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Old Friday, August 05, 2005
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Default LeaderShip Skills

Asurvey conducted by CIMA as part of Global Business Management Week 2000 among business leaders from Asia, the United States, the Middle East, the UK, France and Germany showed that leadership (rated against nine other qualities) as the most important skill for business leaders of the future. Finding and retaining quality people was overwhelmingly chosen as the most important factor for success of businesses worldwide. The ability to achieve this and to maximise the potential of human capital depends greatly on visionary leaders who have a portfolio of skills, combining ‘softer skills’ such as vision and communication with more technical capabilities and know-how. In a world of great uncertainty and great opportunity, leadership is important for the success of your organisation and the fulfilment of the people working in it.
Extensive research conducted by The Industrial Society (an organisation campaigning to improve working life) in 1996 on what individuals and teams expect to see in their leaders, led it to review its beliefs on the nature of leadership.

The Society’s five core beliefs on leadership are:

1. People in an organisation need to believe that they can give it a
competitive edge by creating an environment where people can continually
contribute to an organisation’s success.

2. The ability to be regarded as a leader exists at all levels and is not restricted to those in a management role.

3. What a person says and does (which is influenced by their beliefs) enables
others to perceive that person as a leader and choose to follow.

4. Leadership behaviours can be developed and beliefs can be changed over
time.

5. Many leadership behaviours have failed to harness the full potential of people at work and have resulted in compliance rather than commitment.
This briefing looks at the nature of leadership in the 21st century
as well as offering practical guidance on improving your leadership
skills by looking at both what leaders do and how they do it.
Some feel that leadership is an art and those good at it will see it as
common sense. However, models and insights into leadership and
skills profiles can be useful tools to aid self-development and to
achieve better results. This is not to say that there is one ideal
model of leadership but rather to improve your approach in your job.

DEVELOPING AND PROMOTING STRATEGY MAY 2001
Leadership Skills –

An Overview
IN THIS BRIEFING… Part 1

Leadership:
definition and traits Part 2

A brief guide to leadership theories and models Part 3

Leaders v. managers? Part 4

Business leadership in the new economy Part 5

Barriers to successful leadership Part 6

Leadership training Part 7

References for further reading and bibliography


Technical Briefing
TECHNICAL BRIEFING LEADERSHIP SKILLS – AN OVERVIEW 2
A common definition of leadership states that it is ‘the
process through which leaders influence the attitudes,
behaviours and values of others’ (Hagen et al, 1998). As
with many other ‘soft’ issues, the definition is somewhat
vague in that it does not address the question of how
leaders actually conduct the process of influencing.
Organisational structure, personalities of leaders and
followers, the context in which they operate and so on, all
play a part in determining the function and style of leadership.
Such a great number of variables make constructing
a profile of a good leader impossible. However –
again as with many soft management issues – the exact
definition is less important than the fundamental principles
behind the concept. Although there is no one definitive
model, there is now something of a broad consensus
about the basic qualities a leader should possess.

Vision
Vision is what most people choose as the defining characteristic
of great leaders, whether in business or otherwise.
They seem to have unfaltering – but not inflexible – belief about where the company is heading and what needs to be accomplished to get there. They are capable of seeing the ‘big picture’ before anyone else. This certainty and
focus can provide stability throughout the organisation. Vision needs to be conveyed all the way through the company, so that even a post-room worker feels that he or she is making a contribution. This is achieved not by
simply formalising it in rules and procedures but by having inspirational people who can communicate the message clearly and directly.

Trust and communication
Crucially, leaders are also active listeners who can see another’s point of view. This empathy allows them to forge trust between themselves and their followers, which forms the foundations of their relationship. Without such
firm grounding, the task of leadership would be impossible – you cannot take people with you if they don’t trust you. Research clearly shows that perceptions of a person’s overall effectiveness as a leader are correlated with people’s trust (Fairholm ed, 2000). Trust needs continuous nourishment and cannot be forced or commanded.

Passion and motivation
Leaders bring passion into work. Their pursuit of goals and objectives is imbued with optimism. There is an alarming statistic which claims that only 16 per cent of employees say they used more than half of their talents at
work. Because of poor leadership, people do not apply themselves, probably because they don’t see their work as being worthwhile, significant or capable of making any real difference in the world. Exceptional leaders make us
want to work both harder and smarter. Because they are passionate and infuse everything they do with a sense of purpose, making it a part of a greater goal, we are eager to participate. They make us see how our individual
effort adds value to our company’s work. Leaders empower staff at all levels of the organisation to be the leaders themselves. In doing so, they expect and tolerate mistakes but they also ensure that those mistakes are
used to generate better performance in future. Gallup organisation conducted some 40,000 interviews with leaders and top managers over a period of 30 years. As a result, they compiled a list of 20 ‘talents’ or ‘themes’
which they defined as recurring patterns of thought, feeling and behaviours that predispose someone to leadership (Fulmer and Wagner, 1999).

The ‘talents’ are divided into the following categories:

Direction – relates to a leader’s abilities to provide motivation
1 vision able to create and project beneficial images
2 concept able to give the best explanation of most events
3 focus is goal oriented Drive to execute – relates to motivation
4 ego drive defines oneself as significant
5 competition has the desire to win
6 achiever is energetic
7 courage relished challenges
8 activator is proactive Relationships – relates to capacity to develop relationships with others
9 relater can build trust and be caring
10 developer desires to help people grow
11 multirelater has wide circle of relationships
12 individual perception recognises people’s individuality
13 stimulator can create good feelings in others
14 team can get people to help each other Management systems – relates to management abilities
15 performance orientation is goal oriented
16 discipline needs to structure time and work
environment
17 responsibility/ethics can take psychological ownership of own behaviour
18 arranger can coordinate people and activities
19 operational can administer systems that help people be more effective
20 strategic thinking is able to do ‘what if?’ thinking and create paths to future goals

Further research published last year adds another four qualities. In addition to the core skills of vision, strategic direction and so on, inspirational leaders demonstrate that they:

Part 1 –
Leadership: definition and traits
TECHNICAL BRIEFING LEADERSHIP SKILLS – AN OVERVIEW 3

 selectively show their weaknesses;
By exposing vulnerability, they reveal their approachability and humanity.

 rely heavily on intuition to gauge the appropriate timing and course of their actions; Their ability to collect and interpret soft data helps them know when and how to act.

 manage employees with...tough empathy;
Inspirational leaders empathise passionately – and realistically – with people and they care intensely about the work employees do.

 reveal their differences;
They capitalise on what is unique about themselves (Goffee and Jones, 2000).

The researchers behind the study, Goffee and Jones, claim
that successful leadership relies on the interplay between
all four of these qualities but stress that they cannot be
used mechanistically. Rather, they must become a part of
someone’s personality if they are to be effective.
Although some will have a head start in acquiring a
capacity for leadership, to some extent it is a learned
capacity, at which most can improve.

Part 2 –
A brief guide to leadership theories and models
Although we all realise the importance of leadership, it
still remains an elusive concept. Theorists tend to fall into
three groups. Those who focus on personal characteristics,
those who concentrate on the leader – follower
situation and those who attempt to relate leadership
styles to the overall organisation context and climate
(Burnes 2000).

Leadership models
The personal characteristics approach to leadership
Although there have been many accounts of successful
leaders (mainly military ones) throughout history,
research on leadership started in earnest in the 1950s
with the appearance of a first theory. The traits theory
attempted to identify individual qualities that predisposed
someone to leadership. In other words, it was
believed that some people were simply born to lead
because they possessed a set of innate skills and abilities.
To some extent, this is true because leadership is an art
and not a science but numerous empirical studies have
failed to reveal any consistent pattern of traits.
Furthermore, it does not help us understand the type of
behaviours that characterise good leadership.
The stress on leadership gave rise to a number of universal
theories (Burnes 2000). One of the best-known leadership
models was Blake and Moulton’s managerial grid
(often referred to as the leadership grid), and remains a
popular training tool today. It positions four types of
leadership between the two axes of people and task. A
leader could be more task- or people-oriented and the
most desirable leaders scored high on both – the so-called
‘team leaders’ who successfully combine a democratic
approach with the right amount of non-authoritarian
control. This approach can be used to get people to assess
their management style and to judge whether it is appropriate
for their position. The empirical evidence support
for it, however, is limited.
The leader-follower situation approach
Given that any generalisation does not particularly help
our understanding of leadership, researchers’ attention
moved to identifying situations in which leaders are
effective and to concentrate on leaders’ actions and subsequently
on the context in which they led, out of which
behaviourist and situational theories of leadership were
born. The action-centred leadership approach of the
1960s (but still very relevant today), focused on three core
activities of leaders – achieving the required results (the
task), by building an effective team and growing and
developing each individual. Although the activities are
interdependent on each other, the underlying objective is
achieving the task. Even today, achieving purpose is a
crucial part of leadership. However, this model, and
other situational theories of leadership, have little to offer
on the necessary behaviours of good leaders, i.e. how
particular leadership behaviour affects subordinate performance.
Furthermore, the situational approach was
based on recognition that leaders needed to be technically
excellent. Getting ordinary people to do extraordinary
things, however, requires more than just having the
‘hard’ technical skills.
The contextual (or contingency) approach to leadership
The contextual approach to leadership has developed out
of the recognition that a manager’s effectiveness may be
determined as much by the nature of the organisation in
which he or she operates. It concentrates on leadership
style rather than behaviour. Contingency theory of leadership
asserts that leadership style depends on various
variables including traits, behaviour and situation. It
recognises that one leadership style will not be appropriate
in all situations and that leaders change their behaviour
from situation to situation. Vroom and Yetton (1973)
and James MacGregor Burns (1978) have developed the
most influential of contextual approaches.
Burns identified two basic organisational states, convergent
and divergent, and two matching leadership styles,
transactional and transformational. A convergent state,
where the organisation is operating under stable conditions,
lends itself to a transactional style of leadership
Transformational leader
Charisma: Provides vision and a sense of mission, instils pride, gains respect and trust.
Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important
purposes in simple ways.
Intellectual stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality and careful problem solving.
Individualised consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, and advises.
Transactional leader
Contingent reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance,
recognises accomplishments.
Management by exception Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.
(active):
Management by exception Intervenes only if standards are not met.
(passive):
Laissez-faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions.
Recent research has concentrated on the differences between leaders and managers and the importance of vision.
We have also witnessed the emergence of a new model entitled transformational leadership. It tries to avoid the pitfalls
of the previous theories by maintaining that leaders are not characterised by a set of specific skills but instead
engage in a process by which leaders and followers continuously push one another to higher levels of motivation.
TECHNICAL BRIEFING LEADERSHIP SKILLS – AN OVERVIEW
4
which is based on optimising performance through
incremental changes within existing policy and structure.
A divergent state is a situation where changes in the
environment challenge the organisation’s established
goals and way of working. In such a situation,
transformational leaders are required who aim to change
followers’ behaviour and beliefs and unite them behind a
new vision of the organisation’s future (Burnes 2000).
The contextual approach does not invalidate trait and situational
theories but rather emphasises that managers
need to adapt their approach according to the context that
they find themselves in. In reality, most managers combine
the best of both characteristics. A balance is required
between ‘take-action entrepreneurs and their constant
questioning of the rules....and the discipline and co-ordination
of conventional management’ (Kanter 1989).
From: Bass, B (1990), Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision reprinted in Steer et al
(1996), Motivation and Leadership at Work. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Reprinted by permission.
A further limitation to many leadership theories stems
from the fact that the research and literature has been
based on western organisations. Leader behaviour is
generally interpreted differently within different national
cultures. A supportive style in one country may be perceived
as threatening in another for example.
Part 3 –
Leaders versus manager?
Peter Drucker, one of the most famous leadership gurus,
once remarked that most of what we call management
consists of making it difficult for people to do their jobs.
It is a facetious way of saying that the task of management
is to impose structure on an organisation and order
its processes. The statement could exemplify the recent
trend in leadership literature that insists on making a
distinction between leaders and managers. Managers, it
is said, deal with structures and organise staff and
resources. Leaders, on the other hand, offer vision and
motivation and deal with change. Management, inadvertently
or not, is presented as being dull and mundane
(albeit necessary), while leadership is seen as creative
and exciting.
Some of these claims are undoubtedly valid but only
insofar as it is true that being at the top of the hierarchy
does not make you a leader. Emphasising a distinction
between leaders and managers too much, however, is
almost like giving permission to the latter to be unexceptional.
Being a manager is also about leading your team,
being inspirational and having vision about your future.
Maintaining that this is the sole preserve of the privileged
few can be seen as like granting a licence for bad
management. Henry Mintzberg, in his book The Nature of
Managerial Work in 1973, demonstrated that it is very difficult
to separate the function of managers from those of
leaders. In the typical corporate office environment,
managers have diverse roles where they combine the less
TECHNICAL BRIEFING LEADERSHIP SKILLS – AN OVERVIEW
5
romantic but practical activities such as organising, planning
and resource allocating, with leadership skills to
motivate and activate subordinates. The important point
that Mintzberg made, however, is that all these activities
are inherent in management roles but the degree to which
they play a primary role depends on the level of the role
within the organisation. An element of leadership is
inherent in most management roles, particularly now
that many organisations pass decision-making responsibilities
further down their hierarchies.
In the 21st century, we can go one step further. Is it not
also desirable to have leadership qualities in others who
are not perhaps in a management role? The process of
empowerment should also include enabling others to
organise, motivate and make things possible for others,
as well as enthusing and inspiring those around them.
Part 4 –
Business leadership in the
new economy
The importance of leadership can be traced to the earliest
human endeavours. From Alexander the Great and
Napoleon to Hitler and Gandhi, we have always reserved
a huge amount of respect or loathing for people capable
of influencing our behaviour. Business leaders too have
had a profound impact on companies. Think Jack Welch
of General Electric or Richard Branson of Virgin –
individuals who seem to single-handedly transform the
fortunes of their organisations.
Successful companies have always needed strong leaders.
However, in the new business patterns emerging
from the ashes of the dot com revolution, there seems to
be enough evidence to suggest that they will become
even more indispensable. The new world of business
demands a new way of working, one that is primarily
characterised by its responsiveness to change. We should
not forget, however, that the principles of effective leadership
in the e-world will not have changed.
Leadership and change
Nearly everyday we are reminded that the future core
competence of companies will be in their ability to continuously
and creatively destroy and remake themselves
in order to meet new demands. John F Kennedy
famously remarked that change is the law of life. The
accelerating pace of changes in the business and economic
environment means that, for many businesses, the
future is uncertain. Real change leaders have a sustained
commitment to change and drum up courage in those
around them to challenge the status quo and to gain a
commitment to a better way of doing things. On the
other hand, those who adopt a transactional management
style, based simply on formal authority derived from
position in the hierarchy, a rule-follower by any other
name, may not be inclined to taking a new approach to
doing things.
A vast majority of change programmes fail because of the
lack of buy-in from employees and not because of technical
hitches (Cambridge Management Consulting, 2001).
The human factor can be all-important and it is leaders
who are capable of galvanising staff into going the extra
mile that is demanded in contemporary business.
Because they operate on the basis of trust, employees are
more likely to follow despite the uncertainty of outcome.
Leadership and recruitment
GE’s Jack Welch once said that he has only three jobs as a
CEO, one of which was selecting the right people. One
consequence of a successful economy in the recent years
has been the crisis in recruitment and retention. The shift
to knowledge-intensive economy means that individuals
are much more expensive to replace. Skilled staff can
move jobs relatively easily, which in turn means they
require more than financial rewards to keep them motivated.
Indeed, they need to feel a sense of value, fulfil-
Leading into the e-world
 Technology
Knowledge gathering and sharing in an organisation
can be improved by the Internet, intranet,
e-mail and mobile communications. A leader
should recognise the advantages of these technologies
for improving organisational dynamics
such as increasing the speed of communication,
managing time better and building relationships
with remote parts of the organisation. Such technology
can also improve a company’s profile.
 Communication
Despite the advent of this technology, traditional
leadership approaches are still valid and the need
for effective interpersonal skills should not be
underestimated. How to listen, question, present
and write, how to conduct an effective meeting
and how to get the best out of a team – such skills
can be continually improved and self-development
in these areas will help to improve your
contribution as a leader.
 Relationships
Electronic communication is not appropriate
where a vision needs to be shared and commitment
gained or there are sensitive work issues
that need discussing and/or personal attention
needed. Persuading and influencing, for example,
are not effectively done using e-mail. Face-to-face
communication and being visible remains crucial
to becoming a good leader.
TECHNICAL BRIEFING LEADERSHIP SKILLS – AN OVERVIEW
6
In theory, good leadership – although not an exact
science – can be achieved. In practice, however, this often
does not happen. Individuals who are genuinely inspirational
and can build trust, integrity and fairness with
their people tend to be the exception. Admittedly, many
have not been adequately trained, coached or mentored
but there are managers who have been on many a course
yet still fail to improve.
What gets in the way of good leadership? The easiest
way of categorising the obstacles is by dividing them into
personal and organisational, although they are heavily
influenced by one another.
Personal barriers
People have ingrained modes of thought and feeling
which prevent them from becoming good leaders. Often,
the individual in question has no idea these exist and can
only find out and alter his or her behaviour through
constant and honest feedback.
Although there can be many personal barriers, the most
common one seems to be low self-esteem. Such individuals
strive either for self-aggrandisement or try too hard
to be liked. They are either the office tyrants or the sycophants.
In either case, they command little respect
because they are inconsistent and fail to hold themselves
or their team accountable. This eventually creates a
climate of perverse incentives and mistrust.
Organisational barriers
It can, however, work the other way round, where weak
organisational culture seeps through to individual level.
The company ‘way of doing things’ can have a profound
effect on its leadership. For example, it could be the
structure of an organisation that prevents good leadership
from developing. Rigid hierarchies, in which
employees do not have a voice and feel disempowered,
are unlikely to produce successful leaders simply because
staff are not given the opportunity or the belief.
Authority, role or status does not confer leadership.
Companies with poor communication and internal
conflict will find it difficult to unite behind a common
goal. For example, downsizing under the label of creating
shareholder value and appraisal schemes that do not
allow proper feedback breed cynicism rather than inspire
loyalty. All this adds up to a widespread culture so
entrenched that it becomes impossible for any individual
to combat it.
Nature versus nurture
There are those who favour the nature versus nurture
debate and maintain that some people simply were not
born to lead. This, and not the lack of training or support,
is the main barrier to successful leadership. Although,
there may be an element of truth in this, it is essentially a
poor excuse for poor organisational behaviour.
Admittedly, some people may never become great leaders
but the majority of employees can become inspirational
and trustworthy. It is not about possessing
exceptional personality traits but simply about good
management. Leadership exists in a relationship between
leaders and followers and as such can be acquired and
learnt. Effective mentoring and self-development on
various levels can support the nurturing process.
Networking should also be recognised as an opportunity
to learn from other leaders.
The Nature of Inspiration (taken from a presentation by
Richard Olivier, recorded 22-26 March 2000 for a course
delivered by the Industrial Society) is detailed opposite.
ment and – above all – belonging if they are to stay.
Companies that people want to work for (both in terms
of the number of new recruits and staff turnover rates)
are usually those that create such a strong sense of
belonging that some have labelled them ‘cultish’.
It is their leaders who create this kind of environment.
Culture, in other words, does not happen by accident, the
influential people in an organisation create it.
New skills for future leaders
Leaders themselves will have to acquire new skills in
order to steer the business of tomorrow. They will have
to lead at a distance, so to speak, as outsourcing and
home working become more common. They will need to
learn to ‘lead out’ teams of distant workers over whom
they might not have any direct supervisory power. In
addition, they will have to act a lot faster if they are to
keep up with the pace of change.
Part 5 –
Barriers to
successful leadership
TECHNICAL BRIEFING LEADERSHIP SKILLS – AN OVERVIEW
7
How as a leader can you inspire others?
1. The importance of imagination, i.e. the perquisite of bringing
the new into being, has probably never been so eloquently
captured than by Einstein who said that imagination is more
important than knowledge, for while knowledge points
towards what there is, imagination points to what there will
be. In today’s world, in which the pace of change in the
macro environment is so fast, being adaptable requires imagination.
And imagination means looking beyond the meetings
and action points. Imagination enables the flexibility
and adaptability required to survive effectively as a leader.
2. The need to think beyond oneself and to consider
others. To consider others is to think with them and to ask
oneself, ‘how can I serve us better?’
3. People need a sense of meaning and purpose of why they
are in the organisation. The root of the personal inspiration
in leadership is recognising your individual connection to
the organisation and purpose within it and this will be
something that you recognise yourself i.e. not the party line.
Finding this purpose is a prerequisite to finding inspiration.
Future possibilities and your own potential are limited
without it.
4. With a purpose in place, there is then the space to develop
vision. The mantle of leadership depends on the extent that
you are able to carry a vision and this depends on the extent
to which you are followable. Vision adds meaning to peoples’
working lives. Vision is seeing what life could be like
while dealing with life as it is. A vision must always deal
with life’s qualities rather than just quantities. A mission
statement, for example, should be based on something that
adds value to the people of your organisation rather than
just a numerical target. A qualitative statement is just as
important as a quantitative one.
5. Building a consensus around the vision requires political
skills. There is a need to learn how to talk to people, to
identify who you need to talk to and what they want to
hear. Getting influential supporters on your side is critical to
carrying out your vision. Building relationships with key
people to build trust is critical to gaining support for your
vision.
6. Gaining commitment and engaging your colleagues
requires face-to-face contact. Inspiration can only be moved
across face-to-face rather than in electronic form or by telephone.
Securing commitment from others requires:
— an energy so that others can believe in the
vision too;
— the vision to be in alignment with the
organisation’s vision;
— a balance between reason and action –
a leader needs to think about how much
planning is required;
— empowerment – a vision needs to be shared
and you need to be prepared lose ownership
to get things done.
Part 6 –
Leadership training
Anthony Jay claimed that the only training for leadership
is leadership. In fact, research studies have shown that
people who exhibit leadership qualities later in life have
all got one thing in common – they were given an opportunity
to lead very early on in their careers (Kotter, 1990).
Organisations should, therefore, strive to create the kind
of environment where leadership is encouraged at all
levels of the organisation and as early as possible. This
effectively means empowering employees by allowing
them to be creative and to generate ideas while using
mistakes as a learning opportunity. In this way, a leadership-
friendly culture can take root at all levels of the
organisation, rather than just at the top. If necessary, this
can be reinforced by training, although training can
never be a substitute for experience.
It has become the norm for companies to run a range of
training courses but there can often be a lack of focus on
achieving the basic tenets of effective management and
good leadership. The ability to see the bigger picture and
grasp a firm purpose and objective and an inexhaustible
optimism and passion, all speak of a mind that has not
been hindered by detail, restricted by bad practices and
stunted by a lack of opportunity. On the contrary – they
show a mind that has been allowed to remain free, open
and receptive.
Part 7 –
References for further reading
and bibliography
Recommended reading
Burnes (2000), Managing Change, Prentice Hall, 3rd edn.
Burns, J M (1978), Leadership, Harper & Roe, New York.
Cambridge Management Consulting report: Company
Change – Transforming organisations: Acting your
way into a new way of thinking (2001).
Collins, J (2001), Level 5 Leadership – The Triumph of
Humility and Fierce Resolve, Harvard Business Review;
January, p.67.
Dess, G and Picken, J (2000), Changing roles: Leadership
in the 21st century, Organisational Dynamics; vol 28,
no 3, p.18.
Fairholm, M and Fairholm, G (2000), Leadership amid
the constraints of trust, Leadership and Organisation
Development Journal; 21/2, p.102–109.
Fulmer, R and Wagner, S (1999), Leadership: lessons from
the best, Training and Development; v53, i3, p.28; see
also www.gallup.com.
TECHNICAL BRIEFING LEADERSHIP SKILLS – AN OVERVIEW
8
Goffee, R and Jones, G (2001), Why should anyone be led
by you?, Harvard Business Review, January.
Goleman, D (1998), What makes a leader? Harvard
Business Review; Nov–Dec, p.93.
Hagen, A, Hassan, M and Amin, S (1998), Critical strategic
leadership components: an empirical investigation
SAM Advanced Management Journal; v63, n3, p.39.
Harvard Business Review on Leadership (1998) Harvard
Business School Publishing.
Kanter, R M (1989), When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering
the Challenges of Strategy, Management and Careers in the
1990s, Unwin, London.
Kotter, J (1990), What Leaders Really Do, Harvard
Business Review; May–June, p.103.
Mintzberg, H (1973), The Nature of Managerial Work,
Harper & Roe, New York.
Steers, R, Porter, L and Bigley, G (1996), Motivation and
Leadership at Work, McGraw-Hill International
Editions.
Vroom, V H and Yetton, P W (1973), Leadership and
Decison Making, Pittsburg Press, Pittsburg.
Websites
 http://www.ee.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/MENG/...cuments/Styles
An overview of leadership styles and models.
 www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader
An extensive website devoted to leadership – everything from
models to practical guidance.
 www.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/leader/leader/htm
Links to articles about leadership (some links broken).
 www.mapnp.org/library/ldrship/ldrship.htm
Another exhaustive website with links to articles on subjects connected
to leadership.
 http://www.infotrain.magill.unisa.ed...nec/essay1.htm
de Neuville, Chris: Are Managers Leaders?
Leadership courses
 CIMA Mastercourses – Leadership and team working
and Leading the new finance function.
 The Industrial Society, as part of its campaign to
improve leadership at all levels of organisations, has a
number of high profile training courses, books, videos
and reports. Information can be found on www.indsoc.
co.uk
Other CIMA Technical Briefings
 Emotional Intelligence (EI) claims to distinguish
between those who move up to and are successful in
positions of leadership. The EI briefing provides
insight on how this can be achieved.
The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants May 2001
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