the ceasefire between India and Pakistan in the Kashmir conflict.
18: Karachi Declaration signed between India and Pakistan establishing a UN supervised ceasefire line. The demarcation of Kashmir thus accruing, left India with control of about 139’000 square kilometres including Srinagar while Pakistan controlled 83’807 square kilometres including Muzaffarabad, which eventually became the capital of Azad Kashmir.
8: Liaquat-Nehru Pact signed between Pakistan’s premier Liaquat Ali Khan and Indian Prime Minister Pandit Nehru, which promised safeguards for the minorities in both countries.
July and August
25 &16: Pakistani premier Mohammed Ali Bogra and his Indian counterpart, Pandit Nehru meet in Karachi and New Delhi respectively in direct negotiations on Kashmir. In a joint communiqué at the end of the talks, the two leaders re-affirmed that the fate of Kashmir should be decided in accordance with the wishes of its people as well as that a fair and impartial plebiscite was the most feasible method of determining the wishes of the people.
19: Indus Water Treaty and Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement signed between Pakistan and India.
[Between December 27, 1962 to May 16, 1963: six rounds of inconclusive talks between India and Pakistan at the ministerial level]
January [Border skirmishes between Indian and Pakistani troop increase in frequency in the Rann of Kutch]
9: Large scale fighting erupts in Rann of Kutch.
17: Indian troops cross ceasefire line in Kashmir and occupy 3 Pakistani posts in the Kargil area.
30: Indian troops withdraw from Kargil posts on UN and US urgings. Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan and Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri of Indian sign agreement to resolve disputes peacefully, at the London Commonwealth Prime Minister’s Conference.
5: Armed Azad Kashmiris enter Indian Kashmir to assist local in their ongoing agitation. India labels them regular Pakistani troops in disguise.
16: Indian troops re-occupy Pakistan’s Kargil posts.
23: Indian artillery shelling on Awan Sharif village in West Pakistan leaves twenty civilians dead.
30: Indian claim capture of nine important Pakistani positions in Azad Kashmir.
1: Azad Kashmir forces assisted by the Pakistan Army cross the ceasefire line into Indian Kashmir, occupying two posts in Chhamb, as announced by the Pakistan government from Rawalpindi, to forestall further Indian aggression.
5: Pakistani and Azad Kashmiri forces occupy Jaurian near Akhnur in Indian Kashmir.
6: Indian forces launch full-scale attack on West Pakistan targeting Lahore, thus triggering the second Indo Pakistan war.
23: UN sponsored ceasefire comes into effect.
4-10: Peace conference at Tashkent in Uzbekistan, under USSR sponsorship, between Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan and Indian Premier Lal Bahadur Shastri produces the Tashkent Declaration both countries would withdraw their forces to positions prior to August 5, 1965.

10-21: Indian troops intervene in East Pakistan imbroglio
3: Pakistan Air Force launch pre-emptive strikes on Indian airfields in the western wing. Ground forces of both countries cross respective borders in Punjab, Rajesthan and Kashmir. Third Indo-Pakistan war.

16: Dhaka falls to Indian forces and Bangladesh comes into being in former East Pakistan. Indian and Pakistani troops occupy each other’s territory in the western wing. India announces unilateral ceasefire. President Yahya Khan of Pakistan announces ceasefire on following day.
2: President Z. A. Bhutto of Pakistan and Indian Premier, Mrs. Indira Gandhi sign the Simla Agreement, which provided for the return of territory captured in 1971, return of Pakistani prisoners of war and resolution of mutual differences through all peaceful means possible.

18: India detonates first nuclear device, but says it is for atomic research and not weapons.

1: Indian Premier Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq agree to begin talks on a non-aggression treaty.
20: Talks between Indian and Pakistani foreign secretaries end inconclusively in Islamabad. But both agree on "desirability" of a peace treaty and non-aggression pact.
31: India Premier Rajiv Gandhi and Pakistan's Benazir Bhutto sign three bilateral agreements, during the SAARC Summit at Islamabad, including one not to attack each other's nuclear facilities.

5: Pakistan army chief General Mirza Aslam Beg says Pakistan has successfully test-fired its first long-range surface-to-surface rockets, named Hatf-1 and Hatf-2.
6: Pakistan says it has acquired knowledge to make nuclear bombs, but will not do so.
6: Babri Mosque in Ayodhya, India, destroyed by Hindu fundamentalists seeking to build a Hindu temple on a contested site; communal violence mounts over incident; Pakistan asks Indian government to protect Muslims in India.
1-3: Foreign secretaries of the two countries fail to narrow differences on Kashmir. Pakistan rules out more talks unless India stops alleged human rights violations in Kashmir.
23: The then former premier Nawaz Sharif tells rally in Azad Jammu & Kashmir, forming a third of Jammu and Kashmir, that Pakistan has an atomic bomb. The government denies this.
30: Pakistani and Indian military officers meet on ceasefire line dividing Kashmir, to ease tension after clashes.
4: Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto urges Indian counterpart H.D. Deve Gowda to resume dialogue. Deve Gowda responds positively, but Pakistan drops idea when India holds local elections in Held Kashmir.
28-31: Indian and Pakistani foreign secretaries open the first round of peace talks in New Delhi; agree to meet again in Islamabad.
9: Indian Foreign Minister Inder Kumar Gujral and Pakistani counterpart Gohar Ayub Khan meet in New Delhi. India says several hundred fishermen held by each side will be freed.
12: Prime Ministers, Inder Kumar Gujral and Nawaz Sharif, hold separate talks at SAARC summit in Maldives.
19-23: After second round of talks in Islamabad, Indian and Pakistani foreign secretaries announce eight-point agenda for peace talks, including Kashmir issue, and say they will set up mechanism to tackle it.
14-15: India and Pakistan mark 50 years of independence.
26: India rejects U.S. offer to mediate to end Kashmir border clashes, saying differences should be solved in bilateral talks.
18: Talks between foreign secretaries end in stalemate, but both sides say they will meet again.
22: In a speech to the U.N. General Assembly, Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif offers to open talks on a non-aggression pact with India, proposing that both nations strike a deal to restrain their nuclear and missile capabilities.
23: Sharif meets Gujral for talks in New York, which end with no breakthrough.

26: Gujral says he is cautiously optimistic that personal friendship with Sharif will help ease tension over Kashmir, but their meet on the fringes of a Commonwealth summit achieves little.
4: Pakistan warns it might review its policy of nuclear restraint if India's new Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party government redeems election pledge to make nuclear weapons.
6: Pakistan tests its longest range, 1,500 km (932 mile) Ghauri missile.
11: India conducts three underground nuclear tests in the western desert state of Rajasthan near the border with Pakistan.
13: India conducts two more tests and says its series of tests is complete.
28: Pakistan conducts five nuclear tests in response to the Indian blasts. President Clinton, his request to Sharif not to test rebuffed, vows sanctions.
30: Pakistan conducts one more nuclear test and says its series of tests is complete.
6: U.N. Security Council condemns India and Pakistan for carrying out nuclear tests, and urges the two nations to stop all nuclear weapons programs.
12: India and Pakistan invite each other for talks, but fail to agree on the agenda.
23: India suggests talks between the two countries' prime ministers at South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) summit in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
24: Pakistan agrees to talks with India in Colombo.
10: Indian Prime Minister, Atal BehariVajpayee offers Pakistan a no-first-use pact, economic cooperation, and appeals for its participation in joint efforts to achieve universal disarmament. Pakistan in turn says it is ready to sign a non-aggression treaty with India.

25: PremierVajpayee says in a magazine interview that India is committed to resolving differences with Pakistan through a bilateral dialogue. He also indicates that India could conduct further tests of its Agni intermediate-range missile.


21-22: Indian PM Vajpayee arrives in Lahore. Lahore Declaration signed between Vajpayee and Nawaz Sharif.

7: The Indian Army patrols claim having detected intruders on Kargil ridges in Held Kashmir. India begins operation to retake occupied positions
26: India launches air strikes against militants in Held Kashmir for the first time in 20 years and says it will continue to bomb militant infiltrators in Held Kashmir until it has driven them out. Pakistan troops on high alert in response.
27: The Indian Government confirms that two of its aircraft are lost during a series of air strikes against militants in Kashmir.
29: Pakistan proposes sending foreign minister Sartaj Aziz to India to ease tensions in the disputed Kashmir region.
31: India and Pakistan agree to hold talks over Kashmir in an effort to defuse escalating tensions.
3: Kashmir peace talks flounder as India promises to continue ground and air strikes against the alleged infiltrators and a senior Indian minister warns there is little point in peace talks with Pakistan.
5: India announces a pause in bombing raids in Kashmir.
8: Pakistan and India fix a date (June 12-13) for their first significant attempt to defuse the tension over Kashmir.
9: India continues its assault on suspected infiltrators holed up in the Himalayas with fresh air strikes, ahead of talks with Pakistan.
13: India and Pakistan end their talks on the fierce fighting in Kashmir without agreement on how to halt the conflict. Indian offensive in Kargil continues.
29: Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif returns from China, as a flurry of diplomatic activity aimed at ending the ongoing Kashmir conflict gets underway in India and Pakistan.
4: India announces it has taken the key Tiger Hill peak following an all-out assault, as it prepares to respond to a joint statement by Pakistan's prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and US President Bill Clinton that "concrete steps will be taken" to restore the Line of Control.
11: Kashmiri Mujahideen are reported to be leaving the mountains of Held Kashmir as both Pakistan and India claim victory in the two-month conflict.
12: The Pakistani Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, appeals for a permanent settlement of the Kashmir dispute, as fighting in the disputed territory dies down.
19: U.S. President Bill Clinton arrives in India, beginning his six-day visit to South Asia, partly in an attempt to ease relations between Pakistan and India over the disputed region of Kashmir.
25: Hizbul Mujahedeen, a Kashmiri militant group, allegedly pro-Pakistan, declares a unilateral ceasefire for three months in Held Kashmir.
3: India begins peace talks with Hizbul Mujahedeen, in Srinagar.
8: Hizbul Mujahedeen calls off its 2-week-old ceasefire and orders its forces to resume fighting against Indian troops.
19: Indian Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee announces that security forces will suspend combat operations against militants in Held Kashmir during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.
27: India puts a ceasefire into effect in Held Kashmir.
22: Prime Minister Vajpayee extends the unilateral ceasefire in Kashmir by three months.
23: Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee announces the end of the six-month military ceasefire against Kashmiri Mujahideen in Held Kashmir, while also inviting Pakistan Chief Executive, General Pervez Musharraf, to peace talks aimed at ending five decades of hostilities between the two countries.

28: India's peace negotiator for Kashmir, Krishan Chander Pant, visits the disputed territory to meet a cross-section of people from Pakistan and Kashmir. India refuses to yield any ground in talks and insists that the territory is an integral part of India, and rejects Pakistan's calls for a referendum on the future of Kashmir. Pakistan's Chief Executive, General Pervez Musharraf, formally accepts the Indian invitation for summit talks focused firmly on the Kashmir dispute.
18: Pakistan's Chief Executive, General Pervez Musharraf, announces a visit to India from July 14 to 16, for the first summit talks between the neighbouring states in two years.
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