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Old Monday, June 22, 2009
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Default Intersting Facts

Travelers to La Paz, Bolivia, often become ill the moment they arrive in the city, Why? La Paz is 11,900 feet above sea level, the highest metropolis in the world. People with ailing hearts or bronchial problems are warned to stay away, and even those in perfect health usually cannot avoid some illness resulting from the Altitude.

Antarctica is the only continent that does not have land areas below sea level.

The states of Arizona and Hawaii have never adopted Daylight Savings Time, Neither has Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or American Samoa.

Before 1903 Panama was part of South America. After 1903 it was part of North America. This was due to an arbitrary Decision of the Panamanian government, which in 1903, after staging the last of fifty revolutions (perhaps a record in itself) against its parent country, Colombia, gained its freedom, both to dissociate itself from Colombia and to Decide which continent it wished to be part of. After less than a year's consideration, the government Decided that the country should be North American, and so it has remained ever since.

Juneau, Alaska, has a greater Land Area than any other city in the Western Hemisphere. In 1977 the main city and outlying districts were consolidated, making Juneau officially 3,108 square miles in size. Of this area, 1476 square miles are dry land, 928 are an icecap, and 704 comprise water. Compare this 3,108 square miles with other large cities Jacksonville. Florida, traditionally considered the largest American city, has an Area of 840 square miles. Houston, Texas, boasts 450, Los Angeles 455, and New York City 320.

Of the twenty-five highest Mountains on earth, nineteen are in the Himalayas.

The highest Mountain in all the British Isles, Ben Nevis in western Scotland, is only 4,406 feet high. In many other countries a "Mountain" of this size would be considered something less than a large hill.

The needle of a compass does not point directly north. It points either a little to the east or a little to the west, not enough to make any difference to the average hiker. The difference is known to navigators as the "variation of the compass," and they take it into consideration when making critical geographical calculations. The phenomenon is due to the fact that the magnetic north and south poles do not coincide with the geographic north and south poles.

On a clear day one can see five states from atop the Empire State Building in New York City: New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania.

The nation of Bangladesh covers approximately the same land area as the state of Wisconsin. Yet it ranks eighth in Population among all the world's countries.

In 1867, when Secretary of State William Seward purchased Alaska, one of the most resource-rich areas in the world, for the unbelievably low price of $7.2 million, he was showered with abuse by the American people and was almost forced to resign. Newspapers dubbed the acquisition "Seward's Icebox ... .. Walrussia," and "Icebergia." Seward, however, stood by his decision and named the country Alakshah, which means "great country" in the Aleut language.

If the Nile River were stretched across the United States, it would run just about from New York to Los Angeles.

There is only one River in the world that has its source near the equator and from there flows into a temperate zone: the Nile For some little understood reason, the flow of most Rivers is in the opposite direction.

Alaska has a Sand desert with Dunes over 100 feet high. It is located along the flatlands of the Kobuk River in the northwestern part of the state.

Canada, the second largest country in the world (3,851,809 square miles), could fit into the largest country, the Soviet Union (8,647,250 square miles) more than twice
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Old Monday, June 22, 2009
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.................................INTERSTING FACTS ABOUT SCIENCE

In October 1999 an Iceberg the size of London broke free from the Antarctic ice shelf .

The Earth spins at 1,000 mph but it travels through space at an incredible 67,000 mph.

October 12th, 1999 was declared “The Day of Six Billion” based on United Nations projections.

It takes 8 minutes 17 seconds for light to travel from the Sun’s surface to the Earth.

10 percent of all human beings ever born are alive at this very moment.

The speed of light is generally rounded down to 186,000 miles per second. In exact terms it is 299,792,458 m/s (metres per second - that is equal to 186,287.49 miles per second).

One million, million, million, million, millionth of a second after the Big Bang the Universe was the size of a …pea.

DNA was first discovered in 1869 by Swiss Friedrich Mieschler.

The molecular structure of DNA was first determined by Watson and Crick in 1953.

The first synthetic human chromosome was constructed by US scientists in 1997.

The thermometer was invented in 1607 by Galileo.

Englishman Roger Bacon invented the magnifying glass in 1250.

Alfred Nobel invented dynamite in 1866.

Wilhelm Rontgen won the first Nobel Prize for physics for discovering X-rays in 1895.

Utopia is a large, smooth smooth lying area of Mars.

On the day that Alexander Graham Bell was buried the entire US telephone system was shut down for 1 minute in tribute.

The low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest noise made by a living creature.

The call of the humpback whale is louder than Concorde and can be heard from 500 miles away.

A quarter of the world’s plants are threatened with extinction by the year 2010.

Each person sheds 40lbs of skin in his or her lifetime.

At 15 inches the eyes of giant squids are the largest on the planet.

The largest galexies contain a million, million stars.

The Universe contains over 100 billion galaxies.

Wounds infested with maggots heal quickly and without spread of gangrene or other infection.

More germs are transferred shaking hands than kissing.

The longest glacier in Antarctica, the Almbert glacier, is 250 miles long and 40 miles wide.

The fastest speed a falling raindrop can hit you is 18mph.

A healthy person has 6,000 million, million, million haemoglobin molecules.

A salmon-rich, low cholesterol diet means that Inuits rarely suffer from heart disease.

Inbreeding causes 3 out of every 10 Dalmation dogs to suffer from hearing disability.

The world’s smallest winged insect, the Tanzanian parasitic wasp, is smaller than the eye of a housefly.
If the Sun were the size of a beach ball then Jupiter would be the size of a golf ball and the Earth would be as small as a pea.

The tallest tree ever was an Australian eucalyptus - In 1872 it was measured at 435 feet tall.

Christian Barnard performed the first heart transplant in 1967 - the patient lived for 18 days.

The wingspan of a Boeing 747 is longer than the Wright brother’s first flight.

Without its lining of mucus your stomach would digest itself.

Humans have 46 chromosomes, peas have 14 and crayfish have 200.

There are 60,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body.

An individual blood cell takes about 60 seconds to make a complete circuit of the body.

It would take over an hour for a heavy object to sink 6.7 miles down to the deepest part of the ocean.

There are more living organisms on the skin of each human than there are humans on the surface of the earth.

The grey whale migrates 12,500 miles from the Artic to Mexico and back every year.

Each rubber molecule is made of 65,000 individual atoms.

Around a million, billion neutrinos from the Sun will pass through your body while you read this sentence.

…and now they are already past the Moon.

Quasars emit more energy than 100 giant galaxies.

Quasars are the most distant objects in the Universe.

The saturn V rocket which carried man to the Moon develops power equivalent to fifty 747 jumbo jets.

Koalas sleep an average of 22 hours a day, two hours more than the sloth.

The Ebola virus kills 4 out of every 5 humans it infects.

In 5 billion years the Sun will run out of fuel and turn into a Red Giant.

Giraffes often sleep for only 20 minutes in any 24 hours. They may sleep up to 2 hours (in spurts - not all at once), but this is rare. They never lie down.

The largest meteorite craters in the world are in Sudbury, Ontario, canada and in Vredefort, South Africa.

Every second around 100 lightning bolts strike the Earth.

Light would take .13 seconds to travel around the Earth.

A typical hurricane produces the nergy equivalent to 8,000 one megaton bombs.

90% of those who die from hurricanes die from drowning.

To escape the Earth’s gravity a rocket need to travel at 7 miles a second.

If every star in the Milky Way was a grain of salt they would fill an Olympic sized swimming pool.

Microbial life can survive on the cooling rods of a nuclear reactor.

Males produce one thousand sperm cells each second - 86 million each day.

Neutron stars are so dense that a teaspoonful would weigh more than all the people on Earth.

One in every 2000 babies is born with a tooth.

Every hour the Universe expands by a billion miles in all directions.

An electric eel can produce a shock of up to 650 volts.

‘Wireless’ communications took a giant leap forward in 1962 with the launch of Telstar, the first satellite capable of relaying telephone and satellite TV signals.

The earliest wine makers lived in Egypt around 2300 BC.

Every year lightning kills 1000 people.

If you could drive your car straight up you would arrive in space in just over an hour.

Human tapeworms can grow up to 22.9m.

The Earth is 4.56 billion years old…the same age as the Moon and the Sun.

The largest desert in the world, the Sahara, is ,500,000 square miles
The largest dinosaur ever discovered was Seismosaurus who was over 100 feet long and weighed up to 80 tonnes.

The largest ever hailstone weighed over 1kg and fell in Bangladesh in 1986.

The dinosaurs became extinct before the Rockies or the Alps were formed.

Female black widow spiders eat their males after mating.

Every year over one million earthquakes shake the Earth.

The risk of being struck by a falling meteorite for a human is one occurence every 9,300 years.

The driest inhabited place in the world is Aswan, Egypt where the annual average rainfall is .02 inches.

The deepest part of any ocean in the world is the Mariana trench in the Pacific with a depth of 35,797 feet.

Even travelling at the speed of light it would take 2 million years to reach the nearest large galaxy, Andromeda.

The temperature in Antarctica plummets as low as -35 degrees celsius.

At over 2000 kilometres long The Great Barrier Reef is the largest living structure on Earth.

A thimbleful of a neutron star would weigh over 100 million tons.

The mortality rate if bitten by a Black Mamba snake is over 95%.

In the 14th century the Black Death killed 75,000,000 people. It was carried by fleas on the black rat.

A dog’s sense of smell is 1,000 times more sensitive than a humans.

Micro-organisms have been brought back to life after being frozen in perma-frost for three million years.

Our oldest radio broadcasts of the 1930s have already travelled past 100,000 stars.
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Old Monday, June 22, 2009
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..........................................INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT JAPAAN

The Japanese Prime Minister is elected by the legislature, not the people

Legend says that the Japanese monarchy began in the 7th Century BC

In Japan they eat squid, octopus, eel, all fish, crabs, prawns, etc…

A traditional Japanese breakfast consists of rice topped with natto (fermented soy beans)

The Japanese say that the Chinese will eat anything

Japan is 70% mountains

Japan is made up of over 6000 islands

Kris and Jessica live in Japan

There are wild monkeys in Japan

In Japan, a night at the movies will cost you $18 per person

In Japan many people wear uniforms i.e. bank tellers, grocery store clerks, postal workers…

In Japan, most people say that they are Buddhist, but don’t believe in the Buddha

Aspiring young Japanese musicians play on street corners and in subway stations hoping to get discovered

The “WALK” lights on Japanese street corners make a chirping sound so that the blind can know when to cross the street

Japanese subways are very clean and safe

In Japan they drive on the left side

In Japan you get really good (annoying???) service when shopping

Japanese department stores are usually multiple stories, with a grocery store on the bottom, clothes and bedding in the middle, and restaurants on the top

Japanese pizza has mayonnaise, corn, and seaweed on it

Japanese salad has corn in it

The Japanese think that Americans eat corn and potatoes every day

Fruit is very expensive in Japan

Watermelons in Japan can cost up to $100

Peaches are $2.00 a piece

There are Japanese people in Japan

The second highest population is Chinese, followed by Korean, Brazilian, Peruvian…

There are very few public trashcans in Japan

A traditional Japanese toilet looks like a urinal lying on the floor
In Japan, they know more about Chinese food than Americans do

In Japan even local calls are charged by the minute

Golden Retrievers are the most popular pet

The Japanese use four different writing systems

In Japanese, the word for “wrong” and “different” are the same

American shows shown in Japan are: Ally McBeal, Dharma and Greg, Beverly Hills 90210, Full House, Sabrina the Teenage Witch, Boy Meets World, Animal Rescue Kids

Everyone hangs their clothes outside to dry

Japan is the world’s largest consumer of tropical rainforest timber

Japan has 28 National Parks and 55 Quasi-National Parks

Japan is divided into nine large regions and further divided into 47 smaller prefectures

Japan has the seventh largest population in the world

You can catch a train to and from Nagoya every 15 minutes

You can catch a subway train every three minutes in Nagoya

The Shinkansen (bullet train) passes Kris and Jessica’s house every fifteen minutes

The Japanese know more about American politics than Americans do

Popular Japanese bands are: Glay, Smap, Hana Hana, Shingo Mama, The Yellow Monkey, Luna Sea, Whiteberry, Arc~en~Ceil, Da Pump, Kinki Kids, etc…

Popular Japanese music is terrible

In Japan you can buy canned coffee, hot or cold, in vending machines

In Japan, Pert shampoo is called Rejoy

In Japan, 20 capsules of cold medicine cost $15

Because Japan has a socialized medical system, if you get the tiniest bit sick people think you should go to the doctor so you can get your medicine for free instead of paying $15 for cold medicine

Kyoto and Nara were consciously spared from bombing during World War 2 because of the cultural significance of their architecture and way of life

In Japan, Ally Mc Beal is called “Ally My Love” because McBeal when said in a Japanese dialect sounds like McBeer

Junior High and High School students wear uniforms

Elementary school students wear yellow caps

In Japan, the teachers move from class to class and the students stay in one room

At McDonalds the hamburgers are the same size as in America, but the drink sizes are one size smaller

“McDonalds” in a Japanese dialect sounds lilke “Ma-ku-do-na-ru-do”

Japanese is hard (Nihongo wa muzukashi des)

In Japan it is not uncommon to see women wearing platform shoes that are 4 to 6 inches high

Instead of “Ohayo Gozaimasu” (good morning), Japanese youngsters often say “Oha!”

Christianity comprises less than 10% of the Japanese population

Normal Japanese kitchens don’t have ovens

The bathroom is not where the toilet is found in a Japanese home

In Japan, when you move into an apartment, you have to bring your own light fixtures

There’s no such thing as central heat and air in Japan

A futon is not what you think it is…

One US dollar is approximately 120 yen

In Japan you eat your soup with chopsticks

Japanese streets are very narrow

Streets in Japan don’t have names

Pokemon is not popular in Japan

Rice cookers are great and easy to use

In Japan, fair skin is regarded as beautiful

Many Japanese women dye their hair brown

Refrigerators in Japan are tiny

There are very few original castles in Japan because of bombing during WW2

Whale is a delicacy

The name “Tokyo” when broken down into kanji means “east” and “capital”

The name “Kyoto” when broken down into kanji means “capital” and “capital”

Noh, a type of Japanese theatre, can be up to eight hours long

In Japanese, languages all end in –go : Nihongo, Eigo, Spango, etc…

In Japanese, citizen terms end in –jin : Nihonjin, Amerikajin, Perujin, etc…
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Old Thursday, June 25, 2009
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INTERESTING FACT ABOUT ZERO
Zero was invented in India by Indian mathematicians dating as early as 5th century. They widely used it in calculations, astronomy and astrology. Zero was spread by Arabians to the Europe and there on it was spread all over. Before this, all Europeans used roman numerical which were difficult to calculate on as they were in the form of Symbols, lengthy and had limits

BLACK HOLE FACT
When the star ten times more massive than our own Sun, explodes (Supernova) it leaves behind the strangest phenomenon in the Universe. The Black Hole. After explosion what is left behind is heavy core of subatomic particles, a Neutron Star. It can be very small, but with enormous density. Scientists calculated that approximately one teaspoon of Neutron Star would weight around billions of tons. The gravitational pressure of this highly dense object is so large that it can bend fabric of time and space. This theory is based on Einstein's proposition that space and time are woven together in a flexible fabric. Massive objects like Sun warp the fabric of space and time and pull smaller objects like Earth. Very large Neutron Star can warp time and space fabric so much that it could create a hole where gravity is so strong that not even light could escape. Black Holes are pulling everything around them closer to the center of the hole. In some sense black holes are creators of the galaxies since they are pulling planets and stars towards the spiral center. Each galaxy has a Black Hole and occasionally galaxies collide together because of the gravitational pull from the larger black holes. It is expected that in 5 billion years Andromeda galaxy will collide with our Milky Way galaxy

AGE OF UNIVERSE
After several debates, astronomers have determined the age of the universe by using a Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. By examining the microwave background radiation that WMAP provided, astronomers were able to pin down the age of the universe, accurate to 1%, to 13.7 billion years old.

INTERESTING FACT ABOUT 4 YEAR OLD BABY
In an average day, a four year old child will ask 437 questions.


INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT CAMELS

There are two species of Camel: Camelus(the single humped variety) and Bactrian (the double humped variety).


A camels stomach has three sections, similar to a domestic cow (bovine). This makes it a ruminant.


here is a third thin eyelid that the camel can see through. Hair inside the ears helps to keep sand out.


The hump is filled with fat. The hump will shrink if the camel does not eat.


They are called Ships-of-the-Desert because they can carry heavy loads. Camels can carry as much as 1,000 pounds


"Riding camels" can travel up to 100 miles in one day. Camel droppings are burned as fuel.


A camel can drink 27 gallons of water in 10 minutes


Camels are desert animals. Very few animals live in the desert; most of them are small, like beetles and lizards. Small animals can easily find shade and enough water and food, but for big animals it is much harder.


The African dromedary camel lives with people. It helps people to survive in the desert by carrying the people and their things when they move from place to place.


People drink camel milk and use camel dung to make their fires when there is no firewood.
In return desert people, (called nomads) give camels water by digging wells and extra food that they buy from farmers.


Some camels are used by farmers for working in the fields.


The farmer trains the camel to pull a plough and carry heavy loads.


The camel is one of the oldest domesticated animals, people have been using them for more than 10,000 years.



The camel can go for some days with out drinking water. (Not more than 10 days). The camel conserves water in his body cell and his stomach. Conserving means he doesn't waste water through sweating, breathing or urinating.


He is able to live on very poor vegetation during the dry summer months.


The fat stored in the hump will provide him with enough energy to reach good grazing.


He has very long legs to keep his big body high off the hot ground.


Even when he sits down his belly will not touch the ground, he has a pillow like callus under his chest to balance him and make it comfortable for him to rest on the sand, even when it is hot.


On his knees he has very hard skin to protect him when he rests on them.


The young are born in the rainy season when there is plenty of grazing.


A female camel is pregnant for about 13 months and she will only have offspring every 2-3 years.


The camels eyes are protected by long eyelashes and have an extra thin eyelid. In a desert storm he can still keep walking and find his way.
The ears are small and very hairy, to keep flying sand from entering.
The nostrils can close completely or leave just a tiny opening for breathing.



His coat is thick to insulate against both heat and cold. The desert is very hot during the day (32C.-45C.), but gets very cold at night. (Almost freezing!).
There are two species of camels: The Dromedary, characterized by one hump and long legs, lives in the deserts of Arabia and Africa. The Bactrian camel has 2 humps and is shorter with a very thick coat. The Bactrian lives in northern Asia, China and Afghanistan, in areas called "steppe" that are mostly grasslands.
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Old Sunday, June 28, 2009
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................................INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT CO2

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a slightly toxic, odorless, colorless gas with a slightly pungent, acid taste. Carbon dioxide is a small but important constituent of air. It is a necessary raw material for most plants, which remove carbon dioxide from air using the process of photosynthesis.


Today’s atmosphere contains about 40% more carbon dioxide than at the start of the industrial era. This build-up of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases prevents heat from leaving the earth’s surface and the increase in greenhouse gases is expected to trigger a rise in temperature of 1.4 - 5.8C by 2100.


A typical concentration of CO2 in air is about 0.038% or 380 ppm. The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide rises and falls in a seasonal pattern over a range of about 6 ppmv. The concentration of CO2 in air has also been steadily increasing from year to year for over 60 years. The current rate of increase is about 2 ppm per year.


Worldwide, seven out of ten of the warmest years since 1860 occurred in the 1990s and 1998 was the warmest year on record. By the end of the 20th century, global temperatures were 0.6C higher than 100 years ago. In central England, 1999 was the warmest year since 1659 and 1990 was the second warmest year. Analysis of tree rings, ice cores, corals and historical records indicate that the 1990s were the warmest decade of the last millennium.


Carbon dioxide is formed by combustion and by biological processes. These include decomposition of organic material, fermentation and digestion. As an example, exhaled air contains as much as 4% carbon dioxide, or about 100 times the amount of carbon dioxide which was breathed in.


Large quantities of CO2 are produced by lime kilns, which burn limestone (primarily calcium carbonate) to produce calcium oxide ( lime, used to make cement); and in the production of magnesium from dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate). Other industrial activities which produce large amounts of carbon dioxide are ammonia production and hydrogen production from natural gas or other hydrocarbon raw materials.


The concentration of CO2 in air and in stack gases from simple combustion sources (heaters, boilers, furnaces) is not high enough to make carbon dioxide recovery commercially feasible. Producing carbon dioxide as a commercial product requires that it be recovered and purified from a relatively high-volume, CO2-rich gas stream, generally a stream which is created as an unavoidable byproduct of a large-scale chemical production process or some form of biological process.


In almost all cases, carbon dioxide which is captured and purified for commercial applications would be vented to the atmosphere at the production point if it was not recoved for transport and beneficial use at other locations.


The most common operations from which commercially-produced carbon dioxide is recovered are industrial plants which produce hydrogen or ammonia from natural gas, coal, or other hydrocarbon feedstock, and large-volume fermentation operations in which plant products are made into ethanol for human consumption, automotive fuel or industrial use. Breweries producing beer from various grain products are a traditional source. Corn-to-ethanol plants have been the most rapidly growing source of feed gas for CO2 recovery.


CO2-rich natural gas reservoirs found in underground formations found primarily in the western United States and in Canada are another source of recoverable carbon dioxide. CO2 from both natural and industrial sources is used to enhance production of oil from older wells by injecting the carbon dioxide into appropriate underground formations. Carbon dioxide is used in selectively, primarily in wells which will benefit not only from re-pressurization, but also from a reduction in viscosity of the oil in the reservoir caused by a portion of the CO2 dissolving in the oil. (The extent to which carbon dioxide will dissolve in the oil varies with the type of petroleum present in the reservoir. If the viscosity reduction effect will be minimal, nitrogen, which is usually less expensive, may be used as the pressurant instead.)


Carbon dioxide will not burn or support combustion. Air with a carbon dioxide content of more than 10% will extinguish an open flame, and, if breathed, can be life-threatening. Such concentrations may build up in silos, digestion chambers, wells, sewers and the like. Caution must be exercised when entering these types of confined spaces.


CO2 gas is 1.5 times as heavy as air, thus if released to the air it will concentrate at low elevations. Carbon dioxide will form "dry ice" at -78.5C (-109.3 F). One kg of dry ice has the cooling capacity of 2 kg of ordinary ice. Gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide, stored under pressure, will form dry ice through an auto-refrigeration process if rapidly depressured.


Carbon dioxide is commercially available as high pressure cylinder gas, relatively low pressure (about 300 psig or 20 barg) refrigerated liquid, or as dry ice. Large quantities are produced and consumed at industrial sites making fertilizers, plastics and rubber.


Carbon dioxide is a versatile material, being used in many processes and applications - each of which takes advantage of one or more these characteristics: reactivity, inertness and/ or coldness.


Carbon dioxide is commonly used as a raw material for production of various chemicals; as a working material in fire extinguishing systems; for carbonation of soft drinks; for freezing of food products such as poultry, meats, vegetables and fruit; for chilling of meats prior to grinding; for refrigeration and maintenance of ideal atmospheric conditions during transportation of food products to market; for enhancement of oil recovery from oil wells; and for treatment of alkaline water.


Stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at current levels requires emissions reductions of about 70% by the end of this century at the latest. Even if the Kyoto Protocol were ratified and fully implemented it could not moderate the expected warming trend of 1.4 C by 2050 by more than 0.05C


Carbon sink activities may well develop into future carbon bombs once climate change reduces the ability of trees to survive in their current locations: A recent study on the implications of a doubling of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere concluded that forest dieback, mostly in boreal forest, could release 70 to 130 billion tones of additional carbon into the atmosphere. Another study found that such a carbon pulse triggered by warmer temperatures in the boreal region could release as much as 225 billion tonnes of carbon – almost one third of all the carbon now in the Earth’s atmosphere.




To offset the emissions of a power plant the size of Drax (3.75GW) in the UK would require the establishment of 1 million hectares (10,000 km2) of new tropical forest. To offset the UK’s total carbon dioxide emissions would require the planting of a new area of tropical forest about 1.5 times the size of the UK.



Biological diversity will be threatened by rapid climate change: Observations, models and experiments demonstrate that a sustained increase of just 1C in the global average temperature would affect the functioning and composition of forests. The species that make up today's forests may not be able to survive in their current locations as local climate conditions change beyond their tolerance levels. This could result in a major impact on the species composition of one third of the world's forests. Entire forest ecosystems may disappear, other stresses caused by global warming include more insect outbreaks and fires. Because high latitudes are expected to warm more than equatorial ones, boreal forests will be more affected than temperate and tropical forests.


Forests are a major reservoir of carbon, containing some 80% of all carbon stored in land vegetation and about 40% of the carbon residing in soils. Large quantities of carbon may be released into the atmosphere during transition from one forest type to another as a result of global warming.


Fire suppression is in part responsible for the increase in biomass documented in many European temperate and boreal forests. While fire suppression may enhance sequestration in the short term, it can also create tinderbox conditions that increase the risk of fire and subsequent release of large amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere (for details on forest fire trends in boreal forests, see The Carbon Bomb, Greenpeace International, Sept 1994, available from www.greenpeace.org).


A study in Oregon found that a 450-year-old natural forest stored 2.2 to 2.3 times more carbon than a 60-year-old douglas fir plantation on a comparable site
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..................................INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT INDONESIA
Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago consisting of many thousands of islands. Around six thousand of the islands are inhabited.


The Indonesian name for Indonesia is "Tanah Air Kita" - Our Land and Water.


Indonesia's national motto is Unity in Diversity.


The highest point in Indonesia is Puncak Jaya (5,030 m) in the highlands of Papua.


Indonesia's region of Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) shares the island of New Guinea with Papua New Guinea.


The Indonesian administrative divisions of Kalimantan share Borneo with Malaysia and Brunei.


The islands of New Guinea and Borneo are two of the largest islands in the world.


The eruption of Mount Tambora, on Sumbawa Island, in 1815 was the most powerful volcanic eruption in recorded history. 1816 was known as the "Year Without Summer" because of the global climatic effects of the eruption.


In 1883 the volcanic island of Krakatoa (part of the Indonesian archipelago) was destroyed by a volcanic eruption. This caused a tidal wave that killed over thirty thousand people.


Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions sometimes cause a tsunami, a giant wave which can swamp islands and coastal settlements. A tsunami can travel as fast as 800 kph.


Indonesia is part of the Ring of Fire which includes about seventy-five percent of all the world's volcanoes. (The rim of the Pacific Basin is ringed with volcanoes, from Alaska through the USA, Mexico and South America, then on to New Zealand and up to Japan and Russia.).


In the early 1890s Eugene Dubois discovered a skull and thigh bone of Homo erectus in East Java. Dubois published his findings of "Java Man" in 1894, claiming that Homo erectus was an ancestor of modern humans.


The Sangiran Early Man Site, on the World Heritage List, is estimated to have been inhabited one and a half million years ago. Half of the world's hominid fossils have been found at Sangiran in Java.


Marco Polo was one of the first Europeans to visit Indonesia.


Europeans went to Indonesia in search of spices. Spices were a very valuable commodity in Europe.


Indonesia is one the world's largest producers of nutmeg.


Thousands of statues regard Java's jungles from the heights of Borobudur—the world's largest Buddhist temple. The ancient pilgrimage site was built in the 8th and 9th centuries A.D.


By the late eighteenth century "Indonesia" was part of the Dutch colonial empire and known as the Netherlands East Indies.


Indonesia's island of Bali did not come under the control of the Netherlands until 1906. During the Dutch capture of the island many thousands of Balinese were killed. Puputan Square in Denpasar is named after the suicidal battle of the Balinese aristocracy in their struggle against the Dutch.


Between 1811 and 1816 (during the Napoleonic Wars), "Indonesia" came under British rule but was returned to the Dutch.


After the War (1939-1945) Indonesia declared independence. Sukarno, the independence leader, became the country's first president.


Following independence, the Dutch remained in control of the western part of New Guinea (now Papua). This territory was eventually passed to Indonesia under a United Nations agreement (1963).


In 1975 East Timor gained independence from the Portuguese but was annexed by Indonesia in 1976. East Timor voted for independence in 1999 but did not regain independence until 2002.


In October 2002 a terrorist bomb in Bali (Kuta town) killed over 180 people. Three years later, suicide bombings in Bali killed over twenty people.


In 2003 a car bomb outside the Marriott Hotel in Jakarta killed fourteen people. A year later, another car bomb in Jakarta outside the Australian embassy killed nine people.


On 26 December 2004, a quake occurred under the sea near Aceh in north Indonesia (8.9 on the Richter scale); this produced tsunamis causing flooding and destruction in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Thailand, Seychelles, Sri Lanka and the east coast of Africa (Kenya and Somalia).


An earthquake measuring 8.7 on the Richter scale, off the coast of Sumatra, killed between one and two thousand people in March 2005. Many of the victims lived on the small island of Nias.


Towards the end of May 2006 an earthquake measuring 6.2 struck the Indonesian island of Java killing over three thousand people.


A tsunami, caused by an undersea earthquake (magnitude 7.7), struck the island of Java on 17 July 2006 killing over 500 people.


In November 2008 an earthquake near the island of Sulawesi, magnitude 7.5, killed at least six people.


An earthquake with a of magnitude 7.6 occurred near the north coast of Papua in January 2009.


Indonesia is a vast equatorial archipelago of 17,000 islands extending 5,150 kilometers (3,200 miles) east to west, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans in Southeast Asia. The largest islands are Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), Sulawesi, and the Indonesian part of New Guinea (known as Papua or Irian Jaya). Islands are mountainous with dense rain forests, and some have active volcanoes. Most of the smaller islands belong to larger groups, like the Moluccas (Spice Islands).


Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous nation, is 86 percent Muslim—and the largest Islamic country, though it is a secular state. Indonesians are separated by seas and clustered on islands. The largest cluster is on Java, with some 130 million inhabitants (60 percent of the country's population) on an island the size of New York State. Sumatra, much larger than Java, has less than a third of its people
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Default Weather Facts

Temperature Facts

On January 22 1943, the temperature at Spearfish, South Dakota (USA) rose from minus 20C (minus 4F) at 7.30am to 7C (45F) at 7.32 am (a 27C rise in just 2 minutes!).
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Temperatures dipped below freezing in the north central U.S. Five cities in North Dakota and Nebraska reported record low temperatures for the date, including Bismarck ND with a reading of 17 degrees above zero. Low pressure brought snow and sleet to parts of Upper Michigan.

The temperature at Minneapolis, MN, reached 90 degrees, their latest such
reading of record.

Freezing temperatures were reported in the Great Lakes Region and the Ohio Valley. Houghton Lake MI reported a record low of 21 degrees.
The temperature at Sentinel AZ soared to 116 degrees to establish an October record for the nation.

Freezing temperatures were reported in the Northern and Central Appalachians, and the Upper Ohio Valley. The morning low of 27 degrees at Concord NH tied their record for the date. Temperatures soared into the 90s in South Dakota. Pierre SD reported an afternoon high of 98 degrees.

The temperature soared to 104 degrees at San Diego, CA. Southern California was in the midst of a late October heat wave that year. Los Angeles had ten consecutive days with afternoon highs reaching 100 degrees.

The temperature at Honolulu, Hawaii, reached 94 degrees to establish an all-time record at that location.

The temperature at Wichita Falls TX soared to 108 degrees to establish a record for September.

The temperature at Deeth NV soared from a morning low of 12 degrees to a high of 87 degrees, a record daily warm-up for the state.

Twenty-three cities in the south central U.S. reported record low temperatures for the date, including Topeka KS with a reading of 33 degrees, and Binghamton NY with a low of 25 degrees. Showers and thunderstorms in the southeastern U.S. drenched Atlanta GA with 4.87 inches of rain, their sixth highest total of record for any given ay.

In Australia, Marble Bar (WA) recorded maximum temperatures equaling or exceeding 37.8C (100F) on 161 consecutive days (between 30 October 1923 and 7 April 1924)
In New York in 1988 the temperature stayed above 32C for 32 days and the murder rate soared by 75%.

The greatest recorded temperature range in Australia is 57.2C, measured in White Cliffs (NSW) where the maximum has risen to over 50C and the minimum has fallen to minus 7C.

The worlds greatest temperature range at a single location is 105C, from minus 68C to 37C recorded at Verkhoyansk, Siberia.

The temperature at West Yellowstone MT plunged to six degrees below zero, while the temperature at San Francisco CA soared to 94 degrees.

San Diego CA reached an all-time record high of 111 degrees. Los Angeles hit 109 degrees.

The Australian record is 53.1C (127.6F) recorded at Cloncurry (QLD) on 16 January 1889.

The highest temperature recorded in the world is 58.0C (136.4F) at Al,Azizyah in Libya on 13 September 1922.

Only Perisher Valley and Kiandra have ever fallen below minus 20C.

The Australian record low is minus 23.0C recorded at Charlotte Pass (NSW) on 29 June 1994.

The lowest temperature recorded in the world is minus 89.6C at the Vostok Scientific Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983.

Rainfall Facts

Exmouth in Western Australia received some 322mm of rain in the first week of June 2002. 305mm of this total falling in just 24 hours on June 4.

A rainbow was visible for 6 hours (from 9am to 6pm) at Wetherby, Yorkshire (UK) on 14 March 1994. This is rare as most rainbows last for only a few minutes.

The total amount of precipitation to fall to earth in one year is 5,000 million million tones.

The amount of water held in the atmosphere at any time is sufficient to produce about 2.5cm (1 inch) of rain over the surface of the earth.

The most rain to fall in a single 24 hour period is 1,850mm (74 inches) at Cilaos (on the Indian Ocean island of Reunion) between 15 and 16 March 1952.

The Driest place in Australia is Mulka Bore, west of Lake Eyre (SA), with an average annual rainfall of 100mm (4 inches).

The driest place on earth is Wadi Halfa in Sudan, with an annual average rainfall of less than 2.5 mm (less than one-tenth of an inch).

In NSW, the wettest town is Dorrigo with an average of 2,004mm per year.
On average, the wettest town in Australia is Tully (N QLD) with an annual average rainfall of 4,204mm.

In Australia, Bellenden Kerr (NE QLD) received 11,251mm in 1979. With a massive 960mm of this total falling in just 24 hours on January 3/4.

The wettest place in the world (based on the yearly average total) is Mawsynram, India, which receives an average of 11,870mm (474.8 inches) of rain each year.

Low pressure off the Northern Pacific Coast brought rain and gale force winds to the coast of Washington State. Fair weather prevailed across most of the rest of the nation.

The famous "Pumpkin Flood" occurred on the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers. Harrisburg PA reported a river stage of twenty-two feet. The heavy rains culminated a wet season.

A west coast hurricane moved onshore south of Los Angeles bringing unprecedented rains along the southern coast of California.

The most consistently wet place in Australia is Waratah, (TAS) with an average of 314 'rainy days' per year.

The longest dry spell of record in the U.S. commenced as Bagdad CA went 767 days without rain.

The summit is 1,569m (5,148ft) above sea level and receives over 350 days of rain each year.

The wettest place in the world is Mt Wai-'ale-'ale in Hawaii ........

Wind Facts

The windiest place in the world is Port Martin, Antarctica, which has an average wind speed over a year of 64 km/h (40 mph). It experiences gale force 8 winds for over a hundred days a year!

The most violent tornado in recorded history struck on 18 March 1925, killing 689 people, injuring 1980 others, destroying 4 towns, severely damaging 6 others and leaving 11,000 homeless across Missouri, Indiana and Illinois.

The fastest winds on earth are inside a tornado funnel. Winds here have been recorded at 480 km/h (300 mph).

The Australian wind record goes to Mardie in Western Australia, when winds gusted to 259 km/h (162 mph) during Cyclone "Trixie" on 19 February 1975.
This movement of air is what makes the wind blow.

A cold front brought strong and gusty winds to the Great Basin and the Southern Plateau Region, with wind gusts to 44 mph reported at Kingman AZ.

The hurricane which hit Miami FL on the 18th, pounded Pensacola FL with wind gusts to 152 mph. Winds raged in excess of 100 mph for four hours, and above 75 mph for 20 hours.

Wet air is lighter than dry air.

Then cool air moves in and replaces the rising warm air.
Thunderstorms produced high winds in eastern Colorado, with gusts to 63 mph reported at La Junta.

Warm air, which weighs less than cool air, rises.

The strongest wind gust recorded on the surface of the earth is 371km/h (231 mph) at Mount Washington, New Hampshire (USA) on 12 April 1934.

Clouds Facts

Clouds can reflect so much ultraviolet light from the sunlight they dramatically increase the ultraviolet reaching the ground.

Sunbathing on sunny days with clouds in the sky can be dangerous.

The biggest clouds are cumulonimbus, climbing up to 9.7 kilometers (6 miles) high and holding up to half a million tons of water.

Cloud droplets are extremely small. They are about ten thousandth of an inch across, a thousand times smaller than a raindrop.

Snow and Ice Facts

The largest piece of ice to fall to earth was an ice block 6 meters (20 ft) across that fell in Scotland on 13 August 1849.

The largest hailstone recorded fell on 14 April 1986 in Bangladesh weighing 1kg (2.25lbs). The hailstorm reportedly killed 92 people.

The largest snowflakes in the world fell across Fort Keogh in Montana (USA) on 28 January 1887.

Mt Kilimanjaro in Tanzania is the only permanent snowcap within sight of the equator.

Permanent snow and ice cover about 12% (21 million square km's) of the Earth's land surface. 80% of the world's fresh water is locked up as ice or snow.

A single snowstorm can drop 40 million tons of snow, carrying the energy equivalent to 120 atom bombs.

There is NOT a law of nature that prohibits 2 snowflakes from being identical.
Denver CO received 9.6 inches of snow. October of that year proved to be the coldest and snowiest of record for Denver, with a total snowfall for the month of 31.2 inches.

Light snow falls in Canberra during most years, but it rarely accumulates to more than a few centimeters.

In Australia, snowfalls are common above 1,500m in the Alps during the winter, but there are no permanent snowfields anywhere on the continent.
Denver CO was buried under 21.3 inches of snow, 19.4 inches of which fell in 24 hours. The heavy wet snow snapped trees and wires causing seven million dollars damage.

Parts of Michigan and Wisconsin experienced their first freeze of the autumn. Snow and sleet were reported in the Sheffield and Sutton areas of northeastern Vermont at midday.

The most snow produced in a single snowstorm is 4.8 meters (15.75ft) at Mt Shasta Ski Bowl, California (USA) between 13 and 19 February 1959.

Sunshine Facts

Lightning is 5 times hotter then the surface of the sun.

Residents of the northeastern U.S. observed a blue sun and a blue moon, caused by forest fires in British Columbia.

Melbourne (VIC) has the dubious honour of being Australia's least sunny capital with an average of 5.7 hours of sunshine each day.

In Australia, Darwin (NT) is the sunniest capital with an average of 8.5 hours a day.

Yuma in Arizona (USA) is the sunniest place in the world.

Dust Facts

In May 1962, strong westerly winds resulted in such a thick dust haze in Sydney, that Bankstown Airport had to close for almost 4 hours.

In Australia's capital cities dust storms are somewhat of a rarity, but have, nonetheless, been responsible for causing significant inconvenience to city life.

In Australia, the most severe dust storms usually occur across the dry interior of the continent during the summer months.

Strom Facts

A storm blanketed Worcester, MA, with 7.5 inches of snow, a record snowfall total for so early in the season for that location.

A tropical wave, later to become Tropical Storm Isabel, struck Puerto Rico.

As much as 24 inches of rain fell in 24 hours, and the severe flooding and numerous landslides resulting from the rain claimed about 180 lives.

A second early season snowstorm produced eleven inches at Wilkes Barre PA and 26 inches at Auburn NY. All the mountains in the northeastern U.S. were whitened with snow.

Thunderstorms developing ahead of a cold front produced large hail in southeastern Wyoming during the afternoon, with tennis ball size hail reported at Cheyenne. Strong winds ushering the cold air into the north central U.S. gusted to 59 mph at Lander WY.

A record early season snowstorm struck the Central High Plains Region. The storm left up to nineteen inches of snow along the Colorado Front Range, and as much as a foot of snow in the High Plains Region.

Thunderstorms produced high winds and locally heavy rain in the southwestern U.S. One thunderstorm in west Texas produced wind gusts to 86 mph at Dell City completely destroying an airport hangar.

Tropical Storm Emily, which formed in the Carribean the previous afternoon, caused considerable damage to the banana industry of Saint Vincent in the Windward Islands.

A storm produced 28 inches of snow at Colorado Springs CO.

Showers and thunderstorms produced locally heavy rains in central Wyoming, and snow in some of the higher elevations. Casper WY reported 1.75 inches of rain in 24 hours, and a thunderstorm north of the Wild Horse Reservoir produced 1.90 inches of rain in just forty minutes.

Afternoon and evening thunderstorms produced severe weather in Oklahoma and west Texas. In Oklahoma, a thunderstorm at Seiling produced three inches of rain in one hour, golf ball size hail, and wind gusts to 60 mph which collapsed a tent at the state fair injuring nine persons.

Thunderstorms can generate gusts of wind that can develop additional thunderstorms 100 miles away.

The Empire State Building has been struck by lightning a dozen time in a single storm.

A government study showed that one small thunderstorm held more than 33 million gallons of water.

Supercells are the most dangerous types of thunder storms.

An exceedingly great storm struck eastern New England causing extensive coastal damage from Massachusetts to Maine, and the highest tide in 47 years.

The second in a series of unusual October storms hit southern California causing widespread thunderstorms. Santa Maria was drenched with 1.13 inches of rain in two hours.

A great storm struck New England. The storm reportedly was predicted twelve months in advance by a British officer named Saxby. Heavy rains and high floods plagued all of New England, with strong winds and high tides over New Hampshire and Maine. Canton CT was deluged with 12.35 inches of rain.

Tornado Facts

Hurricane Beulah moved into South Texas, and torrential rains from the hurricane turned the rich agricultural areas of South Texas into a large lake. Beulah also spawned a record 115 tornadoes.
A tornado traveled 275 miles across Lake Ontario, New York and Lake Champlain.

One South Dakota tornado was observed hovering in a field for 45 minutes.
In 1967, Hurricane Beulah unleased 115 tornadoes over Texas.

The tornado is the most violent of all earth's storms.

The average lifespan of a tornado is less than 15 minutes.

Hurricane Hilda struck Louisiana spawning many tornadoes, and claimed twenty-two lives

The first killer tornado of record in October in Connecticut destroyed sixteen vintage aircraft at the Bradley Air Museum in Windsor Locks. The tornado damaged more than one hundred homes causing 200 million dollars damage.

Three persons were killed, and 500 others were injured.

Three tornadoes spawned by the remnants of Hurricane Gracie killed 12 persons at Ivy VA.

A tornado 440 yards in width traveled twenty miles from near Hollow OK to western Cherokee County KS. Although a strong tornado, it was very slow moving, and gave a tremendous warning roar, and as a result no one was killed.

A heavy chicken house, sixteen by sixteen feet in area, was picked up by a tornado and wedged between two trees. The hens were found the next day sitting on their eggs in the chicken house, with no windows broken, as though nothing had happened.

An outbreak of tornadoes from Oklahoma to Indiana caused 81 deaths and 25 million dollars damage. A tornado (possibly two tornadoes) cut an eight-mile long path across Saint Louis MO, to Granite City IL, killing 79 persons. The damage path at times was a mile and a quarter in width.
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..................................INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT SINGAPORE

Singapore consists only of one main island and 63 other tiny islands. Most of these islands are uninhabited.


Singapore is among the 20 smallest countries in the world, with a total land area of only 682.7 square kilometres. The USA is about 15,000 times bigger.


Apart from Monaco, Singapore is the most densely populated country in the world, with 6,430 people per square kilometre.


Singapore became the 117th member of the United Nations on 21 September 1965.


Symbolism of the National Flag: Red symbolises universal brotherhood and equality of man while white signifies purity and virtue. The crescent moon represents a young nation on the rise and the five stars signify the ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality.


The national flower of Singapore, Vanda Miss Joaquim, was first discovered in 1893 by Agnes Joaquim, an Armenian. The orchid is a natural hybrid between V. teres and V. hookeriana.


The Merlion, a half-fish, half-lion beast, is a fitting symbol of Singapore. The "Singa" or lion represents the animal that a Sumatran prince saw which resembled a lion, and the fish is a tribute to Singapore's history as "Temasek", the ancient sea town.


Singlish, a Singaporean patois mixing English with the odd phrase of Chinese, Malay and even Tamil, has two entries - lah and sinseh - in the online version of the Oxford English Dictionary.


Although English is the official working language and the most widely used language in Singapore, the national anthem 'Majulah Singapura' is actually sung in Malay.


The flying fox, the world's largest bat with a wingspan of up to 1.5 metres, can be found on Pulau Ubin, one of the islands off mainland Singapore.


Singapore is a stopover point for thousands of migratory birds travelling the East Asian Flyway.


The world's first night zoo, The Night Safari, is located in Singapore.


Despite being largely urbanised, Singapore is the largest exporter of ornamental fish (25% of the world market).


The Bukit Timah Nature Reserve in Singapore contains more species of trees than the entire North American continent.


The highest natural point in Singapore is Bukit Timah Hill, which is only 164 metres high (Singapore has a very flat terrain).


Buildings in Singapore cannot be higher than 280 metres. There are presently three buildings of that height: OUB Centre, UOB Plaza and Republic Plaza.


The world's highest man-made waterfall, standing at 30 metres, is located at the Jurong BirdPark.


The largest fountain in the world is located in Singapore at Suntec City. Made of cast bronze, it cost an estimated US$6 million to build in 1997.


The buildings of Suntec City have been built in the shape of a palm of a hand symbolising good "feng shui".


In 2003, Singapore's Changi Airport won the award for "Best Airport Worldwide" for the 16th consecutive year from the UK/Europe edition of the Business Traveller magazine.


The Guinness book record for the longest human domino chain was set in Singapore on 30th September 2000. Formed by 9,234 students, it measured 4.2km.


The world domino topple record (303,621 men) was set in Singapore on 18th August 2003 by a 24-year-old woman from China.


The record for the biggest ever game of pass-the-parcel was set in Singapore on 28 February 1998. It involved 3,918 students removing 2,200 wrappers from a 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.5 m parcel.


The record for the most number of people participating in line dancing was set in Singapore in May 2002 with 11,967 dancers.


The Great Singapore Duck Race, an annual event that raises funds for charity, set a new world record in 2002 when more than 123,000 toy ducks took to the Singapore River.


Russell Lee, a pseudonym for a team of ghost-writers, is the hottest-selling local author in Singapore. His 11 volumes of True Singapore Ghost Stories have sold more than 600,000 copies to date.


The fastest selling book of all time in Singapore is Hello Chok Tong, Goodbye Kuan Yew: The Untold Story. Written and drawn by political cartoonist George Nonis, it sold 40,000 copies in two months.


The highest grossing movie of all time in Singapore is Titanic, raking in S$6.65 million in 1997.


The highest grossing locally made movie of all time is Money No Enough, raking in S$6.02 million in 1998.


The first Singaporean film to be shown at the Cannes Film Festival was director Eric Khoo's 12 Storeys in 1997.


British pop violinist Vanessa Mae Nicholson was born in Singapore and moved to England when she was four.


More Singaporeans are born in the month of October than any other month of the year.


The first population census taken in 1824 revealed that the total population was 10,683.


The 2000 census showed that the population of Singapore is 4.2 million.


Nearly 9 out of 10 Singaporeans live in public housing flats.


The most common Chinese surnames in Singapore are Tan, Lim and Lee.


Singapore has more than 3,000 kilometres of roads. Stretched end to end, they can cover the distance from Singapore to Hong Kong.


8 in 10 people in Singapore own cell phones. In fact, telecom companies issue new numbers at the rate of 30,000 to 40,000 per month.


Singapore's best showing in the Olympic Games: Silver medal won by weightlifter Tan Howe Liang in Rome (1960) followed by a Silver Medal won by the women’s table tennis team in Beijing (2008).


Swimmer Ang Peng Siong was ranked world number one in the 50m Freestyle in 1982.


The Singapore Sling was first served in 1915 at the Long Bar of the Raffles Hotel. The ingredients are gin, Cointreau, cherry brandy, Dom Benedictine, pineapple juice, Grenadine, Angoustura bitters and limes
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Default Human Body Facts

Eyes Facts




We should never put anything in or near our eyes, unless we have a reason to use eye drops. We would only do that if our doctor or parent told us to use them.

Blinking helps to wash tears over our eyeballs. That keeps them clean and moist. Also, if something is about to hit our eye, we will blink automatically.

Our body has some natural protection for our eyes. Our eyelashes help to keep dirt out of our eyes. Our eyebrows are made to keep sweat from running into our eyes.

Our eyes are very important to us, and we must protect them. We don't want dirt, sand, splinters or even fingers to get in our eyes. We don't want our eyes to get scratched or poked. That could damage our sight!

The study of the iris of the eye is called iridology.

The shark cornea has been used in eye surgery, since its cornea is similar to a human cornea.

The number one cause of blindness in adults in the United States is diabetes.

The eyeball of a human weighs approximately 28 grams.

The eye of a human can distinguish 500 shades of the gray.

The cornea is the only living tissue in the human body that does not contain any blood vessels.

The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the human eye.

Sailors once thought that wearing a gold earring would improve their eyesight.
Research has indicated that a tie that is on too tight cam increase the risk of glaucoma in men.
People generally read 25% slower from a computer screen compared to paper.

Men are able to read fine print better than women can.

In the United States, approximately 25,000 eye injuries occur that result in the person becoming totally blind.

All babies are colour blind when they are born.

A human eyeball weighs an ounce.

If the lens in our eye doesn't work quite right, we can get glasses to help us see. Glasses have lenses in them that work with our eye's own lens to help us see better.

Babies' eyes do not produce tears until the baby is approximately six to eight weeks old.

The reason why your nose gets runny when you are crying is because the tears from the eyes drain into the nose.

The most common injury caused by cosmetics is to the eye by a mascara wand.

Some people start to sneeze if they are exposed to sunlight or have a light shined into their eye.

The highest recorded speed of a sneeze is 165 km per hour.

It is impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.

The space between your eyebrows is called the Glabella.

Inside our eye, at the back, is a part called the "retina." On the retina are cells called "rods" and "cones." These rods and cones help us to see colors and light.

Just behind the pupil is a lens. It is round and flat. It is thicker toward the middle.

Over the front of our eye is a clear covering called the "conjunctiva."

The white part of our eye is called the "sclera." At the front, the sclera becomes clear and is called the "cornea."

Around the pupil is a colored muscle called the "iris." Our eyes may be BLUE, BROWN, GREEN, GRAY OR BLACK, because that is the color of the iris.

Our eyes have many parts. The black part on the front of our eye is called the "pupil." It is really a little hole that opens into the back part of our eyes.

Your eyes blinks over 10,000,000 times a year!


Brain Facts

Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression than men in the United States.

The human brain has about 100,000,000,000 (100 billion) neurons.

From all the oxygen that a human breathes, twenty percent goes to the brain.

People who ride on roller coasters have a higher chance of having a blood clot in the brain.

Once a human reaches the age of 35, he/she will start losing approximately 7,000 brain cells a day. The cells will never be replaced.

It is not possible to tickle yourself. The cerebellum, a part of the brain, warns the rest of the brain that you are about to tickle yourself. Since your brain knows this, it ignores the resulting sensation.
A
women from Berlin Germany has had 3,110 gallstones taken out of her gall bladder.

In America, the most common mental illness is Anxiety Disorders.

Your brain is 80% water.

Your brain is move active and thinks more at night than during the day.


Blood Facts


Two million red blood cells die every second.

There are approximately 100,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body.

Seven percent of a humans body weight is made up of blood.

In the early nineteenth century some advertisements claimed that riding the carousel was good for the circulation of blood.

Each day 400 gallons of recycled blood are pumped through the kidneys.

By donating just one pint of blood, four lives can be saved.

Blood is such a good stain that Native Americans used it for paint.

The kidneys filter over 400 gallons of blood each day.

The average life span of a single red blood cell is 120 days.

Blood accounts for about 8% of a human's body weight.

A woman has approximately 4.5 liters of blood in her body, while men have 5.6 liters.

Your blood takes a very long trip through your body. If you could stretch out all of a human's blood vessels, they would be about 60,000 miles long. That's enough to go around the world twice.

Half your bodys red blood cells are replaced every seven days.

If all the blood vessels in your body were laid end to end, they would reach about 60,000 miles.


Heart Facts


Women hearts beat faster than men.

Three years after a person quits smoking, there chance of having a heart attack is the same as someone who has never smoked before.

The human heart weighs less than a pound.

The human heart can create enough pressure that it could squirt blood at a distance of thirty feet.

The first open heart surgery was performed by Dr. Daniel Hall Williams in 1893.

Scientists have discovered that the longer the ring finger is in boys the less chance they have of having a heart attack.

The right lung of a human is larger than the left one. This is because of the space and placement of the heart.

The human heart beat roughly 35 million times a year.

Olive oil can help in lowering cholesterol levels and decreasing the risk of heart complications.

In a lifetime, the heart pumps about one million barrels of blood.

In 1967, the first successful heart transplant was performed in Cape Town, South Africa.

People that suffer from gum disease are twice as likely to have a stroke or heart attack.

Most heart attacks occur between the hours of 8 and 9 AM.

The human heart beast roughly 35 million times a year.

At one time it was thought that the heart controlled a person's emotions.

Every day 2,700 people die of heart disease.

During a typical human life span, the human heart will beat approximately 2.5 billion times.

In one day your heart beats 100,000 times.

For humans the normal pulse is 70 heartbeats per minute.


Bones Facts


The smallest bone in the human body is the stapes bone which is located in the ear.

There are 54 bones in your hands including the wrists.

The only bone fully grown at birth is located in the ear.

The human face is made up of 14 bones.

The chances of getting a cavity is higher if candy is eaten slowly throughout the day compared to eating it all at once and then brushing your teeth.

If an identical twin grows up without having a certain tooth, the other twin will most likely also grow up with that tooth missing.

Humans are born with 300 bones in their body, however when a person reaches adulthood they only have 206 bones. This occurs because many of them join together to make a single bone.

Gardening is said to be one of the best exercises for maintaining healthy bones.

Enamel is hardest substance in the human body.

Although the outsides of a bone are hard, they are generally light and soft inside. They are about 75% water.

Adult human bones account for 14% of the body's total weight.

In 2000 babies are born with a tooth that is already visible.

Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails!

Your thigh bone is stronger than concrete.

The strongest bone in your body is the femur (thighbone), and it's hollow!


Body Facts




In one day, a human sheds 10 billion skin flakes. This amounts to approximately two kilograms in a year.

Every square inch of the human body has about 19,000,000 skin cells.

Approximately 25% of all scald burns to children are from hot tap water and is associated with more deaths than with any other liquid.

Forty-one percent of women apply body and hand moisturizer at least three times a day.

Every hour one billion cells in the body must be replaced.

The world record for the number of body piercing on one individual is 702, which is held by Canadian Brent Moffat.

The small intestine in the human body is about 2 inches around, and 22 feet long.

The human body makes anywhere from 1 to 3 pints of saliva every 24 hours.

The human body has approximately 37,000 miles of capillaries.

The aorta, which is largest artery located in the body, is about the diameter of a garden hose.

The adult human body requires about 88 pounds of oxygen daily.

It is very common for babies in New Zealand to sleep on sheepskins. This is to help them gain weight faster, and retain their body heat.

An average women has 17 square feet of skin. When a women is in her ninth month of pregnancy she has 18.5 square feet of skin.

The width of your armspan stretched out is the length of your whole body.

41% of women apply body or hand moisturizer a minimum three times a day.



A human's small intestine is 6 meters long.

There are as many hairs per square inch on your body as a chimpanzee. You don't see all of them because most are too fine and light to be noticed.

Every hour one billion cells in the body must be replaced.

Dead cells in the body ultimately go to the kidneys for excretion.

By walking an extra 20 minutes every day, an average person will burn off seven pounds of body fat in an year.
The human body is 75% water.

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Diseases Facts


People that use mobile phones are 2.5 time more likely to develop cancer in areas of the brain that are adjacent to the ear they use to talk on the mobile phone.

Over 90% of diseases are caused or complicated by stress.

Over 436,000 U.S. Troops were exposed to depleted uranium during the first Gulf war.

On average, 90% of the people that have the disease Lupus are female.

Many cancer patients that are treated with chemotherapy lose their hair. For some when the hair grows back, it can grow back a different colour, or be curly or straight.

Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., accounting for about 180,000 deaths per year.

Chances of a women getting breast cancer are increased by excessive use of alcohol.

A popular superstition is that if you put a piece of bread in a baby's crib, it will keep away diseases.

A person that is struck by lightning has a greater chance of developing motor neurons disease.

Every year in the U.S., there are 178,000 new cases of lung cancer.

Every three minutes a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer.

Asthma affects one in fifteen children under the age of eighteen.

Every eleven minutes in the U.S., a woman dies of breast cancer.

Due to eating habits in the USA, one in three children born in the year 2000 have a chance of getting type II diabetes.

The oldest known disease in the world is leprosy.

The number one cause of rabies in the United States are bats.

Coughing can cause air to move through your windpipe faster than the speed of sound over a thousand feet per second!

A headache and inflammatory pain can be reduced by eating 20 tart cherries.

The incidents of immune system diseases has increased over 200% in the last five years.

The flu pandemic of 1918 killed over 20 million people.

Each year in America there are about 300,000 deaths that can be attributed to obesity.

Every three days a human stomach gets a new lining.

The first owner of the Marlboro Company, Wayne McLaren, died of lung cancer.

Soldiers disease is a term for morphine addiction. The Civil War produced over 400,000 morphine addicts.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by ticks.

A person afflicted with hexadectylism has six fingers or six toes on one or both hands and feet.

A study indicates that smokers are likely to die on average six and a half years earlier than non-smokers.

A person who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day will on average lose two teeth every ten years.

Lady Peseshet is known to be the world's first known female physician. She practiced during the time of the pyramids, which was the fourth dynasty.

The DNA of humans is closer to a rat than a cat.

Teenage suicide is the second cause of death in the state of Wisconsin.

Teenage cosmetic surgeries nearly doubled in the USA between 1996 and 1998.

Studies indicate that weightlifters working out in blue gyms can handle heavier weights.

Studies indicate that listening to music is good for digestion.

Studies indicate that epileptic patients that listen to Mozart's Piano Sonata can dramatically decrease their chance of a seizure.

Lack of sleep can affect your immune system and reduce your ability to fight infections.

It takes about three hours for food to be broken down in the human stomach.

Over 40 million Americans have chronic bad breath.

Carbon monoxide can kill a person in less than 15 minutes.

Fourteen people die each day from asthma in the United States.

Every day the human stomach produces about 2 liters of hydrochloric acid.

Nearly half of all Americans suffer from symptoms of burnout.In humans, the epidermal layer of skin, which consists of many layers of skin regenerates every 27 days.

Native Americans used to use pumpkin seeds for medicine.

In ancient Egypt, doctors used jolts from the electric catfish to reduce the pain of arthritis.

The lining of the a person's stomach is replaced every 36 hours.

The purpose of tonsils is to destroy foreign substances that are swallowed or breathed in.

In the United States, poisoning is the fourth leading cause of death among children.

The risk of cardiovascular disease is twice as high in women that snore regularly compared to women who do not snore.

The stomach of an adult can hold 1.5 liters of material.

The stomach can break down goat's milk faster than the milk of a cow.

The smoke that is produced by a fire kills more people than a burn does because of carbon monoxide and other dangerous gases.

It has been medically been proven that laughter is an effective pain killer.

Influenza caused over twenty-one million deaths in 1918.

In a year, there are 60,000 trampoline injuries that occur in the U.S.

Even if you eat food standing on your head, the food will still end up in your stomach.

A person infected with the SARS virus, has a 95-98% chance of recovery.

3000 children die every day in Africa because of malaria.
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