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Old Saturday, April 12, 2008
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Default FPSC Screening Tests (Notes)

Area of Afghanistan * 6,47, 500 sq km
Area of Africa 30, 065,000 Sq. km (20.3 % of the world)
Area of Asia 44, 485, 900 sq. km (30% of the area of world)
Area of Bahrain * 620 sq km
Area of Land 57, 270, 000 sq miles
Area of Oceans 70.98 % (362, 033, 000 sq km)
Area of Russia 17,0 75, 400 sq. km
Area of USA, 4th largest country 9,166, 601 sq km (15 % of the area of the world)
Area of Vatican City 0.4 sq km (smallest country)
Birthplace of Buddha Lumbini (Nepal)
Birthplace of Churchill Blenheim (UK)
Birthplace of Democracy Ancient Greece (500 BC)
Birthplace of George Washington Wakefield
Birthplace of Mussolini Romagna
Birthplace of Napoleon Corsica (French island)
Birthplace of Saddam Hussain Tikrit village (Iraq) His father was a peasant.
Birthplace of Stalin Gori (Tiflis)
Coldest place Verkhoyansk, North-East Siberia
Deepest Lake of the World Lake Baikal in Southern Serbia with a depth of 1,743 m (5,714 ft)
Driest continent Antarctica
Driest place Atacama Desert in Chile
Fastest animal Tiger
Fastest bird Peregrine falcon
Fastest growing tree Albizzia Falcata
Fastest growing Plant Bamboo
Fastest thing in the world Light Its speed is 1,87,000 miles per second. Light can take six rounds of earth within one second.
First Abel Prize Jean-Pierre Serre (3rd June 2003)
First acting president of USA Vice-President George Bush (For eight hours when President Reagan underwent surgery)
First affiliated specialized agency of the UN International Labour Organization (ILO)
First African elected female Head of State Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, President of Liberia ( 16 Jan 2006)
First American in the orbit Senator John Herschel Glenn
First animal in space Laika, the dog sent by the Russians (1957)
First Arab country to recognize Israel Egypt
First Arab-Israel War 1948 – 1949
First Asian games at New Delhi in 1951
First Asian Hockey Championship in Tokyo in 1958 in which Pakistan defeated India.
First Asian Nobel Laureate Rabindre Nath Tagore
First Bachelor President of India Abdul Kalam
First Bachelor Prime Minister of India Atal Behari Vajpayee
First batsman to score 15000 runs Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar (30th June 2007)
First black African nation to gain independence Ghana (6th March 1957)
First black athlete to win a gold medal at the Winter Olympics Vonetta Flowers (2002 Olympics)
First black to win Nobel Prize Ralph Johnson Bunche (USA)
First black woman to win Academy Award for best actress Halle Berry (2002)
First blind governor of USA David Paterson (Since Mar 2008)
First blind person to scale Mount Everest Erik Weihenmayer (2000)
First book for blinds Gospel of St. Mark (1833)
First book of the world Printed in 1457 AD
First bowler to have 4 wickets on 4 balls Malinga of Sri Lanka
First boxer to win the world heavyweight championship title three different times Muhammad Ali Clay
First centenarian in British royal history Queen Elizabeth (August 04, 2000)
First Chancellor of Federal Germany Conrad Adenauer (1949 – 63)
First Chancellor of Germany after re-union Helmut Kohl
First child born of English parents in America Virginia Dare (18th Aug 1587)
First Christmas celebration December 25, AD 336 in Rome
First Christian Missionaries Apostles
First circumnavigation of Australia Matthew Flinders (1803 AD)
First colour photograph in 1861 by James Maxwell
First Communist State in West Cuba (under Fidel Castro)
First country to allow women the vote New Zealand (1893)
First country to allow women to stand for election Norway (1907)
First couple to scale Mount Everest Phil and Susan Ershler (16th May 2002)
First court poet of English language John Dryden
First cricketer to score more than 8,000 runs and 200 wickets in test as well as One-day International Jacques Callis of South Africa in Sep 2006
First currency note China
First Czar of Russia Ivan IV the terrible
First Dalai Lama Sonam Gyatso (Tibetan Buddhism Leader)
First democratically elected female Head of State Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, President of Iceland
First democratically elected president of Russia Boris Yeltsin (1991 – 1999)
First Democratic Arab country Egypt (1860)
First Deputy Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia Khalid
First dictator of Soviet Union V I Lenin
First Director of FBI John Edgar Hoover (1935 – 72)
First e-mail 1971 Ray Tomlinson (U.S.A.)
First Emperor of China Shi Huang (221 – 210 BC)
First Emperor of Japan Jimmu Tenno (7th Century BC)
First Emperor of Roman Empire Augustus
First Encyclopaedia “Historia Naturalis” (Natural History) by Pliny the Elder of Rome
First English Dictionary “ A Table Alphabetical of Hard Words” by Robert Cawdrey
First English Newspaper 29th Nov 1641
First Englishman to sail around the world Sir Francis Drake (1580)
First European to see the Pacific Ocean Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1513)
First FM Radio broadcast 5 Jan 1940 in USA
First film of President Reagan “Lovers on the air”
First film shown to public 23rd April 1896 in New York
First “First Lady” of America Martha Custis Washington,
First “First Lady” of USA to become Senate member Hillary Rodham Clinton
First G-77 summit conference 12 – 14th April 2000 in Havana (Cuba)
First general elections of South Africa April 1994 (Nelson Mandela’s ANC won)
First Governor General of India after 1947 Lord Mount Batten
First Governor-General of Nigeria (1960-3) Nnamdi Azikiwe
First head of state China Mao Zedong
First history book Great Universal History, was published by Rashid-Eddin of Persia in 1311
First Indian member of British Parliament Dada Bhai Nauru Jee
First Indian Woman in space Kalpana Chawala
First Indochina War 1946 to 1954 Between France and Vietnam
First king of Hejaz Hussain bin Ali
First King of Jordan King Abdullah Bin Hussain (1946-51)
First King of UK Egbert
First Labour Prime Minister of UK James Ramsay MacDonald
First Latin American country to achieve independence Haiti (1st Jan 1803)
First Live Internet Talk show “Tom Green Live” hosted by Tom Green
First major male actor of silent films Francis X. Bushman
First man in the space Yuri Gagarin a Soviet cosmonaut
First Marriage of a US President while in Office John Tyler with Julia Gardiner Tyler
First Mosque Quba
First murderer of the world Cain (Son of Adam) killed his younger brother Abel
First Muslim in US Congress Rep Keith Ellison
First Muslim Dynasty in India Slave Dynasty 1206 – 1290 AD
First Muslim Nobel Laureate Dr. Abdul Salam of Pakistan
First Muslim Nobel Laureate of Peace Anwar Al-Sadat
First Muslim Member of British Parliament Muhammad Sarwar from Glasgow (1997)
First Muslim Member of New Zealand Parliament Ashraf Chaudri of Pakistan
First Muslim Minister of United Kingdom Shahid Malik of Gujrat, Pakistan (Under Secretary for International Development in July 2007)
First Muslim President of General Assembly Nasr-ullah Intizam (Iran)
First Muslim President of India Dr. Zakir Hussain (13th May 1967 – 3rd May 1969)
First Muslim scientist to win a Nobel Prize Dr. Abdul Salam
First Muslim woman Chancellor Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan
First Muslim woman delegate in UN Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan
First Muslim woman President of UN General Assembly Sheikh Haya Rashid al-Khalifa (June 2006)
First Muslim woman Ambassador of the World Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali (Netherlands 1954)
First Muslim woman Chancellor Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan
First Muslim woman delegate in UN Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan
First Muslim woman governor of the world Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan (Sind)
First Muslim Woman PM Benazir Bhutto
First Muslim Woman Speaker National Assembly Dr. Fehmida Mirza of Pakistan (Mar 2008)
First National Government of the world King Menes of Egypt
First National Park Yellow Stone National Park USA
First Nobel Prizes 10th Dec 1901
First Nobel Prize in Chemistry Jacobus H. van’t Hoff of Netherlands (1969)
First Nobel Prize in Economics Ragnar Frisch of Norway and Jan Tin Bergen of Netherlands (1969)
First Nobel Prize in Literature (1901) Sully Prudhomme (France)
First Nobel Prize in Medicine Emil Adolph von Behring of Germany (1901)
First Nobel Prize of Peace Jean Henri Dunant (Switzerland) and Frederic Passy (France) in 1901
First Nobel Prize in Physics Wilhelm C. Roentgen of Germany (1901)
First novel The story of Genji, was written in 1007 by Japanese noble woman, Murasaki Shikibu
First Non-Italian Pope John Paul II (Poland)
First Nuclear disaster Charnubal
First Oscar Awards (Academy Awards) 1929
First person on the moon Neil Armstrong of USA (20 July 1969)
First person to be convicted by the process of DNA fingerprinting Colin Pitchfork (1988)
First person to circumnavigate the globe Ferdinand Magellan of Portugal (1519)
First person to fly an airplane over Antarctica Sir George Hubert Wilkins (Australia) in 1928
First Person to reach Antarctica Captain James Cook
First person to reach both poles Robert Swan
First person to reach North Pole Robert Edwin Peary (USA) on 6th April 1909
First person to reach South Pole Captain Ronald Amandsen of Norway (14th Dec 1911)
First Person to scale Mount Everest Edmond Hillary (New Zealand) and Tensing Norgay (Nepal) on 29th May, 1953
First person to scale Mount Everest twice Nawang Gombu Sherpa ( 20 May 1965)
First person to swim the English Channel Matthew Webb, ( 1875)
First person to walk in space Aleksei Leonov (USSR) during Voskhod 2 mission (1965)
First person to win a Nobel Prize twice John Bardeen
First postage stamp 1st May 1840 (England)
first president of Angola Agostinho Antonio Neto (1975 – 1979)
First President of Afghanistan Hamid Karazai (Nov 2004)
First President of Algeria Ahmed Ben Bella (1963 – 1965)
First President of Botswana Khama III (1966 – 80)
First President of East Timor Jose Alexander Gus Mao (April 2002)
First President of Egypt Mohammed Nequib
First President of German Republic Friedrich Ebert
First elected President of Ghana John Agyekum Kufuor (Jan 2001)
First president of Guinea-Bissau Luis de Almeida Cabral (1974)
First President of India Rajendra Prasad (26th Jan 1950 – 13th May 1962)
First president of Indonesia Sukarno (1945 – 1968)
First President of Kosovo Ibrahim Rugova (March 2002)
First President of Malawi Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1966 – 1994)
First President of Mexico Guadalupe Victoria
First President of Namibia Sam Nujoma (1990 – 2005)
First President of Nigeria Nnamdi Azikiwe (1963 – 66)
First President of Turkish Republic Mustafa Kamal Pasha (1934)
First President of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh (1945 – 1969)
First President of Zambia Kennith Kaunda (1961 – 91)
First Presidential elections in Afghanistan 9th Oct. 2004
First Prime Minister of Algeria Ahmed Ben Bella (1962–63)
First Prime Minister of Australia Edmund Barton (1901)
First Prime minister of Bangladesh Mujib-ur-Rehman
First Prime Minister of Canada John Alexander McDonald
First Prime Minister of China Zhou Enlai (1949 – 1976)
First Prime Minister of India *** Jawaharlal Nehru
First Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion
First prime minister of Malaysia Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj, Tunku
First Prime Minister of Sri Lanka D. S. Senanayake
First Prime Minister of UK Robert Walpole
First printed book in English Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye
First printing press in England William Caxton
First programmable computer of the world 1500-valve Colossus
First radio news program 8MK in Detroit, Michigan, USA (31 Aug, 1920)
First Railway Stockton to Darlington (England)
First recipient of liver transplant Lichirou Tsuruyama of Japan
First recipient of UN Human Rights Award Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan
First Regular Television Service Deutsche Fernshefunk (1935)
First Republican president of America Abraham Lincoln
First SAF games Kathmandu (Nepal)
First satellite in the space Sputnik 1 (1st October 1957)
First Secretary Gen. SAARC Abul Ahsan of Bengladesh (Jan 1987 – Oct 1989)
First Secretary Gen UN Trygve Lie Foreign Minister of Norway (1945 – 1952)
First Secretary Gen UN from Africa Boutros-Ghali (Egypt) 1992 – 96
First Secretary of state USA Thomas Jefferson
First sentence by telephone On 10th March 1876 Graham Bell told his assistant, “Mr. Watson, come here; I want you.”
First session of the General Assembly 10th Jan 1946 in London
First Sikh temple Kartarpur (Pakistan)
First skyscraper of the world Home Insurance Building in Chicago
First socialist ruler in American continent Fiedel Castro
First Song on the Sun “Happy birthday to you”
First street lights Philadelphia in 1757
First talkie film , “The Jazz Singer” released on 6th Oct 1927 in a cenima of New York. First sentence of the film was “Wait a minute!”.
First test match on 15-19 March 1877 at Melbourne between Australia and England
First test tube baby Louis Brown
First translation of Bible into English John Wickliffe
First tree on earth Date-palm
First Twenty20 World Cup winner India in Australia in Sep 2007 (Pakistan was runner up)
First underground Railway London (1863)
First united Chinese empire Shi Huangdi
First untouchable President of India Kocheril Raman Narayanan (1997 – 2002)
First Urdu Novel *** Mira’ at-ul-Uroos
First UN member to be expelled Taiwan
First US administrator for Iraq Paul Bremer
First US black ambassador to UN Andrew Young (1977)
First US President to die during presidency William Henry Harrison (He wore gloves to protect himself from infection, he nicknamed “Kid-glove”)
First US President to be impeached Andrew Johnson (1868)
First US President of win a Nobel Prize Theodore Roosevelt (1906)
First US soldier to be killed in Vietnam war James Davis (22nd Dec 1961)
First US state to ratify US constitution Delaware
First US state to secede from union South Carolina
First US Vice President to resign Spiro T. Agnew (Oct 11, 1973)
First US Vice President to serve as acting President George Herbert Walker Bush, when Ronald Reagan underwent surgery for three hours
First winter Olympics 1924 in Chamonix (France)
First woman Air vice Marshal in India P. Bindo Padhya
First US woman Ambassador Eugenie Moore
First woman cabinet member in UK Margaret Grace Bondfield
First woman Cabinet member in USA Frances Perkins (Secretary of labour)
First woman Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel
First woman Foreign Minister of UK Margaret Beckett (Since May 2006)
First woman in British Cabinet Margaret Bondfield
First woman in British Parliament Lady Astor
First woman Mathematician in the West Maria Gaetana Agnesi
First woman member of House of Commons Nancy Witcher Astor
First woman member of the House of Representatives Dame Enid Lyons
First woman Nobel Laureate of literature Selma Lagerlöf of Sweden (1909)
First woman president in the world Isabel Peron (Argentina): a dancer
First woman president of Argentina Cristina Kirchner (Dec 2007)
First woman President of India Pratibha Patil (Since July 2007)
First Woman President of Indonesia Megawati Sukarnoputri
First Woman President of Ireland Mary Robinson
First woman President of Philippine Aquino Corazon (1986 – 92)
First Woman President of Serbia and Montenegro Natasa-Micic (Since Jan. 2003)
First Woman President of UN General Assembly Vijayalakshmi Pandit (India)
First woman Prime Minister of Bangladesh Khalida Zia widow of General Zia-ur-Rehman, former President of Bangladesh
First woman Prime Minister of Canada Kim Campbell
First woman Prime Minister of Europe Margaret Hilda Thatcher of UK
First woman Prime Minister of France Edith Cresson
First Woman Prime Minister of Guyana Mrs Janet Jagan
First Woman Prime Minister of Israel Mrs Golda Meir
First Woman Prime Minister of New Zealand Helen Clark (Nov 1999)
First woman Prime Minister of South Korea Han Myung-Sook (Mar 2006)
First Woman Prime Minister of Sri Lanka Sirimavo Bandaranaike
First Woman Prime Minister of Turkey Cillar Tansu (1993 – 1996)
First woman Prime Minister in the Muslim world Benazir Bhutto
First Woman Prime Minister of the world Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka (1960)
First woman Speaker of British Lower House of Parliament Betty Boothroyd (1992)
First woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean by air Amelia Earhart
First woman to reach North Pole Mrs Fran Phipps (5th April 1971)
First woman to reach South Pole Group of Six (11th Nov 1969)
First woman to receive Nobel Prize in literature Selma Lagerlof (Sweden)
First woman to die on Mount Everest Hannelore Schmatz
First woman to sail around the world Bougainville
First woman to scale Mount Everest Junko Tabei (Japan)
First woman to scale Mount Everest without oxygen Lydia Bradey of New Zealand ( 14 Nov 1988)
First woman to swim across English Channel Gertrude Ederle
First woman to win an Olympic Gold Medal Charlotte Cooper (in 1900)
First woman US Secretary of State Madeleine Corbel Albright
First women Cricket match Inaugurated in 1934 when Australia and England
Greatest Russian poet Alexander Pushkin
Greatest scientific mind of the world Ian Stein
Greatest wing span of a bird Wandering Albatross (12 ft)
Heaviest hailstone 1 kg hailstone fell in District Gopal Ganj (Bangladesh)
Heaviest rainfall in one month Cherapoonje (India) 36, 614 inches in July 1861
Highest Military Award of Belgium Military Cross
Highest Military Award of Germany Knights Cross or Iron Cross
Highest Military Award of India Param-Vir-Chakra
Highest Military Award of Italy Medal for the valour
Highest Military Award of Japan Order of the rising sun
Highest Military Award of Russia Order of the Patriotic War
Highest Military Award of UK Victoria Cross
Highest Military Award of USA Medal of honour (about 1000 recipients)
Highest peak of Africa Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania)
Highest peak of Australia Mount Kosciusko (Canberra)
Highest peak of North America Mount McKinley (Alaska) (6,194 m)
Highest Peak of the world Mount Everest ((29028 feet / 8850 m),
Highest plateau in elevation Tibetan Plateau in China
Highest point of earth Mount Everest
Highest waterfall in the world Salt Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands of SE Venezuela (978 m)
Hottest place of the world Dalol Danaki (Ethiopia)
Largest active volcano Mauna Loa in Hawaii (USA)
Largest animal Blue Whales
Largest bay in the world Bay of Bengal
Largest bird in the world Ostrich of N Africa is the. It can run with a speed of 65 km/h.
Largest boiling river A hot spring in Deildartunguhver (Iceland) 99 C
Largest delta Sundarban in Bangladesh (8, 000 sq. miles)
Largest desert of the world Sahara Desert (it covers most of the North Africa)
Largest Dinosaur Sauropod
Largest egg Ostrich (6 to 8 inches)
Largest fish Whale Shark
Largest flower Rafflesia (Java, Indonesia)
Largest freshwater lake in Europe and Asia Lake Baikal in southern Siberia
Largest gold deposit Witwatersrand (South Africa)
Largest gulf in the world Gulf of Mexico
Largest island* Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat)
Largest island of Mediterranean Sicily
Largest leaves Raffia palm and Amazonian Bamboo palm (20 m)
Largest living bird Ostrich
Largest Manganese producer China and South Africa
Largest Mammal Blue Whale
Largest mountain range Himalaya Mountain range is the, which extends 2400 km
Largest natural lake Caspian Sea
Largest ocean in the world Pacific Ocean
Largest peninsula in the world Saudi Arabia
Largest planet in the Solar System Jupiter Its size is 1300 times that of earth.
Largest Pyramid Pyramid of King Khufu (533 ft high, covering 13 acre)
Largest river basin Amazon Basin
Largest river gorge Grand Canyon in USA
Largest river of South America Amazon (2nd largest in the world)
Largest river of USA Mississippi
Largest rubber producer Malaysia
Largest sale of land USA purchased Louisiana on 20th Dec 1803
Largest salt-water lake Caspian Sea (3, 72, 000 sq. km)
Largest sea in the world South China Sea
Largest sea mammal Whale fish
Largest Seaport Port of New York and New Jersey
Largest Star Betelgeuse
Largest tides Bay of Fundy (Canada)
Largest tin producer China
Largest wheat exporter USA
Language without alphabets Chinese
Last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus
Last Czar of Russia Nicholas II
Last drama of Shakespeare “The Tempest”
Last Governor General of Hong Kong Chris Patten (1992 – 1997)
Last King of Afghanistan Zahir Shah (1933 - 1973)
Last return of Halley’s Comet 1986
Last Russian to leave Afghanistan Commander 40th Army General-Lieutenant Boris Gromov (On 15th Feb 1989 at 10:30 am)
Last Sultan of Turkey Abdul Hameed II (1876 – 1909)
Longest canal Grand Canal of China (1,794 km)
Longest Cave ` Mammoth-Flint Ridge in Kentucky (U.S.A)
Longest Day of the year 21st June
Longest frontier ` Between USA and Canada
Longest glacier Lambert-Fisher Ice Passage in Antarctica (320 miles)
Longest insect Stick insect
Longest irrigation canal Karakumsky Kanal in Turkmenistan
Longest lasting rainbow Sheffield (UK) 6 hours in 1994
Longest mountain range Andes in South America
Longest reign as Queen in British history Queen Alexandrina Victoria (1837 – 1901)
Longest Reign in Europe ` Louis XIV, King of France for 72 years
Longest river of Afghanistan* Halmond
Longest River of Africa Nile (3600 Miles)
Longest river of Asia Chang Jiang (China)
Longest river of Australia Murray Darling (Australia)
Longest river of Europe Volga (Russia)
Longest River of North America Mississippi (USA)
Longest river of the world River Nile 6,741 km in length
Longest serving head of state ever Pharaoh Pepi II of Egypt 2278 – 2184 BC (94 years)
Longest shipping canal White Sea Baltic Canal in Baltimore (USA) 258 km
Longest solar eclipse 20th June 1955 (7 minutes and 8 seconds), West of Philippine. An eclipse of 7 minutes and 29 seconds will occur in the mid-Atlantic Ocean on 16th July 2186.
Longest swimming course English Channel of UK (564 km)
Loneliest Island of the World ` Tristan De Cunha
Loudest animal Blue Whale (188 decibels)
Lowest point of Europe Caspian Sea
Lowest point of the world Dead Sea
Lowest railway track @ The track passing through Seikan Tunnel (Japan)
Lowest test innings total` New Zealand (26 runs against England)
Lowest town The Israeli settlement of the Ein Bokek, on the shores of the dead sea.
Marathon race distance * 26 miles
Most abundant gas in the air Nitrogen 78 %
Most abundant insect Wasp
Most abundant metal in earth’s crust Aluminium
Most abundant mineral in human body ** Calcium (2½ pounds)
Most active volcano Kilauea in Hawaii (USA)
Most active volcanoes Indonesia
Most Alphabets Khmer (Cambodian) with 74 Alphabets
Most billionaires USA
Most Common Element Hydrogen is over 90% in the universe, 70.68 % in solar system and 36 % in the earth.
Most common punctuation *** Comma
Most consecutive Olympic individual Gold Medals` Al Oerter of USA (4 consecutive titles for Discus) and Carl Lewis of USA for long jump.
Most consecutive Olympic Gold Medals won by Woman` Birgit Fischer of Germany (4 gold medals for canoeing)
Most densely populated country ` Monaco
Most densely populated territory Macao (South China)
Most densely populated island ` Java, Indonesia
Most difficult language Basque (spoken in Spain and France)
Most extensive high plateau ` The Tibetan Plateau
Most famous painting of Pablo Picasso Guermica
Most infectious disease ` Pneumonic form of Plague
Most intelligent animal Chimpanzee
Most intelligent person Aristotle
Most islands Indonesia 17000 islands
Most lakes and rivers Canada (8.9 % of total area)
Most land frontiers China (14, 900 miles frontier with 12 countries)
Most languages Papua New Guinea
Most official languages Republic of South Africa (11)
Most played game of the world ` Football
Most poisonous metal Platinum
Most populous city ` Tokyo (Japan)
Most populous continent Asia
Most populous country China
Most populous country in Africa Nigeria
Most populous Islamic country Indonesia
Most populous metropolitan Mexico City
Most populous state of India Utter Pradesh
Most Populous State of USA California
Most Precious Metal Platinum
Most prolific cannibal Ratu Udre of Fiji (He ate between 872 to 999 people)
Most ribs ***
Most scaling of Mount Everest Sherpa of Nepal (12 times till July 2007)
Most Sculptures in world ` Lenin (1917 – 24 AD)
Most sparsely populated country ` Mongolia
Most sparsely populated island ` Greenland (renamed Kalaallit Nunaat)
Most species of insect Beetle
Most spoken language Mandarin (Chinese)
Most Successful Military Commander of Rome Julius Caesar
Most talented golfer of 20th century Jack William Nicklaus of USA
Most valuable painting of 20th Century “Woman with crossed arms” created by Pablo Picasso (55 Million Dollars)
Most Volcanoes ` Indonesia (127)
most widely used metal Iron
National anthem of USA “The Star-Spangled Banner”
National Emblem of Austria Eagle
National Emblem of Canada Maple Leaf
National Emblem of China Narcissus
National Emblem of Denmark Beach
National Emblem of Egypt Lotus
National Emblem of Finland Lion
National Emblem of France Lily
National Emblem of India Ashoka, Chakra, Lotus
National Emblem of Iran Rose
National Emblem of Kuwait Falcon
National Emblem of New Zealand Kiwi
National Emblem of Pakistan Crescent
National Emblem of Russia Bear
National Emblem of USA Eagle
National flower of Britain Rose
National flower of China Narcissus
National flower of Italy Lily
National game of USA Baseball
National Motto of USA “In God we trust”
National poet of Bangladesh Qazi Nazar-ul-Islam
National poet of Ireland Tom Moore
National poet of Scotland Robert Burns
Nationalization of Suez canal by Pres. Nasir *** 1956
Nearest planet from Sun Mercury
Nearest star Alpha Centauri (40 million km)
Nick Name of USA Uncle Sam
Nickname of UK John Bull
Oldest Airline K.L.M of Netherlands
Oldest Army Swiss Guard in the Vatican City (Rome,Italy)
Oldest capital city Damascus (Syria) founded in 2500 BC
Oldest Civilization Sumerian Civilization
Oldest era of world history Precambrian era (4500 million to 590 million years ago), it was followed by Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cainozoic.
Oldest flag Denmark
Oldest Language Chinese
Oldest living civilization China
Oldest Living Things creosote bushes (12000 years)
Oldest monarchy Imperial House of Japan (Since 11 Feb 660 BC)
Oldest national anthem Kimigayo of Japan
Oldest of the Seven Wonders of the World Pyramids in Giza (2575 BC – 2467 BC)
Oldest Parliament Iceland (since 930 AD)

Oldest person in the space John Herschel Glenn of USA
Oldest person to scale Mount Everest` Tamae Watanabe of Japan (63 years on 16th May 2002)
Oldest president of USA James Knox Polk
Oldest printed book “Hiraka Sutra” (868 AD)
Oldest republic (constitutional) San Marino (3rd Sep 301 AD)
Oldest Surviving Building Pyramids of Egypt
Oldest town Ariha (renamed as Jericho) in Jordan
Oldest US President` James Knox Polk
Oldest University of the world Al-Azhar University in Cairo
Oldest wooden structures
Oldest World No. 1 Tennis Player` Andre Agassi (33 years)
Only American Civil War battle fought on Northern soil Battle of Gettysburg
only animal who doesn’t drink water Koala bear
Only bird that can smell Kiwi
Only island state of USA Hawaii
Only land bird that can fly backward Hamming Bird
Only Mammal that can fly Bat
Only person to be awarded Nobel Prize and Lenin peace prize ` Mr. Seaw McBride
Only US president not elected to the presidency or vice presidency ` Ford
Only US President to be elected unanimously George Washington
Only US President to serve more than twice Franklin D. Roosevelt
Only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms Stephen Grover Cleveland
Only wonder of the 7 wonders still present Pyramids in Giza (Egypt)
Only world in English ending at “hth” Eighth
Parliament of Afghanistan Loya-Jirga
Parliament of Bahrain Consultative Council
Parliament of China National Peoples Congress
Parliament of Denmark Folketing
Parliament of Germany Bundesrat
Parliament of Iran Majlis
Parliament of Israel Knesset
Parliament of Japan Diet
Parliament of Nepal Rashriya-Panchayat
Parliament of Netherlands States General
Parliament of Poland Sejm
Parliament of Qatar Advisory Council
Parliament of Russia Duma
Parliament of Spain Corte’s
Parliament of Sweden Reichstag
Re-unification of Germany 3rd October 1990
Re-unification of Yemen 22nd May 1990
Sacred Scripture of Buddhism Tripitak
Sacred Scriptures of Hinduism Vedas, Bhagavad-Gita, Mahabharata, and Ramayana
Sacred scripture of Jews Taurat
Sacred Scripture of Sikhism Granth Sahib (Revered Book)
Sacred scripture of Zoroastrianism Zind-a-Besta and Avesta
Second Atom bomb target Nagasaki (Japan) on 9th August 1945
Second bowler to have 400 wickets in One-day Waqar Younis (Dec. 2002)
Second Grand Slam of Tennis Rod Laver (Australia)
Second Highest peak *** K2 (28250 Feet / 8611 m)
Second highest peak of Himalaya Kanchenjunga (28, 208 feet)
Second highest peak of Karakoram Gasherbrum I (26, 230 feet)
Second Holiest place for Buddhists Buddhgaya in Bihar
Second Intifada Since 29th September 2000
Second largest continent Africa
Second Largest country ` Canada (38, 51, 809 sq. miles)
Second Largest country of Europe ` Ukraine
Second largest desert Gobi (China)
Second largest freshwater lake ` Victoria Lake (Africa)
Second largest gold producer USA
Second largest island New Guinea
Second largest natural lake Superior Lake (Canada-USA)
Second largest ocean Atlantic ocean (Between Europe and North America)
Second Largest Oil Producer` Iraq
Second Largest religion *** Islam
Second Longest River ` Amazon (South America)
Second most intelligent creature Spider
Second most populous city Seoul (North Korea)
Second most populous continent Europe
Second most populous Country India
Second most populous Muslim country Pakistan
Second smallest continent Europe
Second Person to walk on the moon Buzz Aldrin
Second President of USA John Adams (1797-1801)
Second US President to be impeached William Jefferson Clinton
Second US president to win Nobel Prize Woodrow Wilson
Secondary Colours Purple, Green and Orange
Shortest coastline Monaco (3.49 miles)
Shortest day of year 22nd December
Shortest person Younis Edwan (2 ft 1.6 inches)
Shortest Presidency of a US President ` William Henry Harrison (31 days) died of Pneumonia
Shortest river Roe River (201 ft)
Shortest reign as British Queen ` Lady Jane Grey (9 days)
Shortest reign as Monarch ` Luis Filipe Crown Prince of Portugal20 minutes
Slowest Animal Snail (2 to feet per minute)
Slowest growing tree White cedar
Slowest creature Conch-Shell (Shellfish-snail)
Slowest planet Pluto
Smallest Animal Sloth
Smallest Bird Hummingbird
Smallest bone in human body Stapes or Stirrup bone in middle ear
Smallest continent Australia
Smallest country of Africa ` Gambia
Smallest country of former Soviet Republics ` Armenia
Smallest Islamic Country ` Maldives (300 sq. km)
Smallest mammal Pygmy Shrew (2.5 g)
Smallest ocean Indian Ocean
Smallest planet Pluto, diameter 2320 km
Smallest state of UAE Ajman
Smallest Satellite Deimos
Smallest Star Neutron Stars
Speed of tortoise 4.6 meter in a minute
Strongest bone in human body Femur
Strongest muscles in human body Jaw
Tallest Animal Giraffe
Tallest bird Ostrich
Tallest man Robert Pershing Wadlow (8 ft 11 inches)
Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin
Theory of Isotopes Soddy
Theory of Natural Selection Charles Robert Darwin
Theory of Relativity *** Albert Einstein
Theory of rise and fall of societies Ibn-e-Khaldun (In the preface of his book “Kitab-ul-Ibrar”)
Third highest peak of the world Kanchenjunga (Nepal-India, 28, 208 feet)
Third largest country China (36, 91, 314 sq. miles)
Third largest lake Lake Victoria (Kenya-Tanzania and Uganda)
Third longest river of the world *** ` Yangtze Kiang (China)
Third most populous city Sao Paulo (Brazil)
Third Reich (1933-1945) Dictatorship of Hitler in Germany
Unit of electric current Ampere
Unit of electrical resistance Ohm
Unit of electric power Watt
Upper house of British Parliament *** House of lords
Upper house of German Parliament Bundesrat
Upper house of Indian Parliament Rajia Sabha
Western most point of Africa Dakar
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Default Every Day Science

Blood in human body 7 – 8 litres
Breathing of a normal man 18 times in a minute
chromosomes in the human body 46
Densest planet Earth
First acid to be discovered Acetic Acid
First Aeroplane Flight Wilber Wright and Orwell Wright (USA) on 17th Dec 1903
First aeroplane flight across the English Channel Louis Bleriot
First airplane flight over the North Pole 9th May 1926 (Floyd Bennett and Richard E. Byrd)
First Alloy Bronze
First analogue computer Lord Kelvin
First Antibiotic Penicillin (1941) discovered by Alexander Fleming
First Atom Bomb J. Robert Oppenheimer
First Atomic Bomb use 6th August 1945 on Hiroshima (Japan)
First British woman physician Elizabeth Garrett Anderson
First Chinese astronaut in space Col. Yang Liwei (15 Oct 2003)
First clone of human beings 27th Dec. 2002
First computer programmer Augusta Ada
First Digital computer 1946
First draft of DNA Francis Crick and James Watson (1953)
First draft of the human genome sequence February 2001
First drawings of cells Robert Hooke (In his “Micrographia”)
First environment pact 10th June 2002 in Kuala Lumpur (ASEAN countries signed it)
First flight around the world 16th April 1924
First Flight of Space Shuttle 4th December, 1981 manned by John Young and Robert Crippen
First fruit tree Date-palm
First general-purpose orbiting observatory Hubble Space Telescope (Launched on April 24, 1990, named after US astronomer Edwin P. Hubble)
First Heart Transplant *** Dr. Christian Neethling Barnard (South Africa) Dec. 3, 1967
First Hydrogen bomb test (USA) Nov 1952 at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific
First liver transplant recipient Lichirou Tsuruyama of Japan (July 1889)
First lunar probe Luna 1, (Launched by USSR on 2nd Jan 1959)
First man to walk in space Alexei Leonov (Russian Astronaut in 1965)
First man to walk on the moon Neil Alden Armstrong USA on 21st July 1969
First man-made object to leave the solar system Pioneer 10
First modern woman doctor Elizabeth Blackwell
First non-stop balloon journey around the world Brian Jones and Bertrand Piccard (1999)
First non-stop solo flight across Atlantic Ocean Charles Augustus Lindbergh (USA)
First Nuclear test Alamogordo desert (New Mexico in USA) (July 16, 1945 before dawn)
First person in space Yuri Gagarin (USSR) on 12th April 1961, when he orbited the Earth aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft
First person to fly in a balloon Dr. Pilatre de Rozier
first person to walk on the moon Neil Armstrong (USA) on 21st July 1969
First programmable digital computer Z3, 1941
First programmable electronic computer Colossus, 1943
First programmer Ada Lovelace (1815 – 1852)
First Satellite in space Sputnik 1 (1st Oct 1957 by Russia)
First sighting of Halley’s Comet 240 BC by Chinese
First solid-state computer 1960 (USA)
First space shuttle flight Columbia (1981)
First spacecraft to orbit Saturn Cassini-Huygens July 1, 2004
First supersonic flight Captain Charles Elwood Yeager (14th Oct 1947)
First test tube baby A girl Louise Brown (July 25, 1978)
First talking film “Lights of New York” (1928)
First transcontinental flight 10th Dec 1911 (Flown by Calbraith P. Rodgers)
First unmanned landing on Mars 1971 by USA
First US space station Skylab-I
First US spacecraft to reach moon Ranger 4
First US woman in space Sally K. Ride (Challenger on 4th April 1983)
First weather satellite in orbit 17th Feb, 1959 (US Navy launched it)
First Woman in space Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (USSR) 16 – 19 June 1963
First woman physician of USA Elizabeth Blackwell
First woman to cross Atlantic Ocean by air Amelia Earhart
First woman to walk in space Svetlana Savitskaya ( 1984)
“Floating bodies law” Archimedes
Gas in balloon Helium
hardest thing present in a human body Dental enamel
Highest electrical conductivity Silver metal
Joints in human body 236
Largest bone Thigh Bone
Largest comet The object 2060 Chiron (discovered in 1977)
Largest invertebrate Giant Squid
Largest Meteor Crater New Quebec (Canada)
Largest Planet Jupiter (diameter 88,844 miles)
Largest Satellite ` Ganymede
Largest Star Betelgeuse (500 times greater than the Sun)
Least Abundant element Radio active gas Random
Least dense planet Saturn
Longest bone in human body Femur or Thighbone
Longest cell in human body Nerve cells (Neurons) 4 feet and 3 inches
Maximum duration of eclipse 7 minutes and 31 seconds
Most common element in the atmosphere Nitrogen
Most common element in the universe Hydrogen
most easily breakable bone of human body Collar bone
Most expensive metal Platinum
Nearest planet from the Sun Mercury
Normal blinking of human eyes 20,000 times a day
Normal Blood Pressure 120/80 mm Hg.
Normal breathing of human 20 times per minute
Normal Pulse rate 70 Per Min
Normal Temperature of human beings 98.4 F, 36.9 C
Oldest known disease Leprosy
Only birds that can see the blue colour Owls
Only food that does not spoil Honey
Only part of body without blood supply Cornea of the eyes
Only planet to rotate clockwise Venus
Planet nearest to the earth Venus
Planet with most moons Jupiter
Planet with most satellites Jupiter (39) (Diameter of 142, 800 km, 2.5 times more mass than all the other planets)
Planets with no moon Mercury and Venus
Planet with strongest magnetic field Jupiter
Ribs in human body 24
Shortest wavelength colour Blue
Smallest bone in human body Stapes or Stirrup bone
Strongest muscle masseter muscle, which is located in the jaw
Velocity of light 2,99,729.458 km
Water in human body 85%.
Weight of the brain of a man 4.8 ounces (Men) 4.4 ounces (Women)
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Default Units of Measurement

One Acre 43560 sq feet or 0.4047 hectares
One Carat 200 Milligrams
One Centimetre 0.3937 Inches
One fathom 6 feet
One Foot 0.3048 metres
One Furlong 660 feet
One Gigabyte (GB) 1024 Megabytes
One Grain 64.799 milligrams
One Hectare 2.471 Acres
One Horsepower 746 Watts/ 1000 Kilowatts
One inch * 2.54 Centimetres
One Kilobyte 1,024 bytes
One kilogram 2.205 Pounds
One Kilometre 0.621 Miles
One League 3 miles
One Light year 9461,000 million km ( 5875,000 million miles )
One Maund 40 seer
One Megabyte (MB) 1024 Kilobytes
One Megawatt one-lakh watts
One Meter 3.281 feet or 39.37 inches or 1.094 yards
One metric ton 1,000 kg
One micron One-thousandth of a millimeter
One Mile 1.609 km (0.6214 × km)
One nautical mile * 1853 meter
One Ounce * 28.350 grams
One Pound (lb) 16 ounces
One Quintal 100 kg
One Seer 0.9331 kg
One sq centimetre 0.155 sq inches
One sq inch 6.4516 sq centimeters
One sq kilometer 0.386 sq miles
One sq meter 10.764 sq feet
One sq mile 640 Acres
One sq yard 0.836 sq meter
One stone 6.350 kg
One Tola 11.636 grams
1000 thousands 1 million
1000 millions 1 billion
1000 billions 1 trillion
1000 trillions 1 quadrillion
1000 quadrillions 1 quintillion
1000 quintillions 1 sextillion
1000 sextillions 1 septillion
1000 septillions 1 octillion
1000 octillions 1 nonillion
1000 nonillions 1 decillion
One Yard 3 Feet or 0.9144 metre
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Default Inventions

Abacus China
Achromatic Lens John Dolland
Adding Machine Blaise Pascal
Addressing Machine J. S. Duncan
Air Brake George Westinghouse
Air Conditioning Willis H. Carrier
Air Plane with motor Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright
Air Plane Jet Engine Ohain
Air Pump Guericke
Arc Lamp Humphry Davy
Automatic Pilot Air Plane Sperry
Automobiles Dainler
Ball Point John Loud
Balloon J. Mand and Montogolfier
Barbed wire Joseph Glidden
Barometer Evangelista Torricelli
Bicycle Karl D Von Sauerbronn
Bifocal Lens Benjamin Franklin
Blast Furnace J. B. Neilson
Bleaching Powder ** Tennant
Blood Groups Kari Landsteiner
Bottle Making Machine Michael Owens
Camera (Photographic) Joseph N. Niepce
Carburettor Gottlieb Daimler
Cash Register James Ritty
Cathode Ray Tube William Crookes
Cement Joseph Aspdin
Chronometer John Harrison
Circuit Breaker *** Hilliard
Cloud Chamber Charles Wilson
Coloured Photography Frederic Ives and Gabriel Lippman
Condensed Milk Gail Borden
Cotton Gin Eli Whitney
Cultivator Henry Burden
Cylinder Lock Linus Yale Jr.
Dictating Machine Charles Taintor
Diesel Engine *** Rudolf C. K. Diesel
Digital Calculating Machine Charles Babbage
Double Chamber Donald Glaser
Dynamite *** Alfred B. Nobel
Electric Automobile William Morrison
Electric Battery Alessandro Volta
Electric Fan Wheeler
Electric Flat Iron Henry Seeley
Electric Generator * Hippolyte Pixii
Electric Motor Michael Faraday
Electric Railway Wemer Von Siemens
Electric Shaver Jacob Schick
Electric Stove William S. Hadaway
Electric Vacuum Cleaner James Spangler
Electric Welding Elihu Thomson
Electrocardiogram William Einthoven
Electronic Computer J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly
Electromagnet William Sturgeon
Electron Microscope Vladimir Zworykin
Electroplating Luigi Brugnatelli
Firearm Magazine Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson
Flying Shuttle Johan Kay
Fountain Pen *** Lewis E Waterman
Frequency Modulation (FM) Broadcasting Edwin Armstrong
Galvanometer Johann Scheweigger
Gas Burner Robert W. Bunsen
Gas Engine (four cycle) Nikolus August Otto
Gas Turbine Bourdin
Gramophone (disk record) Emile Berliner
Hard Water Soap Berstsch
Helicopter Igor Sikorsky
Homeopathic treatment Samuel Hahnemann
Hydraulic press Joseph Brahmah
Ice Machine Jhon Gorrie
Internal Combustion Automobile Gottlieb Daimler
Internal Combustion Engine Jean Lenior
Jet Engine Frank Whittle
Judo Dr. Jigoro Kano in Japan in 1882
Kaleidoscope David Brewster
Knitting Machine William Lee
Kodak Camera Eastman and Walker
Life Preserver John Edwards
Logarithm John Napier
Machine Gun Richard J. Gatling
Micrometer William Gascoigne
Microphone Alexander Graham Bell
Miner’s Safety Lamp Humphry Davy
Modern Bicycle Starley
Motion Pictures (Camera) Edward Muybridge and Johan D. Issacs
Mouse of computer Douglas Engel Bart
Motorcycle Edward Butler
Motor Scooter Greville Bradshaw
Mowing Machine Peter Gaillard
Multi-motored Air Plane Igor Sikorsky
Nylon Hippolyte
Oil Lamp with Glass Chimney Aime Argand
Paper *** Egyptians (3500 BC)
Paper Machine Dickinson
Parachute Louis S. Lenormand
passenger Elevator Elisha G. Otis
Pendulum Clock Christian Huggens
Photographic Paper Backeland Talbot
Photography Louis Daguerre
Photo phone Alexander Graham Bell
Photographic Camera Joseph N. Niepce
Piano *** Cristofori
Pluto Clyde Tom Baugh (1930)
Printing press Johann Gutenberg
Radar Robert Watson
Radium Mario Curie Pierre Curie
Railway engine Richard Trevithick
Razor blade King Camp Gillette
Refrigerator Ferdinand Carre
Revolver Smuel Colt
Rifle August Kotter
Rifle Bullet Claude E. Minie
Rocket Engine Goddard
Safety Match Gustave E. Pasch
Safety pin Walter Hunts
Scissors Leonardo Da Vinci
Screw Propeller John Stevens and John Ericsson
Sewing Machine Elias Howe
Shorthand system Sir Isaac Pitman
Slide Rule William Oughtred
Spectroscope Joseph Fraunhofer
Spinning Machine James Hargreaves
Stainless Steel Harry Brearley
Steamboat Jouffroy d’ Abbans
Stereoscope Charles Whealstone
Submarine Holland
Switchboard Edgar T. Holmes
Tank Emest D. Swinton
Telegraph (Wireless) Marconi
Telephone Alexander Graham Bell
Telescope Galileo
Television John L. Baird
Thermometer Galileo Galilie
Thermometer (Mercury) Gabriel D. Fahrenheit
Thermos Bottle James Dewar
Threshing Machine Michael Menzies
Time Recorder Bundy
Toaster (Automatic) Charles Strite
Torpedo Submarine David Bushnell
Tractor Robert Keeley
Transformer (AC) William Stanley
Transistor Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley
Trigonometry Hipparchus
Turbine Charles Parson
Typewriter Henry Mill
Vacuum Bottle James Dewar
Vacuum Cleaner I. W. McGaffey
Violin Andrea Amati
Washing Machine Alva J. Fisher
Weaving Machine John Kay
writing 5, 500 years ago
writing system for blind Luis Bralle (France)
X-Ray Roentgen
Zero digit Aryabhatta
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Default Books and Authors

A continent decides Lord Birdwood
A Dream Play August Strindberg
A Game of Hide and Seek Elizabeth Taylor
A Midsummer Night’s Dream William Shakespeare
A room of one’s own Virginia Woolf
A study of history Arnold Joseph Toynbee
A wreath of roses Elizabeth Taylor
Abu Bin Adhem Leigh Hunt
Adonais Shelley
Adventures of Tom Sawyer Mark Twain
Aeneid Virgil
Aerodrome Rex Warner
Aladdin and the Lamp Walter Crane
Alice’s adventures in the wonderland Lewis Carroll
All’s well that ends well Shakespeare
Ambassadors Henry James
America; the beautiful Katherine Lee Bates
An essay on criticism Alexander Pope
Ancient Mariner Coleridge
Anderson’s fairy tales Hans Christian Andersen
Animal Farm George Orwell
Anna Karenina Leo Tolstoy
Anthony and Cleopatra William Shakespeare
Armies of the Night Norman Mailer
Around the world in eighty days Jules Verne
Art of Cricket Don Bradman
As you like it Shakespeare
The Awakening Kate Chopin
Axel’s Castle Edmund Wilson
Ben Hur* Lewis Wallace
Between the Acts Virginia Woolf
Beyond good and evil Friedrich Nietzsche
Biographia Literaria S. T. Coleridge
Birth of Briton” Winston Churchill
Bleak House Charles Dickens
Bridge of time Sarojini Naidu
Brighton Rock Graham Greene
Canon of Medicine Avicenna
Canterbury Tales Geoffrey Chaucer
Carbury Family Anthony Trollope
The castle Franz Kafka
Castle of Otranto Horace Walpole
Christabel S. T. Coleridge
Christmas Carol Charles Dickens
Civilization on Trial Arnold Toynbee
Clarissa: or, The History of a Young Lady Samuel Richardson
Cold Comfort Farm Stella Gibbons
Comedy of Errors* William Shakespeare
Communist Manifesto Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
The complete angler Izaak Walton
The Conquest of Happiness Bertrand Russell
Cranford Elizabeth Gaskell
Creative Evolution * Henry Bergson
Creditors August Strindberg
Crime and Punishment Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Culture and Anarchy Matthew Arnold
Daffodils William Wordsworth
Daisy Miller Henry James
Dance of death Wystan Hugh Auden
Dance to the Music of Time Anthony Powell
Das Capital Karl Marx
David Copper field Charles Dickens
The Death of Ivan Ilyich Leo Tolstoy
Decameron Boccaccio
Decline and fall of the Roman Empire Gibbon
Dialogues Plato
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Rousseau
Divine Comedy Dante (Italy)
Dr Zhivago Boris Pasternak
Don Quixote Cervantes (Spanish)
Dracula Bram Stoker
Dynasts Thomas Hardy
East to West: A Journey Round the World Arnold Toynbee
Emma Jane Austin
Essay on man Alexander Pope
The Faerie Queen Edmund Spenser
Far fetched fables George Bernard Shaw
Far from madding crowd Thomas Hardy
Farewell to cricket Don Bradman
The father August Strindberg
Flowers of evil Baudelaire
For the term of his natural life Marcus Clarke
For Whom the Bell Tolls Earnest Hemingway
Frankenstein Mary Shelley
Free Fall William Golding
Freedom in exile Dalai Lama
French Revolution Thomas Carlyle
From Here to Eternity James Jones
The Ghost Sonata August Strindberg
Gitanjali Rabindranath Tagore
Go tell it on the mountain James Baldwin
Golden Ass) Lucius Apuleius
Gone with the wind Margaret Mitchell
Good Soldier Ford Madox
Great contemporaries Winston Churchill
Great Expectations Charles Dickens
Green Book Moammer Qaddafi
Gulistan Sheikh Sa’adi
Gulliver’s travels * Jonathan Smith
Hamlet Shakespeare
Hard times Charles Dickens
Harry Porter and the deathly hallows Mrs. J.K. Rowling
Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad
The Heart of the matter Graham Greene
Hellenism: The History of a Civilization Arnold Joseph Toynbee
Heroes and hero-worship Thomas Carlyle
Heroic in History Thomas Carlyle
Hiroshima John Hersey
History of Arabs Philip K Hitti
History of England Thomas Macaulay
History of English Literature Hippolyte Taine
History of Mr. Polly H.G. Wells
The Hobbit J. R. R. Tolkien
Hound of the Baskervilles Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Human Comedy Honoré de Balzac
The Idiot Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Iliad Homer
Importance of Being Earnest Oscar Wilde
In Cold Blood Truman Capote
In Memoriam Lord Alfred Tennyson
The island of Dr. Moreau H. G. Wells
The informer Liam O Flaherty
Ivanhoe Sir Walter Scott
Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte
Joan of Arc George Bernard Shaw
Joseph Andrews Henry Fielding
Jude the Obscure Thomas Hardy
Julius Caesar Shakespeare
Jungle book Rudyard Kippling
Kidnapped Robert Louis Stevenson
Kim Rudyard Kippling
King Lear William Shakespeare
Kipps H. G. Wells
Kulliyat Faizi
L’Allergo John Milton
‘La Belle Dame sans Merci’ John Keats
Lady Chatterley’s Lover D. H. Lawrence
Last Exit to Brooklyn Hubert Selby
Le Morte Darthur Sir Thomas Malory
Leaves of Grass Walt Whitman
The legend of sleep Hollow Washington Irving
Light of Asia Sir Edwin Arnold
Little women Louisa May Alcott
Long Walk to Freedom Nelson Mandela
Lord of rings J. R. R. Tolkien
Lost generation John Dos Passos
Lost Horizon James Hilton
The lost world Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Love story Erich Segel
Love’s cure Beaumont and Fletcher
Love’s labour lost Shakespeare
Love’s pilgrimage Upton Sinclaire
Lucky Jim Kingsley Amis
Madame Bovary Gustave Flaubert
Man and superman George Bernard Shaw
Macbeth William Shakespeare
Mansfield Park Jane Austin
Masnawi Maulana Room and Hafiz Tabrizi
Mayfair Michael Arien
Measure for measure William Shakespeare
Meeting by the River Christopher Isherwood
Memoirs Richard Nixon
Merchant of Venice Shakespeare
The merry adventures of Robin Hood Howard Pyle
Micrographia Robert Hooke (1665)
Middle March George Eliot
Mien Kemp Adolf Hitler
Mill on the Floss George Eliot
Miss Julie August Strindberg
Moby Dick Herman Melville
Moonstone Wilkie Collins
The Mouse Trap Dame Agatha Christie
Much Ado about nothing William Shakespeare
Murder of Roger Ackroyd Dame Agatha Christie
My land, my people Dalai Lama
My Life Bill Clinton
Naked and the Dead Norman Mailer
Nakshikanthar (Bengali) Jasim-ud-din
New Arabian Nights R. L. Stevenson
Night and Day Virginia Woolf
Nineteen Eighty – Four George Orwel
Northanger Abbey Jane Austin
Nostromo: A Tale of the Seaboard Joseph Conrad
Notes from the underground Fyodor Dostoevsky
Novum Organum Francis Bacon
Ode to west wind P. B. Shelley
Odyssey Homer
Of Human Bondage W. Somerset Maugham
Old man and the sea Earnest Hemingway
Oliver Twist Charles Dickens
On the sublime Longinus
Origin of Species Charles Darwin
Oroonoko or the Royal Slave Aphra Behn
Othello William Shakespeare
Our Mutual Friend Charles Dickens
Outline of the history of the world H. G. Wells
Pale fire Vladimir Nabokov
Palestine; peace not apartheid Jimmy Carter
Pamela Samuel Richardson
Paradise lost John Milton
Paradise Regained John Milton
Path to power Margaret Thatcher
Persuasion Jane Austin
Pick wick papers Charles Dickens
The picture of Dorian Gray Oscar Wilde
Pilgrim’s Progress John Bunyan
Pleasant and unpleasant George Bernard Shaw
Portrait of a Lady Henry James
Portrait of Artist as a Young Man James Joyce
Pride and prejudice * Jane Austin
The Prince Machiavelli
Princess of Cleves Madame de La Fayette
Principia Isaac Newton
Pygmalion George Bernard Shaw
Rape of the lock Alexander Pope
The Raven Edgar Allan Poe
The Recovery Avicenna
The Red and the Black Stendhal
The red badge of courage Stephen Crane
Remembrance of Things Past Marcel Proust
Republic Plato
Resurrection Tolstoy
Revelations of Divine Love Julian
Revolution and independence William Wordsworth
The ring and the book Robert Browning
Road to freedom Bertrand Russell
Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe
Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare
Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam Edward Fitzgerald
Saturday Night and Sunday Morning Alan Sillitoe
The Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne
‘The Scholar Gipsy’ Matthew Arnold
Sense and Sensibility Jane Austin
Seven pillars of wisdom John Ruskin
Shakuntala Kalidas
The Ship of Fools Alexander Barclay
"The Sleeping Beauty" Charles Perrault
Social Contract Jean Jacques Rousseau
Sohrab-o-Rustam * William Blake
Songs of experience William Blake
Songs of innocence William Blake
Sons and Lovers D. H. Lawrence
Subjection of Women John Stuart Mill
Sword of honour Even Waugh
System of logic John Stuart Mill
The Tale of Genji Murasaki Shikibu
Tale of two cities * Charles Dickens
Tales of unrest Joseph Canvas
Taming of the Shrew Shakespeare
Tempest Shakespeare
Tenant of Wild fell Hall Charlotte Bronte
Theory of Moral Sentiments Adam Smith
The Thirty Nine Steps John Buchan
Three ghost stories Charles Dickens
Time Machine Herbert George Well
Tom Jones Henry Fielding
Tragic History of Doctor Faustus Christopher Marlow
Tristram Shandy Laurence Sterne
Turn of the Screw Henry James
War of the worlds H.G. Wells
Waste Land T. S. Eliot
Wild Goose Chase Rex Warner
Winter tales Shakespeare
Tom Jones Henry Fielding
Travels in Arabian deserts C. M. Doughty
Treatise of human nature Allan Octavian Hume
Treasure island R. L. Stevenson
The Trial Franz Kafka
Twelfth Night William Shakespeare
Ulysses James Joyce
Under the Volcano Malcolm Lowry
Utopia Sir Thomas Moore
Vanity Fair William Thackeray
Vanity of human wishes Dr. Samuel Johnson
The Voyage Out Virginia Woolf
War and peace * Leo Tolstoy
The War of the Worlds H. G. Wells
Waste Land T.S. Eliot
The Waves Virginia Woolf
The way of all flesh Samuel Butler
Way of the world Congreve
Wealth of nations Adam Smith
Witness for the Prosecution Dame Agatha Christie
Women in love D.H. Lawrence
Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte
“Ahya-e-Uloom-Ud-Din” Imam Ali Ghazali
“Anwar-ut-Tanzil” Allama Baidawi
“Arab Ka Chand” Swami Luxman Prasad
“Aurang Shahi” Hazrat Sultan Bahu
“Awarif-ul-Ma’arif” Umar Bin Muhammad Shahab-ud-din Soharwardi
“Bahishti-Zewar” Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
“Chemia-e-Sa’adat” Imam Ali Ghazali
“Dalil-ul-Arifin” Khawaja Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiar Kaki
“Dastoor-ul-Tib” Bu Ali Sina
“Fauz-ul-Kabir” Shah Wali-ullah
“Fawaid-e-Fuad” Amir Hassan Sijzi
“Fusus-ul-Hikmah” Ibn Arabi
“Futuh-ul-Baldan” Balazari
“Futuh-ul-Ghaib” Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani
“Al-Futuhat-ul-Makkiya” Ibn-e-Arabi
“Fuyuz-ul-Harmain” Shah Wali-ullah
“Ghalba-e-Room” Maulana Zafar Ali Khan
“Ghaniat-ut-Talibin” Abdul Qadir Jilani
“Hidaya” Maulana Burhan-ud-din Mehmood Balkhi
“Hujjat-ullah-Al-Baligha” Hazrat Shah Wali-ullah
“Isbat-un-Nabuwwat” Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani
“Itqan-Fi-Uloom-ul-Quran” Allama Jalal-ud-Din Siyuti
“Iqtisad-Fil-Aitiqad” Imam Ali Ghazali
“Al-jabr wa’l-muqabala” Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khawarizmi
“Al-Jihad Fil Islam” Maulana Maududi
“Al-Judari-wa-al-Hasbah” Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Zakaria al-Razi
“Hujatulla al-Baligha” Sha Wali-ullah
“Hussain o Yazid” Imam Ibn-e-Timia
“Kanz-ul-Iman” Ahmed Raza Khan Brelvi
“Kashf-ul-Asrar” Hazrat Sultan Bahu
“Kashf-ul-Mahjoob” Hazrat Ali Hajveri Data Ganj Bux
“Kitab-ul-Baldan” Yaqubi
“Kitab-ul-Haiwan” Al-Jahiz
“Kitab-ul-Hawi” Abu Bakar Muhammad Al-Razi
“Kitab-ul-Ibrar” Ibn-e-Khaldun
“Kitab-ul-Kharaj” Imam Abu Yousaf (RA)
“Kitab-ul-Ma’arif” Ibn-e-Qutaiba
Author of “Kitab-ul-Manazir” Ibn-ul-Haitham
“Kitab-ul-Mausiqi” * Al-Farabi
“Kitab-ul-Shifa” Bu Ali Sina
“Kitab-ul-Tanbih” Abul Hassan Ali Masudi
“Kitab-us-Surat-ul-Ard” Al-Khawarizmi
“Kulliyat” Ibn Rushd
“Life of the prophet (SAW)” Ibn Hisham
“Mad-o-Jazar-e-Islam” Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali
“Masharaq-ul-Anwar” Imam Hassan al-Saghani
“Mauta Imam Malik” Imam Malik Bin Anas
“Mohsin-e-Insaniat” Naeem Siddiqui
“Muhammad Ki Sarkar” Sardar Godart Singh
“Muhammad; the prophet” Muhammad Ali
“Muqaddamah” Ibn Khaldun
“Noor-ul-Quran” Mirza Ghulam Ahmed Qadiani
“Personal Muhammadan Law” Justice Syed Ameer Ali
Al-Qanoon-Fit-Tib” Bu Ali Sina
“Qaseeda Burda Sharif” Imam Sharf-ud-din Al-Bosiri
“Rahat-ul-Quloob” Khawaja Nizam-ud-din Auliya
“Rasool-e-Rehmat” Maulana Azad
“Reconstruction of religious thought in Islam” * Allama Muhammad Iqbal
“Safar Nama Sheikh-ul-Hind” Hussain Ahmed Madni
“Shah Nama” Firdausi
“Shah-Nama-e-Islam” Hafeez Jalandhri
“Shahadat-e-Haq” Maulana Maududi
“Shamail-e-Trimzi” Imam Muhammad Tirmizi
“Si’r-ul-Ajam” Shibli Nu’mani
“Sir-ul-Asrar@” Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakaria al-Razi
“Sirat-e-Mustaqim” Syed Ahmed Brelvi
“Sirat-un-Nabi” Maulana Shibli Nomani
“Sirat-ur-Rasulullah (SAW)” Ibn Ishaq
“Spirit of Islam” Justice Syed Ameer Ali
“Sunan Bahiqi” Abu Bakr Ahmed Al Hassan Bahiqi
“Sunan Dar Qatni” Abul Hassan Ali Dar Qatni
“Sunan Darmi” Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Abdul Rehman Darmi
“Sunan Hakim” Muhammad Hakim
“Tafhim-ul-Quran” Maulana Abul A’la Maudoodi
“Tafseer-e-Haqqani” Maulvi Abdul Haq
“Tafseer-e-Kabir” Fakhruddin Muhammad Razi
“Tafseer-e-Kashshaf” Abul-Qasim Mahmud Zamakhshari
“Tafseer-e-Mazahri” Qazi Sana-ullah Panipati
“Tafseer-e-Tibri” Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Tibri
“Tafseer Ibn-e-Kathir” Abul-Fida Ismail Ibn-e-Kathir
“Taqwiyyat-ul-Iman” Shah Ismail Shaheed
“Tarikh-e-Kabir” Ibn-e-Asakir
“Tauhid-e-Shahudi” Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani
“Tazkira-tul-Aulia” Khawaja Farid-ud-din Atar
“Aab-e-Hayat” * Muhammad Hussain Azad
“Aag Ka Darya” Qura-tul-Ain Haider
“Afqar-e-Iqbal” Dr. Javed Iqbal
“Akhir-e-Shab Ke Hamsafar” Qura-tul-Ain Haider
“Alipur ka Aili” Mumtaz Mufti
“Anarkali” Imtiaz Ali Taj
“Angaray” Asmat Chughtai
“Apna Greban Chak” Dr. Justice ® Javed Iqbal
“Arbab-e-Sukhan” Maulana Hasrat Mohani
“Azadi ka Safar: Tehrik-e-Pakistan aur Muslim Khawatin” Begum Salma Tassaduq Hussain
“Azeem Almiya” Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
“Bostan” Sheikh Sahdi
“Chah-e-Yousaf Se Sada” Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani
“Chandni Begum” Qura-tul-Ain Haider
“Chadar Char Deewari Aur Chandni” Bushra Rehman
“Dast-e-Saba” Faiz Ahmed Faiz
“Dasht-e-Wafa” Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi
“Daughter of the East” Benazir Bhutto
“Din aur Dastan” Intizar Hussain
“Doosra Qadam” Bano Qudsia
“Ek Chadar Maili Si” Rajindar Singh Bedi
“Fasana-e-Azad” Rattan Nath Sarshar
“Ghazal Dar Ghazal” Habib Jalib
“Ghazliat” Hafiz Shirazi
“Glimpses into the corridors of Power” Gohar Ayub (2007)
“Great Tragedy” Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
“Hairat Kada” Ashfaq Ahmed
“Heer Ranjha” Waris Shah
“In the line of fire” Gen. Parvez Musharraf
“Jangloos” Shaukat Siddiqui
“Javed Nama” Allama Iqbal
“Khak Aur Khoon” Nasim Hejazi
“Khazan ke akhri din” Amjad Islam Amjad
“Khuda Ki Basti” Shaukat Siddiqui
“Khushbu” Parveen Shakir
“Kulliyat (Urdu)” Akbar Hussain
“London Ki Ek Raat” Sajjad Zaheer
“Mati Ka Darya” Mirza Adeeb
“Military Inc: Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy” Dr. Ayesha Siddiqa (2007)
“Mir’at-ul-Uroos” Deputy Nazir Ahmed
“Mirza Sahiban” Hafiz Barkhurdar
“Muqalat-e-Sir Syed” Maulana Ismail Panipatti
“Muqadama-e-Kashmir” Sardar Abdul Qayum Khan
“Muqaddama-e-Shi’ro-Sha’iri” Altaf Hussain Hali
“Musaddas-e-Hali” Altaf Hussain Hali
“My country, my life” L. K. Advani (2008)
“The myth of independence” Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
“Naqsh-e-Faryadi” Faiz Ahmed Faiz
“Nazaray” Krishan Chandar
“Pairahan” Qateel Shifai
“Pakistan: at a glance” Syed Sharif-ud-din Pirzada
“Pakistan Culture aur Qaumi Tashakhus Ki Talash” Faiz Ahmed Faiz
“Pakistan: the heart of Asia Liaquat Ali Khan
“Punjab ka Muqadma” Muhammad Hanif Ramay
“Saif-ul-Mulook” Mian Muhammad Bakhsh
“Sassi Punnoon” * Hashim Shah
“Shah-Jo-Risalo” Shah Abdul Lateef Bhitai
“Shahab Nama” Qudrat-ullah Shahab
“Shuhla-o-Shabnam” Josh Malih Abadi
“Sohni Mehnwal” Fazal Shah
“Tauba-tul-Nusuh” Deputy Nazir Ahmed
“Tazkirah” Allama Inayat-ullah Al-Mashriqi
“Thoughts and afterthoughts” Altaf Gohar
“Udas Naslain” Abdullah Hussain
“Umra-o-Jan-Ada” Mirza Muhammad Hadi Ruswa
“Ungint Suraj” Majeed Amjad
“Urdu-e-Mu’alla” Assad-ullah Khan Ghalib
“Whispers of the desert” Fatima Bhutto
“Ya Khuda” Qudrat-ullah Shahab
“Yadgar-e-Ghalib” Altaf Hussain Hali
Zindan Nama Faiz Ahmed Faiz
“Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto: Bachpan Se Takhta-e-Dar Tak” Salman Tasir
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Default Capitals

Afghanistan Kabul
Albania* Tirana
Algeria Algiers (El Djazair)
Andorra Andorra La Vela
Angola Luanda
Antigua Barbuda St. John
Argentina Buenos Aires
Armenia Yerevan
Australia Canberra
Austria Vienna
Azerbaijan Baku
Bahamas * Nassau
Bahrain* Manama
Bangladesh Dhaka
Belarus Minsk
Belgium Brussels
Belize Belmopan
Benin Porto-Novo
Bermuda Hamilton
Bhutan Thimphu
Bolivia * La Paz
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo
Botswana Gaborone
Brazil Brasilia
Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgaria Sofia
Burkina Faso Ouagadougou
Burundi Bujumbura
Burma (Myanmar) Yangoon (Rangoon)
Cambodia Phnom Penh
Cameroon Yaoundé
Canada Ottawa
Central African Republic Bangui
Chad N’Djamena
Chile * Santiago
China Beijing
Colombia Bogotá
Comoros Moroni
Congo (Zaire) Kinshasa
Costa Rica San Jose
Croatia Zagreb
Cuba Havana
Cyprus Nicosia
Czech Republic Prague
Denmark Copenhagen
Djibouti Djibouti
Dominica Roseau
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo
Ecuador Quito
East Timor Dili
Ecuador Quito
Egypt Cairo
El Salvador San Salvador
Equatorial Guinea Malabo
Eritrea A Samara
Estonia * Tallinn
Ethiopia Addis Ababa
Fiji Suva
Finland * Helsinki
France Paris
Gabon Libreville
Gambia Banjul
Georgia Tbilisi
Germany Berlin
Ghana Accra
Greece * Athens
Grenada Saint George
Guatemala Guatemala City
Guinea Conakry
Guinea Bissau Bissau
Guyana George Town
Haiti Port-au-Prince
Honduras Tegucigalpa
Hungary Budapest
Iceland Reykjavik
India New Delhi
Indonesia Jakarta
Iran Tehran
Iraq Baghdad
Ireland * Dublin
Israel Tel Aviv
Italy Rome
Jamaica Kingston
Japan Tokyo
Jordan Amman
Kazakhstan Astana
Kenya Nairobi
Kiribati Tarawa
Kossovo Pristina
Kuwait Kuwait City
Kyrgyzstan Bishkek
Laos Vientiane
Latvia Riga
Lebanon Beirut
Lesotho Maseru
Liberia Monrovia
Libya * Tripoli
Liechtenstein Vaduz
Lithuania * Vilnius
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Macedonia Skopje
Madagascar Antananarivo
Malawi Lilongwe
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Maldives Male
Mali Bamako
Malta Valletta
Marshal Islands Majuro
Mauritania Nouakchott
Mauritius * Port Louis
Mexico Mexico city
Micronesia Palikir
Moldova Chisinau
Monaco Monaco
Mongolia Ulan Bator
Morocco Rabat
Mozambique Maputo
Namibia Windhoek
Nauru Yaren
Nepal Kathmandu
Netherlands * Amsterdam
New Zealand Wellington
Nicaragua Managua
Niger Niamey
Nigeria Abuja
North Korea Pyongyang
Norway Oslo
Oman Muscat
Pakistan Islamabad
Panama Panama City
Papua New Guinea Port Moresby
Paraguay Asuncion
Peru Lima
Philippines Manila
Poland Warsaw
Portugal Lisbon
Qatar Doha
Romania Bucharest
Russia Moscow
Rwanda * Kigali
Samoa Apia
San Marino San Marino
Saudi Arabia * Riyadh
Scotland Edinburgh
Senegal Dakar
Seychelles Victoria
Sierra Leone Free Town
Singapore Singapore City
Slovakia Bratislava
Slovenia Ljubljana
Solomon Islands Honiara
Somalia * Mogadishu
South Africa Cape Town/ Pretoria
South Korea Seoul
Spain Madrid
Sri Lanka Colombo
Sudan Khartoum
Suriname Paramaribo
Swaziland Mbabane
Sweden * Stockholm
Switzerland Bern
Syria Damascus
Taiwan Taipei
Tajikistan Dushanbe
Tanzania Dar-us-Salaam/ Dodoma
Thailand Bangkok
Togo Lome
Tonga Nuku’alofa
Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-Spain
Tunisia Tunis
Turkey Ankara
Turkmenistan Ashgabat
Tuvalu Funafuti
Uganda Kampala
Ukraine Kiev
United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi
United Kingdom London
United States Washington D.C.
Uruguay Montevideo
Uzbekistan Tashkent
Vanuatu Vila
Vatican City Vatican City
Venezuela Caracas
Vietnam Hanoi
Yemen Sana’a
Yugoslavia * Belgrade
Zambia Lusaka
Zimbabwe Harare
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Default Cities on Sea Borders

Abadan (Iran) Shatt-al-Arab
Agra Jumna
Amsterdam Amstel
Attock Indus
Baghdad Tigris
Bahawalpur Sutlej
Bangkok Menam
Basra Shatt-al-Arab
Bedford (UK) Ouse
Belgrade Danube
Berlin Spree
Bonn Rhine
Brussels Senno
Bucharest Dombovita
Budapest (Hungary) Danube
Buenos Aires Rio-de-la-Plata
Cairo Nile
Chittagong Karnaphuli
Damascus Barada
Delhi Jumna
Dhaka Boori Ganga
Dublin Liffey
Glasgow Clyde
Hamburg (Germany) Elbe
Hyderabad Indus
Kansas Missouri
Khartoum Nile
Kiev Knieper-densa
Kolkata Hoogli
Lisban Tagus
Liverpool Mersey
London Thames
Lucknow Gumti
Madrid Manganares
Moscow Moskva River
Mosul (Iraq) Tigris
Oklahama (USA) North Canadian
Ottawa Ottawa
Paris Seine
Patna Ganges
Philadelphia Delaware
Prague Vltava
Riga Daugaua
Rohri Indus
Rome Tiber
St. Petersburg Neva
Sukkar Indus
Surat (India) Tupti
Tokyo Sumida
Varanci Ganges
Vienna Danube
Warsaw Vistula
Washington Potamac
Wazirabad Chenab
Zagreb Sava
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Default Currencies

Afghanistan Afghani
Algeria Algerian Dinar
Argentina Argentine Peso
Australia * Australian Dollar
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani Manat
Bahrain Bahraini Dinar
Barbados Dollar
Belgium Euro
Benin CFA Franc
Bolivia Peso
Botswana Pula
Brunei Bruneian Dollar
Burkina Faso CFA Franc
Burundi Franc
Cameroon CFA Franc
Central African Republic CFA Franc
Chile Chilean Peso
Colombia Colombian Peso
Congo * Congolese Franc
Croatia Kuna
Cyprus Pound
Denmark Danish Krone
Dominican Republic Peso
Ecuador Sacre
El Salvador Colon
Estonia Estonian Kroon
Fiji Dollar
France Euro
Gambia Dalasi
Germany Euro
Greece Euro
Guatemala Quetzal
Guinea Bissau Peso
Haiti Gourde
Hong Kong Hong Kong Dollar
Hungary Forint
India Indian Rupee
Iran * Riyal
Ireland Euro
Italy Euro
Japan Yen
Kazakhstan Tenge
Kiribati Australian Dollar
Kyrgyzstan Som
Latvia Latvian Lat
Lesotho Maloti
Libya Libyan Dinar
Luxembourg Luxembourg Franc
Madagascar Malagasy Franc
Malaysia Ringgit
Mali CFA Franc
Marshal Islands Dollar
Mauritius Rupee
Moldova Moldovan Leu
Mongolia Tugrik
Mozambique Metical
Namibia Rand
Nepal * Nepalese Rupee
New Zealand * New Zealand Dollar
Niger CFA Franc
North Korea North Korean Won
Oman Omani Riyal
Papua New Guinea Kina
Peru * New Sol
Poland Zloty
Qatar Qatari Riyal
Russia Russian Ruble
Samoa Tala
Saudi Arabia Saudi Riyal
Seychelles Rupee
Singapore Singapore Dollar
Slovenia Tolar
Solomon Islands Dollar
South Korea South Korean Won
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan Rupee
Suriname Guilder
Sweden Swedish Krona
Syria Syrian Pound
Tanzania Tanzanian Shilling
Tajikistan Ruble
Turkey Turkish Lira
Tuvalu Dollar
Ukraine Hryvnya
UK British Pound
Uruguay Peso
Vatican City Vatican Lira
Vietnam Dong
Yugoslavia Dinar
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Dollar
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Default Currencies 2

Albania Lek
Angola Kwanza
Armenia Dram
Austria Euro
Bahamas Dollar
Bangladesh Taka
Belarus Belarusian Ruble
Belize Dollar
Bhutan* Ngultrum and Rupee
Bosnia Herzegovina Marka
Brazil * Real
Bulgaria * Lev
Burma Kyat
Cambodia Riel
Canada Canadian Dollar
Chad CFA Franc
China * Yuan (Renmimbi)
Comoros Franc
Costa Rica Colon
Cuba Peso
Czech Republic Czech Koruna
Djibouti Djibouti Franc
East Timor Dollar
Egypt * Egyptian Pound
Eritrea Birr
Ethiopia Birr
Finland Euro
Gabon CFA Franc
Georgia Lavi
Ghana Cedi
Grenada Dollar
Guinea Franc
Guyana Dollar
Honduras Lempira
Iceland Krona
Indonesia * Rupiah
Iraq Iraqi Dinar
Israel New Shekel
Jamaica Dollar
Jordan Jordanian Dinar
Kenya Kenya Shilling
Kuwait Kuwaiti Dinar
Laos Kip
Lebanon Lebanese Pound
Liberia Dollar
Lithuania Litas
Macedonia Dinar
Malawi Kwacha
Maldives Rufiyaa
Malta Lira
Mauritania Ouguiya
Mexico Mexican Peso
Monaco Franc
Morocco Dirham
Myanmar Kyat
Nauru Australian Dollar
Netherlands Euro
Nicaragua Cordoba
Nigeria * Naira
Norway Norwegian Krone
Panama Balboa
Paraguay Guarani
Philippines Philippine Peso
Portugal Euro
Romania Leu
Rwanda Franc
San Marino Italian Lira
Senegal CFA Franc
Sierra Leone Leone
Slovakia Koruna
Somalia Shilling
South Africa Rand
Spain * Euro
Sudan Sudanese Dinar
Swaziland Lilangeni
Switzerland Swiss Franc
Taiwan Taiwan Dollar
Thailand Baht
Togo CFA Franc
Tunisia Dinar
Turkmenistan Turkmen Manat
Uganda Ugandan Shilling
UAE UAE Dirham
USA US Dollar
Uzbekistan* Uzbekistani Soum
Venezuela Bolivar
Yemen Riyal
Zambia Zambian Kwacha
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“Asia Minor” Turkey
“Axis of evil” Iraq, North Korea and Iran (Declared by Bush)
“Boot of Europe” Italy
“Britain of South” New Zealand
“Buffer State of Asia” Afghanistan
“City of Angels” Bangkok (Thailand)
“City of Arabian nights” * Baghdad
“City of Bazaars” Cairo (Egypt)
“City of Brotherly Love” Philadelphia
“City of Canals” Venice
“City of Conferences” Geneva
“City of Cosmonauts” Moscow
“City of diamonds” Ratna Pur
“City of Domes” Istanbul (Constantinople)
“City of Dreaming Spires” Oxford
“City of eternal spring” Quito (Ecuador)
“City of Gandolas” Venice (Italy)
“City of Gardens” Harare (whole year only spring is there)
“City of Ghosts and Temples” Veransi (Benares)
“City of Golden Gate” San Francisco
“City of Golden Temple” Amritsar
“City of Hotels” Beirut
“City of lights” Paris
“City of mosques” Dhaka
“City of old buildings” Ankara
“City of Palaces” Calcutta
“City of parks” Kiev (Ukraine)
“City of Peace” Baghdad
“City of Pool Nectar” Amritsar
“City of Popes” Rome
“City of Priests” Rome
“City of Rams” Guangzhou (China)
“City of roses and nightingales” Shiraz (Iran)
“City of seven hills” Rome
“City of silent thoroughfares” Venice
“City of Sky Scrapers” New York
“City of smile” Bangkok
“City of Songs” Vienna (Austria)
“City of Space Flights” Cape Kennedy (Florida)
“City of roses and nightingales” Shiraz
“Cockpit of Europe”* Belgium (because of the number of battles throughout history fought on its soil)
“Country of Copper” Zambia
“Cradle of civilizations” Turkey
“Crossroads of Western Europe” Belgium
“Dark Continent” Africa
“The desert fox” Gen. Erwin Rommel (A German Field Marshal)
“Down Under” Australia
“Emerald Island” Ireland
“Empire City” New York
“Entrance to the underworld” Avernus (a lake near Naples in Italy)
“Eternal City” Rome
“Father of Anatomy” Andreas Vesalius (Belgian doctor)
“Father of biography” Plutarch
“Father of Botany” Theophrastus
“Father of Civil Engineering” John Smeaton
“Father of Computer” Charles Babbage
“Father of Economics” Adam Smith
“Father of English prose” Samuel De Champlain
“Father of Genetics” Gregor Mendel
“Father of historical novels” Sir Walter Scot
“Father of hydrogen bomb” Edward Teller (1952)
“Father of League of Nations” Hugh Grotius (Holland jurist)
“father of Medicine” Hippocrates
“Father of Mexican independence” Miguel Hidalgo
“Father of modern Chemistry” Antoine Lavoiser
“Father of modern economics” Adam Smith
“Father of modern Italy” G. Garibaldi
“Father of modern music” Johan Sebastian Bach
“Father of modern philosophy” Rene Descartes (French philosopher)
“Father of modern physical chemistry” Josiah Willard Gibbs (American)
“Father of modern Political Science” Niccolò Machiavelli (Italy)
“Father of modern rocketry” Robert H. Goddard
“Father of moral philosophy” Thomas Aquinas
“Father of natural history” John Ray
“Father of science of political economy” Adam Smith
“Father of Texas” Stephen Fuller Austin (Capital of Texas is Austin)
“Father of Utilitarianism” John Biddle
“Father of waters” Mississippi (USA)
“Flower garden of Europe” Netherlands
“Forbidden City” Lahaska (China)
“The four elements” Earth, air, fire, and water
“Garden of England” Kent
“Gateway to Central Asia” Gawadar (Pakistan)
“Gateway to East” Beirut
“Gateway to Gulf” Abu Dhabi
“Gateway to Gulf of Iran” Strait of Hormuz
“Gateway to India” Bombay
"George Cross Island" Malta
“Gift of Nile” Egypt
“Golden Ass” Lucius Apuleius (Writer)
“Grandfather of Australian Cricket” Bill Brown
“Grand old man of Britain” Gladstone
“Granite City” Aberdeen
“Great Britain of Pacific” Japan
“Herring Pond” Atlantic Ocean
“Homeland of Viking Empire” Denmark
“Horn of Africa” Somalia
“Incubator of Western Civilization” Mediterranean Sea
“Island continent” Australia
“Island of Hispaniola” Haiti
“Isle of cloves” Zanzibar
“Isle of Death” Kahoulawe
“Isle of June” Bahamas
“Isle of Pearls” Bahrain
“Iron Duke” Duke of Wellington
“Jewel of the Sky” Venus
“John Bull” England and English people
“Key of Mediterranean” Gibraltar
“King of German Literature” Goethe
“Lady with the Lamp” Florence Nightingale
“Land gate of the country” Belarus
“Land of Amber” Lithuania
“Land of Canals” Netherlands
“Land of Cloves” Zanzibar
“Land of contrasts” Colombia
“Land of Druk Yul” Nepal
“Land of free people” Thailand
“Land of fertile fields” Algeria
“Land of golden Fibre” Bangladesh
“Land of golden fleece” Australia
“Land of golden Pagoda” Myanmar (Burma)
“Land of Kangaroos” Australia
“Land of Lilies” Canada
“Land of the long white clouds” New Zealand
“Land of many races” Colombia
“Land of midnight Sun” Norway
“Land of mighty rivers” Nigeria
“Land of Milk and Honey” Lebanon
“Land of morning calm” Korea
“Land of mountains” Nepal
“Land of Prophets” Palestine
“Land of pure people” Pakistan
“Land of Queen of Sheba” Ethiopia
“Land of Rice and Teak” Myanmar (Burma)
“Land of rising Sun” Japan
“Land of rivers” Bangladesh
“Land of seven hills” Rome
“Land of South Slaves” Yugoslavia
“Land of Thousand Islands” Indonesia
“Land of thousand Lakes” Finland
“Land of white Elephants” Thailand
“Land of Windmills” Netherlands
“Little Pakistan” Bradford
“King Maker” Earl of Warwick
“Maiden Queen” Queen Elizabeth I
“Man of Blood and Iron” Bismarck
“Man of Destiny” Napoleon
“Manchester of Orient” Osaka
“Mother of COBAL” Grace Murray Hopper
“Old Hickory” Andrew Jackson, 7th President of USA
“Pearl of Antilles” Cuba
“Pillars of Hercules” Gibraltar (Strait)
“Playground of Europe” Switzerland
“Port of Five Seas” Moscow
“Queen of Adriatic” Venice
“Queen of Baltic” Stockholm (Sweden)
“Queen of crime fiction” Agatha Christie
“Queen of South” * Sydney
“Queen of water” Water Lilly
“Red Planet” Mars
“Remnant of mighty empire” Austria
“Roof of the World” Tibet and Pamirs
“Scourge of God” Attila
“Shock and Awe” US campaign in Iraq
“Sick man of Europe” Turkey
“Sick Man of Europe” Turkey
“Site of Ancient Civilization” Iraq
“Sorrow of China” Hawang Hoo
“Sugar bowl of the world” Cuba
“Switzerland of Africa” Swaziland
“Uncle Sam” USA
“Vegetable and fruit garden of Europe” Bulgaria
“Venice of North” Stockholm
“White city” Belgrade
“White man’s grave” Guinea
“Windy City” Chicago
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A very Brief History of Pakistan: Events, Birthdays and Famous Deaths Surmount History of Pakistan & India 3 Monday, November 02, 2009 12:20 PM

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