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Old Tuesday, May 22, 2007
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Default 2000–2006 (A.D.) World History

2000 World History

Socialist president, Ricardo Lagos, elected in Chile (Jan. 16). George W. Bush and Al Gore take Iowa caucuses in U.S. presidential race (Jan. 22). Austria at center of European dispute after conservative People's Party forms coalition with the far-right Freedom Party, headed by xenophobe Jörg Haider (Feb. 3). First Lady Hillary Clinton officially enters N.Y. Senate race (Feb. 6). Hijackers seize Afghan plane; release hostages in Stansted, England (Feb. 6–12). Britain ends self-rule in Northern Ireland after Irish Republican Army misses disarmament deadline (Feb. 11). NEAR spacecraft becomes first to orbit an asteroid (Feb. 14). Wary investors cause stock plunge; beginning of the end of the Internet stock boom (Feb. 25). Reformists win control of Iranian parliament for first time since 1979 Islamic revolution (Feb. 26). Gun maker Smith & Wesson limits the manufacture and distribution of handguns in light of lawsuits (March 17). Mass murder or suicide of hundreds in Ugandan doomsday cult (March 18). Acting Russian president Vladimir V. Putin formally chosen for post (March 25). Microsoft loses antitrust suit; appeal expected (April 3). Controversial Osprey plane crash kills 19 marines (April 8). Cuban boy Elián González reunited with father after federal raid of Miami relatives' home (April 22). Vermont approves same-sex unions (April 25). “I love you” virus disrupts computers worldwide (May 4). South Carolina removes Confederate battle flag from capitol dome (May 18). Chile ends Augusto Pinochet's immunity, clearing way for trial on murder and torture charges during years as dictator (May 24). Israeli troops withdraw from Lebanese security zone after 22 years of occupation (May 24). Former Indonesian president Suharto under house arrest, charged with corruption and abuse of power (May 29). Britain restores parliamentary powers to Northern Ireland after Sinn Fein agrees to disarm (June 4). Presidents of North and South Korea sign peace accord, ending half-century of antagonism (June 15). British find 58 bodies of illegal Asian immigrants suffocated in Dutch truck that transported them (June 20). Elián González returns to Cuba with father (June 23). U.S. navy resumes shelling exercises of Puerto Rico's Vieques Island, used as a training site (June 25). Human genome deciphered; expected to revolutionize the practice of medicine (June 26). Iraq believed to resume missile program (June 30). Vicente Fox Quesada elected president of Mexico (July 2). Bashar al-Assad succeeds late father, Hafez al-Assad, as Syrian president (July 10). Concorde crash kills 113 near Paris (July 25). Republican convention picks Texas governor George W. Bush as presidential candidate; Dick Cheney for vice presidential spot (Aug. 2). Democratic convention selects Vice President Al Gore and Sen. Joseph I. Lieberman to head ticket (Aug. 14). Los Alamos scientist Wen Ho Lee, accused of stealing sensitive nuclear weapons data, freed after serving nine months in prison (Sept. 13). Olympic Games open in Australia (Sept. 15). Six-year Whitewater investigation of the Clintons ends without indictments (Sept. 20). Yugoslav opposition claims victory; incumbent Slobodan Milosevic denies results (Sept. 25). Danish voters reject euro (Sept. 26). Abortion pill, RU-486, wins U.S. approval (Sept. 28). Palestinians and Israelis clash, spurred by visit of right-wing Israeli leader Ariel Sharon to a joint Jewish/Muslim holy site; “Al Aksa intifada” continues unabated (Sept. 30 et seq.). Nationwide uprising overthrows Yugoslavian president Milosevic (Oct. 5). Vojislav Kostunica sworn in as Yugoslav president (Oct. 7). 17 U.S. sailors on navy destroyer Cole die in Yemen terrorist explosion (Oct. 12). U.S. presidential election closest in decades; Bush's slim lead in Florida leads to automatic recount in that state (Nov. 7–8). Republicans file federal suit to block manual recount of Florida presidential election ballots sought by Democrats (Nov. 11). Philippine president Joseph Estrada impeached after receiving gambling payoffs (Nov. 13). Florida Supreme Court rules hand count of presidential ballots may continue (Nov. 21). Global warming talks collapse at Hague conference (Nov. 25). Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris certifies Bush as winner by 537 votes (Nov. 26). Mad Cow disease alarms Europe (Nov. 30 et seq.). Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak resigns (Dec. 9). U.S. Supreme Court orders halt to manual recount of presidential votes in Florida (Dec. 9). Supreme Court seals Bush victory by 5–4; rules there can be no further recounting (Dec. 12).



2001 World History

Congo president Laurent Kabila assassinated by bodyguard (Jan. 16). In final days of presidency, Bill Clinton issues controversial pardons, including one for Marc Rich, billionaire fugitive financier (Jan. 20). George W. Bush is sworn in as 43rd president (Jan. 20). Earthquake kills thousands in India (Jan. 26 et seq.). Libyan convicted in Flight 103 bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland (Jan. 31). Right-winger Ariel Sharon wins election in Israel (Feb. 6). U.S. submarine Greeneville sinks Japanese fishing boat, killing 9 (Feb. 9). FBI agent Robert Hanssen is charged with spying for Russia for 15 years (Feb. 20). The long-simmering resentment of Macedonia's ethnic Albanians erupts into violence (March 15 et seq.). British livestock epidemic, foot-and-mouth disease, reaches crisis levels (March 23). Bush abandons global-warming treaty (Kyoto Protocol), angering European leaders (March 30). U.S. spy plane and Chinese jet collide. The 24 crew members of the U.S. plane are detained for 11 days; U.S. issues a formal statement of regret (April 2 et seq.). Race riots in Cincinnati continue for several days following a shooting of an unarmed black man by a white police officer (April 7 et seq.). U.S. millionaire Dennis Tito becomes first space tourist, visiting the International Space Station aboard a Russian booster (April 28). Former Klansman Thomas E. Blanton convicted of 1963 murder of four black girls in Birmingham, Ala. (May 1). After a Palestinian suicide bomber kills 5 and wounds more than 100 in a Netanya shopping mall, Israeli warplanes retaliate by bombing West Bank and Gaza strip (May 18). Four are declared guilty in 1998 terrorist bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania (May 29). Balance of the Senate shifts after Jim Jeffords of Vermont changes his party affiliation from Republican to Independent. The move strips Republicans of control of the Senate and gives Democrats the narrowest of majorities (50–49–1) (June 5). Bush signs new tax-cut law, cutting taxes by $1.35 trillion over 11 years, the largest tax cut in 2 decades (June 7). Mohammad Khatami, Iran's moderate president, is reelected in a landslide (June 9). Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh executed (June 11). Syrian forces evacuate Beirut area after decades of occupation (June 19). Former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic is delivered to UN tribunal in The Hague to await war-crimes trial (June 29). Without U.S., 178 nations reach agreement on climate accord, which rescues, though dilutes, 1997 Kyoto Protocol (July 23). Bush allows stem cell research, approving federal funds for studies using existing strains of stem cells (Aug. 9). After six months of fighting, a peace agreement is signed between rebels and the Macedonian government (Aug. 13). Budget surplus dwindles; some blame the slowing economy and the Bush tax cut (Aug. 22). Terrorists attack United States. Hijackers ram jetliners into twin towers of New York City's World Trade Center and the Pentagon. A fourth hijacked plane crashes 80 mi outside of Pittsburgh. Toll of dead is more than 3,000. Within days, Islamic militant Osama bin Laden and the al-Qaeda terrorist network are identified as the parties behind the attacks (Sept. 11). Anthrax scare rivets nation, as anthrax-laced letters are sent to various media and government officials. Several die after handling the letters (October 5 et seq.). In response to Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, U.S. and British forces launch bombing campaign against Taliban government and al-Qaeda terrorist camps in Afghanistan. Bombings continue on a daily basis (Oct. 7 et seq.). Irish Republican Army announces that it has begun to dismantle its weapons arsenal, marking a dramatic leap forward in Northern Ireland peace process (Oct. 23). Plane crash kills 260 in Queens, N.Y. (Nov. 12). Afghani factions create a post-Taliban government (Nov. 27). Enron Corp., one of world's largest energy companies, files for bankruptcy (Dec. 2). Israel condemns the Palestinian Authority as a “terror-supporting entity” and severs ties with leader Yasir Arafat following mounting violence against Israelis. The Israeli Army begins bombing Palestinian areas (Dec. 4 et seq.). Taliban regime in Afghanistan collapses after two months of bombing by American warplanes and fighting by Northern Alliance ground troops (Dec. 9). Hamid Karzai, new interim Afghan leader, is sworn in (Dec. 22).


2002 World History

The euro currency debuts in 12 European countries (Jan. 2). U.S. takes Taliban and al-Qaeda prisoners to Guantanamo Bay (Jan. 10). Defrocked priest John Geoghan convicted of child molestation; church's role in cover-up sparks national outrage (Jan. 18). U.S. reporter Daniel Pearl kidnapped in Pakistan (Jan. 23). Kenneth L. Lay, chairman of bankrupt energy trader Enron, resigns; company under federal investigation for hiding debt and misrepresenting earnings (Jan. 24). President Bush's first State of Union address labels Iran, Iraq, and North Korea “an axis of evil” (Jan. 29). Queen Elizabeth II of England marks 50 years as monarch (Feb 6). The trial of Slobodan Milosevic on charges of crimes against humanity opens at The Hague (Feb. 12). American Taliban soldier John Walker Lindh charged with supporting terrorism (Feb. 13). Reporter Pearl confirmed dead in Pakistan (Feb. 21). Angolan UNITA rebel leader Jonas Savimbi killed in battle (Feb. 22). Tamil Tigers and Sri Lankan government sign a cease-fire agreement (Feb. 22). Hundreds in India die in Hindu-Muslim clashes (March 2). U.S. and Afghan troops launch Operation Anaconda against remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan (March 2). Saudi peace proposal—offering Israel normal relations with all Arab nations in return for withdrawal from occupied territories—approved at Arab League summit (March 28). Israeli tanks and warplanes attack West Bank towns of Nablus, Jenin, Bethlehem, and others in response to string of Palestinian suicide attacks. In the first three months of 2002, 14 suicide bombers killed dozens of Israeli civilians and wounded hundreds (March 29–April 21). Israeli prime minister Sharon calls for exile of Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat (April 2). UNITA Rebels and Angolan government sign a cease-fire ending 30 years of civil war (April 4). International Criminal Court wins UN ratification, but U.S. refuses to ratify (April 11). Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez ousted in coup, then reinstated (April 12, 14). U.S. and Russia reach landmark arms agreement to cut both countries' nuclear arsenals by up to two-thirds over the next ten years (May 13). East Timor becomes a new nation (May 20). In letter to Director, FBI lawyer Coleen Rowley criticizes FBI for thwarting terrorist efforts (May 21). Dirty bomb plot foiled with arrest of Jose Padilla (June 10). U.S. abandons 31-year-old Antiballistic Missile treaty (June 13). At national conference, U.S. bishops recommend zero tolerance policy for priests who abuse children (June 14). Arthur Andersen firm convicted of destroying documents relating to former client Enron Corp. (June 15). Bush announces U.S. will not recognize an independent Palestinian state until Yasir Arafat is replaced (June 24). WorldCom, after admitting to misstating profits, files for bankruptcy—largest claim in U.S. history (July 21). Pennsylvania miners rescued after spending 77 hours in a dark, flooded mine shaft (July 28). Bush signs corporate reform bill in response to spate of corporate scandals (July 30). Bush addresses United Nations, calls for a “regime change” in Iraq (Sept. 12). Tyco executives L. Dennis Kozlowski and Mark Swartz indicted in stock-fraud scheme (Sept. 12). Terrorist bomb in Bali kills hundreds (Oct. 12). Government suspended in Northern Ireland in protest of suspected IRA spy ring (Oct. 14). Former ImClone Executive Sam Waksal pleads guilty to charges including fraud and perjury (Oct. 15). North Korea admits to developing nuclear arms in defiance of treaty (Oct. 16). Vatican calls for softening of U.S. bishops' abuse policy (Oct. 18). Chechen rebels take 763 hostages in Moscow theater; Russian authorities release a gas into theater, killing 116 hostages and freeing remaining survivors (Oct. 23–26). Snipers prey upon DC suburbs, killing ten and wounding others (Oct. 2–24). Police arrest two sniper suspects, John Allen Muhammad and John Lee Malvo (Oct. 24). CIA kills six al-Qaeda members in Yemen (Nov. 4). Republicans retake the Senate in midterm elections; gain additional House seats (Nov. 5). UN Security Council passes unanimous resolution calling on Iraq to disarm or else face “serious consequences” (Nov. 8). China's Jiang Zemin officially retires as general secretary; Hu Jintao named as his successor (Nov. 14). UN arms inspectors return to Iraq (Nov. 18). EPA relaxes Clean Air Act (Nov. 22). Bush signs legislation creating cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security (Nov. 25). Boston archbishop Cardinal Bernard Law resigns over growing child sexual abuse scandal in the Catholic Church (Dec. 13). Trent Lott steps down as Republican leader after furor over pro-segregationist remark (Dec. 20). Sen. Bill Frist unanimously elected Republican leader of the Senate (Dec. 23).


2003 World History

North Korea withdraws from treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons (Jan. 10). Illinois governor George Ryan commutes 167 death row sentences, calling capital punishment flawed (Jan. 11). White House announces huge deficits expected to top $200 billion in 2003 (Jan. 15). The UN's report on Iraqi weapons inspections is highly critical, but not damning (Jan. 27). In State of the Union address, Bush announces that he is ready to attack Iraq even without a UN mandate (Jan. 28). Ariel Sharon elected Israeli prime minister (Jan. 29). Space shuttle Columbia explodes, killing all seven astronauts (Feb. 1). Nine-week general strike in Venezuela calling for President Chavez's resignation ends in defeat (Feb. 2). U.S. Secretary of State Powell presents Iraq war rationale to UN, citing Iraqi weapons as imminent threat to world security (Feb. 5). Massive peace demonstrations take place around the world, protesting potential invasion of Iraq (Feb. 15). UN Security Council members France, Germany, and Russia insist that “the military option should only be a last resort” concerning Iraq (Feb. 24). Serbian prime minister Zoran Djindjic assassinated (March 12). Hu Jintao succeeds Chinese president Jiang Zemin (March 15). The United States and Britain launch war against Iraq (March 19). Baghdad falls to U.S. troops (April 9). European Union expands by ten nations (April 16). First Palestinian prime minister, Mahmoud Abbas, sworn in (April 29). U.S.-backed “road map” for peace proposed for Middle East (April 30). The United States declares official end to combat operations in Iraq (May 1). U.S. diplomat Paul Bremer becomes civil administrator of occupied Iraq (May 12). Terrorists strike in Saudi Arabia, killing 34 at Western compound; al-Qaeda suspected (May 12). Bush signs ten-year, $350-billion tax-cut package, the third-largest tax cut in U.S. history (May 28). Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi again placed under house arrest by military regime (May 30). Eric Rudolph, Olympic bombing suspect, arrested (May 31). International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) discovers Iran's concealed nuclear activities and calls for intensified inspections (June 18). The U.S. Supreme Court decisively upholds the use of affirmative action in higher education (June 23). Palestinian militant groups announce cease-fire toward Israel (June 29). Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld announces price of Iraq war is about $3.9 billion a month, nearly double the April estimate (July 9). Iraq's interim governing council is inaugurated (July 13). Saddam Hussein's sons killed in firefight (July 22). Mutinous troops attempt unsuccessful coup in Philippines (July 27). Terrorist bombing at Indonesian hotel kills ten (Aug. 6). Liberia's autocratic president Charles Taylor forced to leave civil war–ravaged country (Aug. 11). NATO assumes control of peacekeeping force in Afghanistan (Aug. 11). Libya accepts blame for 1988 bombing of flight over Lockerbie, Scotland; agrees to pay $2.7 billion to the families of the 270 victims (Aug. 15). Suicide bombing destroys UN headquarters in Baghdad, killing 24, including top envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello (Aug. 19). Palestinian suicide bombing in Jerusalem kills 20 Israelis, including 6 children (Aug. 19). Venezuelan opposition files petition for referendum to recall President Hugo Chavez (Aug. 20). After Israel retaliates for suicide bombing by killing top member of Hamas, militant Palestinian groups formally withdraw from cease-fire in effect since June 29 (Aug. 24). Investigation into the loss of space shuttle Columbia cites egregious organizational problems at NASA (Aug. 25). Palestinian prime minister Mahmoud Abbas resigns; “road map” to peace effectively collapses (Sept. 6). California governor Gray Davis ousted in recall vote; actor Arnold Schwarzenegger elected in his place (Oct. 7). UN votes in favor of a resolution ordering Israel to end construction of security barrier dividing Israeli and Palestinian areas (Oct. 24). Bush signs bill banning so-called partial-birth abortion procedure (Nov. 5). President Bush signs $87.5 billion emergency package for post-war Iraq reconstruction; this supplements $79 billion approved in April (Nov. 5). New Palestinian prime minister Ahmed Qurei takes office (Nov. 12). Alabama chief justice Roy S. Moore forced from office after his refusal to remove monument of the Ten Commandments (Nov. 13). The Bush administration reverses policy, agrees to transfer power to an interim Iraqi government sooner than originally planned (Nov. 14). Suicide bombers attack two synagogues in Istanbul, Turkey, killing 25 (Nov. 15). Massachusetts Supreme Court rules in favor of gay marriage (Nov. 18). Another terrorist attack in Istanbul kills 26; al-Qaeda suspected in both (Nov. 20). Georgian president Eduard Shevardnadze resigns after weeks of protests (Nov. 23). John A. Muhammad, convicted in the 2002 Washington, DC, area shootings, receives death sentence (Nov. 24). President Bush eliminates steel tariffs after WTO says U.S. violated trade laws (Dec. 4). Paul Martin succeeds Jean Chretien as Canadian prime minister (Dec. 12). Saddam Hussein is captured by American troops (Dec. 13). Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi announces he will give up weapons program (Dec. 19).


2004 World History

Former Enron CFO Andrew Fastow pleads guilty to defrauding Enron (Jan. 13). Bush proposes ambitious space program that includes flights to the Moon, Mars, and beyond (Jan. 14). Iraq weapons investigator David Kay resigns, says there’s no evidence of weapons of mass destruction, one of the Bush administration’s chief reasons for launching war in Iraq (Jan. 23). About one third of Iran's Parliament steps down to protest hard-line Guardian Council’s banning of more than 2,000 reformists from running in parliamentary elections (Feb. 1). A.Q. Khan, founder of Pakistan's nuclear program, admits he sold nuclear-weapons designs to other countries, including North Korea, Iran, and Libya (Feb. 4). Armed rebels in Haiti force President Aristide to resign and flee the country (Feb. 29). John Kerry secures Democratic nomination after winning nine out of ten primaries and caucuses (March 2). Spain is rocked by terrorist attacks, killing more than 200. Al-Qaeda takes responsibility (March 11). Spain's governing Popular Party loses election to opposition Socialists. Outcome seen as a reaction to terrorist attacks days before and Popular Party's support of the U.S.-led war in Iraq (March 14). North Atlantic Treaty Organization formally admits seven new countries: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia (March 29). U.S. troops launch offensive in Falluja in response to killing and mutilation on March 31 of four U.S. civilian contractors. (April 5–May 1). Israeli prime minister Sharon announces plan to unilaterally withdraw from Gaza Strip (April 12). Greek Cypriots reject UN reunification plan with Turkish Cypriots (April 24). U.S. media release graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison. Images spark outrage around the world (April 30). Gay marriages begin in Massachusetts, the first state in the country to legalize such unions (May 17). Sudan rebels (SPLA) and government reach accord to end 21-year civil war. However, separate war in western Darfur region between Arab militias and black Africans continues unabated (May 26). U.S. hands over power to Iraqi interim government; Iyad Allawi becomes prime minister (June 28). In Rasul v. Bush, Supreme Court rules that “enemy combatants” held at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, are legally entitled to file petitions for writs of habeas corpus; and in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, court rules that the detention of a U.S. citizen held as an enemy combatant is invalid, rejecting government's claim that the executive branch has unreviewable authority in time of war (June 28). Israeli Supreme Court orders removal of part of security barrier dividing Israeli and Palestinian lands (June 30). Senate Intelligence Committee reports that intelligence on Iraq's weapons programs was “overstated” and flawed (July 5). Sept. 11 commission harshly criticizes government’s handling of terrorist attacks (July 22). Democratic National Convention in Boston nominates John Kerry for president (July 26–29). Security Council demands Sudanese government disarm militias in Darfur that are massacring civilians (July 30). Florida hit by hurricanes Bonnie (Aug. 12) and Charley (Aug. 13). Summer Olympics take place in Athens, Greece (Aug. 13–29). Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez survives recall referendum (Aug. 16). Pentagon-sponsored Schlesinger report rejects idea that Abu Ghraib prison abuse was work of a few aberrant soldiers, and asserts there were “fundamental failures throughout all levels of command” (Aug. 24). Republican Convention in New York renominates President Bush (Aug. 30–Sept. 2). Chechen terrorists take about 1,200 schoolchildren and others hostage in Beslan, Russia; 340 people die when militants detonate explosives (Sept. 1–3). Hurricane Ivan ravages U.S. south (Sept. 15). U.S.’s final report on Iraq’s weapons finds no WMDs (Sept. 16). UN Atomic Energy Agency tells Iran to stop enriching uranium; a nascent nuclear weapons program suspected (Sept. 18). Bush eases trade restrictions on Libya (Sept. 20). Congress extends tax cuts due to expire at the end of 2005 (Sept. 23). Hurricane Jeanne hits Florida (Sept. 26). 380 tons of explosives reported missing in Iraq (Oct. 25). Bush reelected president (Nov. 2). U.S. troops launch attack on Falluja, stronghold of the Iraqi insurgency (Nov. 8). Yasir Arafat dies in Paris (Nov. 11). Ukraine presidential election declared fraudulent (Nov. 21). Red Cross alleges abuse at U.S.-run Guantánamo prison (Nov. 30). Hamid Karzai inaugurated as Afghanistan's first popularly elected president (Dec. 7). Missile test fails; setback for Bush administration's missile defense system (Dec. 15). Massive protests by supporters of opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko's lead to a new Ukrainian election; Yushchenko eventually declared prime minister (Dec. 26). Enormous tsunami devastates Asia; at least 225,000 killed (Dec. 26).


2005 World History

Worldwide aid pours in to help the 11 Asian countries devastated by the Dec. 26, 2004, tsunami (Jan.). Mahmoud Abbas wins presidency of the Palestinian Authority in a landslide (Jan. 9). The Sudanese government and rebels from southern Sudan sign a peace agreement to end a 20-year conflict that has claimed about 2 million people (Jan. 9). George W. Bush is officially sworn in for his second term as president (Jan. 20). Iraqi elections to select a 275-seat National Assembly take place despite threats of violence. A total of 8.5 million people voted, representing about 58% of those Iraqis eligible to vote (Jan. 30). In State of the Union address, President Bush announces his plan to reform Social Security; despite months of campaigning, his plan receives only a lukewarm reception (Feb. 2). Saudis (men only) are allowed to vote for the first time in municipal elections (Feb. 10). Former Lebanese prime minister Rafik Hariri > a nationalist who had called for Syria's withdrawal from Lebanon—is assassinated (Feb. 14). The Terry Schiavo case becomes the focus of an emotionally charged battle in Congress (March 20). Schiavo dies 13 days after a federal judge refuses to order the reinsertion of her feeding tube (March 31). Pope John Paul II dies (April 2). Violent protests follow March elections in Kyrgyzstan, which international monitors deem severely flawed. President Askar Akayev flees the country and then resigns (April 4). Benedict XVI becomes the next pope (April 24). The Syrian military, stationed in Lebanon for 29 years, withdraws (April 26). Tony Blair becomes first Labour Party prime minister to win three successive terms, but his party loses a large number of seats in the elections (May 5). South Korean scientist Hwang Woo-suk announces that he has devised a new procedure to successfully produce human stem cell lines from a cloned human embryo (May 20), but claim is discredited in Dec. 2005. The European Union abandons plans to ratify the proposed European constitution by 2006 after both France and the Netherlands vote against it (June 16). Former Tehran mayor Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a hard-line conservative, wins Iran's presidential election with 62% of the vote. He defiantly pursues Iran's nuclear ambitions over the course of his first year (June 24). Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor announces her retirement (July 1). NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft hits comet Tempel 1 in effort to research primordial remnants of our solar system (July 4). London hit by Islamic terrorist bombings, killing 52 and wounding about 700. It is Britain's worst attack since World War II (July 7). Group of Eight industrial nations pledge to double aid to Africa to $50 billion a year by 2010, cancel the debt of many poor countries, and open trade. (July 8). Federal appeals court upholds lower court decision that so-called Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act is unlawful because it fails to make an exception to the law for women whose health would be in jeopardy without the late-term procedure (July 8). Pentagon assessment finds Iraq's police force is, at best, “partially capable” of fighting the country's insurgency. The U.S.'s eventual withdrawal plan hinges upon Iraqi security forces replacing U.S. soldiers: “As Iraqis stand up, Americans will stand down,” President Bush had stated (July 20). The Irish Republican Army announces it is officially ending its violent campaign for a united Ireland and will instead pursue its goals politically (July 27). President Bush signs the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), which will remove trade barriers between the U.S. and Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (Aug. 2). The Indonesian government and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) sign a peace accord to end their nearly 30-year-long civil war (Aug. 15). Israel begins evacuating about 8,000 Israeli settlers from the Gaza Strip, which has been occupied by Israel for the last 38 years (Aug. 15). Hurricane Katrina wreaks catastrophic damage on the Gulf Coast; more than 1,000 die and millions are left homeless. Americans are shaken not simply by the magnitude of the disaster but by how ill-prepared all levels of government were in its aftermath. (Aug. 25–30). Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, who served on the U.S. Supreme Court for 33 years, dies (Sept. 3). John Roberts, Jr., becomes 17th chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (Sept. 22). Another major hurricane, Rita, ravages the Gulf Coast (Sept. 23). House majority leader Tom DeLay is accused of conspiring to violate Texas's election laws. He steps aside from his House leadership position (Sept. 28). A 7.6 earthquake centered in the Pakistani-controlled part of the Kashmir region kills more than 80,000 and leaves an estimated 4 million homeless (Oct. 2). President Bush selects Harriet Miers, White House counsel, to replace Justice Sandra Day O'Connor (Oct. 3). Angela Merkel, leader of the Christian Democratic Union, which narrowly prevailed over Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's Social Democratic Party in September elections, becomes the country's first female chancellor (Oct. 10). Millions of Iraqi voters ratify a new constitution (Oct. 15). Former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein goes on trial for the killing of 143 people in the town of Dujail, Iraq, in 1982 (Oct. 19). Number of deaths of U.S. soldiers in Iraq reaches 2,000 (Oct. 25). Harriet Miers withdraws her Supreme Court nomination after strong criticism from the president's conservative base (Oct. 27). Several weeks of violent rioting begins in the impoverished French-Arab and French-African suburbs of Paris after two boys are accidentally killed while hiding from police (Oct. 27). A federal grand jury indicts I. Lewis Libby, Vice President Cheney's chief of staff, with obstruction of justice and perjury in connection with a White House investigation (Oct. 28). Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf defeats soccer star George Weah in Liberia's presidential election. She becomes Africa's first woman head of state (Nov. 11). Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon quits as head of the Likud Party, which he founded, to start a new, more centrist organization, called Kadima (Nov. 21). California Republican congressman Randy “Duke” Cunningham resigns after pleading guilty to taking at least $2.4 million in bribes (Nov. 28). The Sept. 11 Public Discourse Project reports that the country is “alarmingly vulnerable to terrorist strikes” (Dec. 5). The New York Times reports that in 2002, Bush signed a presidential order to allow the National Security Agency to spy on Americans suspected of being connected to terrorist activity without warrants (Dec. 15). About 11 million Iraqis (70% of the country's registered voters) turn out to select their first permanent Parliament since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein (Dec. 15). Pennsylvania judge rules teaching of intelligent design in biology class is unconstitutional (Dec. 20).

2006 World History

Coalition forces battle insurgents on the streets of Iraq, as secretarian violence intensifies; see Iraq Timeline 2006 for details (all year long). Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon suffers a massive stroke; Ehud Olmert is named acting prime minister (Jan. 5). Iran breaks the seals on three of its nuclear facilities, after stating that it plans to restart work on its “peaceful nuclear energy program.” The U.S. and several European nations condemn the move (Jan. 10). After a year of silence, Osama bin Laden says al-Qaeda is planning to attack the United States. (Jan. 19). The Iraqi election results are released: a coalition of Shiites and Kurds wins 181 out of 275 seats in parliament, just shy of the two-thirds majority required to form their own government. Sunnis take 58 seats (Jan. 20). Militant Palestinian group Hamas wins 74 of 132 seats in legislative elections. Prime Minister Ahmed Qurei of the Fatah party resigns (Jan. 25). The U.S. Senate confirms Samuel Alito as a Supreme Court justice, and Ben Bernanke as chief of the Federal Reserve (Jan. 31). In his fifth State of the Union speech, President Bush denounces Iran, calling it a country “held hostage by a small clerical elite that is isolating and repressing its people” (Jan. 31). Republican John Boehner is elected House Majority Leader (Feb. 2). After a Danish newspaper prints cartoons depicting Muhammad in a negative light (later reprinted in several European countries), angry demonstrators throughout the Muslim world smash windows, set fires, and burn flags (Feb. 4 et seq.). Steven Harper becomes Canada's first Conservative prime minister in over a dozen years (Feb. 6). President Bush signs a law renewing the Patriot Act, including a signing statement stating that he does not consider himself bound by its requirement to tell Congress how the law is being used (Mar. 9). The Olympic winter games open in Turin, Italy (Feb. 10). House releases a report on the response to Hurricane Katrina, assigning blame on all levels of government (Feb. 15). The day after the Hamas-led Palestinian paliament opens, Israeli leaders vote to withhold $50 million per month (Feb. 19). Former Yugoslavian president Slobadan Milosevic dies of a heart attack in his cell in the Hague. His four-year war-crimes trial had been nearing its end (Mar. 11). The U.N. Security Council calls on Iran to suspend its enrichment of uranium (Mar. 29). Jack Abramoff, a lobbyist with ties to several members of Congress, is sentenced to six years in prison by a Florida judge on fraud charges (Mar. 29). Saddam Hussein is charged with genocide by an Iraqi court for a campaign against Iraq's Kurdish population in 1988 (Apr. 4). Representative Tom DeLay (R-Tex.) announces he will leave Congress (Apr. 4). After weeks of crippling student-led protests, French president Jacques Chirac repeals a new labor law that would have made it easier for employers to fire workers under the age of 26 (Apr. 10). Nepal's King Gyanendra reinstates Parliament after more than two weeks of demonstrations involving over 100,000 people. It meets for the first time in four years (Apr. 28). The International Atomic Energy Agency confirms that Iran has enriched uranium (Apr. 28). A federal jury in Virginia sentences Zacarias Moussaoui to life in prison without the chance of parole for his role in the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (May 3). Bush administration announces plans to normalize relations with Libya (May 15). 55.4% of Montenegrins vote for independence from Serbia (May 21). George Bush and Tony Blair express regret for the abuse of prisoners at the Abu Ghraib prison, for removing all Baathists from positions of power in Iraq, and for other missteps (May 25). The U.S. Senate rejects a proposed constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage (June 7). In response to an Israeli shelling of a Gaza beach that killed eight civilians, Hamas fires Qassam rockets into Israeli territory, ending a 16-month truce with Israel (June 10). Katharine Jefferts Schori chosen to be the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church; she will be the first woman to lead a church in the Anglican Communion (June 18). Warren Buffett announces that he will donate 85% of his $44 billion fortune to five philanthropic organizations, with about $31 billion going to the Gates Foundation (June 24). Palestinian militants tunnel out of Gaza and into Israel, killing two Israeli soldiers and kidnapping a third. Israeli troops move into Gaza, disabling its only power plant, destroying three bridges, and seizing Hamas political leaders (June 25–29). The Supreme Court rules that military tribunals cannot be set up to try prisoners in the absence of Congressional authorization and that prisoners are entitled to fair trials under the Geneva Conventions (June 29). India test-launches a missile with a range of 1,800 miles (July 9). More than 200 people die and hundreds more are wounded when a series of bombs explode on commuter trains in Mumbai, India during the evening rush hour (July 11). Bush administration concedes that terror suspects are entitled to basic human rights and legal rights under the Geneva Convention (July 11). Hezbollah, a Lebanese militant group, fires rockets into Israel. In response, Israel launches a major military attack, sending thousands of troops into Lebanon. (July 13–Aug. 15). President Bush uses his veto power for the first time, striking down legislation that would have expanded the number of stem cell lines available for embryonic research using federal financing. (July 19). Former president Viktor Yanukovich is named prime minister of Ukraine (Aug. 4). The International Astronomical Union reclassifies Pluto as a dwarf planet (Aug. 24). Under pressure from members of his Labor Party, British prime minister Tony Blair says he will resign within a year (Sept. 7). Thai Gen. Sondhi Boonyaratkalin stages a bloodless coup and declares martial law (Sept. 20). U.S. Representative Mark Foley (R-Fla.) steps down from the House of Representatives after reports emerge that he had sent sexually explicit messages to teenage male Congressional pages. He had been the head of House Caucus on Missing and Exploited Children (Sept. 29). International outrage and condemnation follows the test of a nuclear missile in the mountains of North Korea (Oct. 9). U.N. Security Council unanimously passes a resolution banning the sale of materials to North Korea that could be used to produce weapons and allowing authorities of other countries to inspect cargo entering and leaving the country (Oct. 14). The U.S. population officially reaches 300 million (Oct. 17). Pakistan military fires missiles at an Islamic school on the Afghanistan border, killing about 80 people who government officials say were militants. Officials also claim the school harbored members of al-Qaeda (Oct. 30). An Iraqi court convicts Saddam Hussein of crimes against humanity and sentences him to death by hanging (Nov. 5). Democrats gain control of both houses of Congress in the midterm elections (Nov. 7). South African parliament votes to legalize same-sex marriage (Nov. 14). Lebanese cabinet minister Pierre Gemayel, a critic of Syria, is assassinated. His father, Amin Gemayel, is a former president of Lebanon (Nov. 21). John Bolton steps down as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations when it becomes clear that he does not have enough votes in the Senate to win confirmation (Dec. 4). Ban Ki-moon of South Korea is sworn in as the secretary general of the United Nations. He replaces Kofi Annan (Dec. 14). U.N. Security Council resolution bans the Iranian import and export of materials and technology used to enrich uranium and freezes the assets of several individuals and companies that are active in nuclear and ballistic missile programs (Dec. 23). Gerald Ford, the 38th president, dies at age 93 (Dec. 26). Four days after an appeals court upholds his death sentence, Saddan Hussein is hanged in Baghdad (Dec. 30). On the final day of 2006, the number of U.S. soldiers killed since the start of the Iraq war reaches 3,000. Using the most conservative figures for confirmed deaths from Iraq Body Count, the number of Iraqi civilians killed since the start of the war exceeds 55,000; U.N. estimates are even higher.


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Default Natural Disasters History

Natural Disasters History

Natural disasters are extreme, sudden events caused by environmental factors that injure people and damage property. Earthquakes, windstorms, floods, and disease all strike anywhere on earth, often without warning. As examples, we've chosen disasters that have occurred around the world throughout history


Avalanches

An avalanche is any swift movement of snow, ice, mud, or rock down a mountainside or slope. Avalanches, which are natural forms of erosion and often seasonal, can reach speeds of more than 200 miles per hour. They are triggered by such events as earthquake tremors, human-made disturbances, or excessive rainfall.

Destruction from avalanches results both from the avalanche wind (the air pushed ahead of the mass) and from the actual impact of the avalanche material.

Where: Italian Alps
When: 218 B.C.
When Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, crossed the Alps to conquer Rome, 18,000 soldiers, 2,000 horses, and many elephants died. Most of the deaths were caused by Alpine avalanches.

Where: United States
When: 1910
The worst snowslide in U.S. history occurred in the Cascade Mountains in Wellington, Washington, when 96 people were trapped when their train became snowbound. An avalanche then swept them to their deaths in a gorge 150 feet below the tracks.

Where: Peru
When: 1962
When tons of ice and snow slid down Huascaran Peak in the Andes Mountains, nearly 4,000 people were killed. Some 30 years later, it is still considered the world's worst avalanche.


Blizzards and Hailstorms


A blizzard is a winter storm characterized by high winds, low temperatures, and driving snow. (According to the official definition given in 1958 by the U.S. Weather Bureau, the winds must exceed 35 miles (56 km) per hour and the must drop to temperature 20° F (-7° C) or lower.)

A hailstorm is precipitation in the form of balls or lumps of clear ice and compact snow. It is not known for sure how hailstones form and grow. We do know that they are spherical or irregularly spherical and usually vary in diameter up to 1/2 in. (1.3 cm); in rare cases hailstones having diameters up to 5 in. (12.7 cm) have been observed. Hail causes much damage and injury to crops, livestock, property, and airplanes.

Where: United States
When: 1888
The worst winter storm in U.S. history, the Blizzard of 1888 surprised the northeastern United States with as much as five feet of snow in some areas. Two hundred boats sank and more than 400 people died due to very powerful winds and cold temperatures.

Where: United States
When: 1978
The blizzard of 1978 was one of the most powerful snowstorms to hit the East Coast. It crippled New York and New England for days, in many areas dumping more than three feet of snow.

Where: Russia (formerly the Soviet Union)
When: 1923
In Rostov, 23 people and even more cattle were killed by hailstones weighing up to 2 pounds each.

Where: India
When: 1939
A hailstorm over a 30-square-mile area in the southern part of the country killed cattle and sheep and damaged crops. Some of the hailstones were said to weigh 71/2 pounds


Droughts and Famines

Droughts are unusually long periods of insufficient rainfall.

Since ancient times droughts have had far-reaching effects on humankind by causing the failure of crops, decreasing natural vegetation, and depleting water supplies. Livestock and wildlife, as well as humans, die of thirst and famine; large land areas often suffer damage from dust storms or fire.

Famines are extreme shortages of food that cause people to die of starvation.

Where: Egypt
When: 1200-02
The Egyptian people relied on the annual flooding of the Nile River to leave soil for growing crops. After a shortage of rain, however, the Nile didn't rise. People were unable to grow food and began to starve to death. The final death toll was 110,000, due to starvation, cannibalism, and disease.

Where: Ireland
When: 1845-49
Potatoes were the mainstay of the Irish diet. When the crop was struck by a potato blight (a fungus that killed the crop), farmers and their families began to starve. The grain and livestock raised in Ireland were owned by the English, and the laws of the time prevented the Irish people from importing grain to eat. This combination of plant disease and politics resulted in the Great Potato Famine, which killed 1.5 million people and caused a million more to move to America.

Where: The Great Plains of the U.S.
When: 1930s
The U.S. experienced its longest drought of the twentieth century. Peak periods were 1930, 1934, 1936, 1939, and 1940. During 1934, dry regions stretched solidly from New York and Pennsylvania across the Great Plains to the California coast. A great “dust bowl” covered 50 million acres in the south central plains during the winter of 1935–1936. Heavy winds caused the dry soil to be blown into huge clouds. Crops and pasture lands were ruined by the harsh dust storms, which also proved a severe health hazard.

Where: Northern China
When: 1959-61
The world's deadliest famine killed an estimated 30 million people in China. Drought was followed by crop failure, which was followed by starvation, disease, and cannibalism. News of the famine was not revealed to the rest of the world until 1981, some 20 years later.

Where: Biafra, Africa (present-day Nigeria)
When: 1967-69
As a result of civil war, famine conditions killed an estimated 1 million people and left another 3.5 million suffering from extreme malnutrition.
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Floods

A flood occurs when a body of water rises and overflows onto normally dry land. Floods occur most commonly when water from heavy rainfall, from melting ice and snow, or from a combination of these exceeds the carrying capacity of the river system, lake, or ocean into which it runs.

Where: The Netherlands and England
When: 1099
A combination of high tides and storm waves on the North Sea flooded coastal areas of England and the Netherlands, killing 100,000 people.

Where: United States
When: 1889
The Johnstown Flood, in Pennsylvania, was considered one of the worst disasters in U.S. history. After an unusually heavy rainstorm, a dam several miles upriver from Johnstown broke. One out of every 10 people in the path of the flood died, a total of 2,000 people in less than an hour.

Where: Italy
When: 1966
After a heavy rainfall, the Arno River overflowed, flooding the streets of Florence. Many great works of art in the museums were damaged, as was the architecture of the city. In two days, more than 100 people died and the city was covered with half a million tons of mud, silt, and sewage.



Deadliest Earthquakes


Date ---------------- Location ---------Deaths -----------Magnitude

Jan. 23, 1556--------- Shansi, China------ 830,000 ------------~8
July 27, 1976 -------Tangshan, China----- 255,0001------------ 7.5
Aug. 9, 1138 ---------Aleppo, Syria --------230,000 -------------n.a.
Dec. 26, 2004 ---off west coast of northern Sumatra --225,000+---- 9.0
Dec. 22, 8562------- Damghan, Iran -------200,000 --------------n.a.
May 22, 1927--- near Xining, Tsinghai, China -- 200,000 ------------7.9
Dec. 16, 1920----- Gansu, China ------------200,000------------ 7.8
March 23, 8932 -----Ardabil, Iran----------- 150,000 ------------n.a.
Sept. 1, 1923----- Kwanto, Japan ----------143,000 ------------7.9
Oct. 5, 1948 ---Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, USSR --110,000 --------7.3
Dec. 28, 1908 -------Messina, Italy-------- 70,000–100,0003 -----7.2
Sept. 1290---------- Chihli, China -----------100,000 ------------n.a.
Oct. 8, 2005---------- Pakistan ------------- 80,361------------- 7.6
Nov. 1667---------- Shemakha, Caucasia ----- 80,000------------ n.a.
Nov. 18, 1727 --------Tabriz, Iran ------------ 77,000 -----------n.a.
Dec. 25, 1932 --------Gansu, China ----------- 70,000 ----------7.6
Nov. 1, 1755 --------Lisbon, Portugal ----------70,000---------- 8.7
May 31, 1970 ----------Peru ------------------ 66,000 ----------7.9
May 30, 1935 ------Quetta, Pakistan ------- 30,000–60,000 ------7.5
Jan. 11, 1693------- Sicily, Italy ------------- 60,000 ------------n.a.
12684 -------------Silicia, Asia Minor ----------- 60,000 ----------n.a.
June 20, 1990 -----------Iran ----------------50,000------------ 7.7
Feb. 4, 1783-------- Calabria, Italy ---------- 50,000 -------------n.a.




Tsunamis

A tsunami (pronounced soo-nahm-ee) is a series of huge waves that happen after an undersea disturbance, such as an earthquake or volcano eruption. Tsunami is from the Japanese word for “harbor wave.”



The waves travel in all directions from the area of disturbance, much like the ripples that happen after throwing a rock. The waves may travel in the open sea as fast as 450 miles per hour. As the big waves approach shallow waters along the coast they grow to a great height and smash into the shore. They can be as high as 100 feet. They can cause a lot of destruction on the shore. They are sometimes mistakenly called “tidal waves,” but tsunami have nothing to do with the tides.

Hawaii is the state at greatest risk for a tsunami. They get about one a year, with a damaging tsunami happening about every seven years. Alaska is also at high risk. California, Oregon and Washington experience a damaging tsunami about every 18 years.

On Dec. 26, 2004, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake—the largest earthquake in 40 years—occurred off the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The earthquake triggered a tsunami in the Indian Ocean, the deadliest in world history. More than 226,000 died and twelve countries felt the devastation. Hardest hit were Indonesia (particularly the province of Aceh), Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, and the Maldives. Millions were left homeless by the disaster.
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Pestilence

Pestilence is contagious disease that spreads out of control, killing many people. Here are examples of some of the worst epidemics around the world.



AIDS

Where: Worldwide
When: Late 1970s-present
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease that destroys the body's immune system, its ability to fight sickness. This virus may have developed as long as 50 to 150 years ago, but it was not identified until 1981. The virus may take years to produce symptoms in an infected human being. The United Nations and the World Health Organization reported that a total of 20 million people had died from AIDS as of Dec. 2003.


Black Death

Where: Western Europe
When: 1347-51
This plague, thought to be the Bubonic plague, spread throughout Europe, killing about half the continent's population. It was called the Black Death because of the black blotches that appeared on the victims' bodies. This plague was carried by infected fleas on black rats.

Influenza

Where: Worldwide
When: 1918-19
This flu was a highly contagious virus that killed 20 million people throughout the world. Without effective medication to treat the illness, most people died of complications from the disease, like pneumonia. This pestilence, along with the Black Death, resulted in the highest number of deaths worldwide in history.


Volcanic Eruptions

A volcanic eruption occurs when molten rock, ash and steam pour through a vent in the earth's crust.

Volcanoes are described as active (in eruption), dormant (not erupting at the present time), or extinct (having ceased eruption; no longer active). Some volcanoes explode. Others are slow-flowing fountains of lava, which is hot fluid rock.

The following are examples of famous volcanic eruptions.

Where: Italy
When: A.D. 79
The eruption of Mount Vesuvius buried the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum under 20 feet of ash and lava, killing an estimated 20,000 people. The ash that buried the town and the people also preserved them. The work of uncovering the ancient cities began in 1748 and continues to this day.

Where: Indonesia
When: 1883
The greatest explosion in modern times occurred when Krakatoa erupted. The power of the explosion was thought to be 26 times the power of the greatest H bomb, and the roar was heard over one-thirteenth of the surface of the earth. The eruption wiped out 163 villages, killing 36,380 people.
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World Stats and Facts


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Note: This thread is initiated to post World archieves, stats, facts and other relevant material. Mumber`s are requested to add in this regard

#1

The World's Treasures

There may be lost pirate treasure buried in the coves of the Caribbean Islands. There are certainly lost treasures of gold and jewels aboard early Spanish sailing ships sunk at sea. But not all treasure is lost. The earth is full of found treasures. Here are just a few of them.

Bauxite: This mineral is used to make aluminum. Guinea in Africa is rich with it.

Cashews: These delicious nuts grow on trees in Mozambique, a country in southeast Africa.

Chewing Gum: The sapodilla tree of Central America is the source of chicle, which is what puts the chew in chewing gum.

Chocolate: The seed of the cacao tree, which is found on many Caribbean islands, is used to make chocolate.

Chromium: This metal is used to make stainless steel. There is plenty of chromium in Zimbabwe, Africa.

Copper: One of the richest “copper belts” in the world is in Zambia, Africa.

Cork: Bulletin boards and stoppers in wine bottles are both made of cork, which is the bark of the cork oak tree in Spain.

Diamonds: Namibia, Africa, supplies the most valuable diamonds of the 18 countries in southern Africa rich with diamonds.

Emeralds: Colombia produces the most emeralds of any country in South America.

Gold: The world's largest gold mine is in Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

Mahogany: The trees that supply this beautiful wood grow in Central America.

Nitrates: This mineral used to preserve foods is found in the desert of Chile.

Perfume: In the south of France, flowers are grown for their oils, which are used in making perfumes.

Seaweed: Off the coast of Japan, seaweed is harvested to eat or to flavor foods.

Sugar: Sugarcane is grown in many countries in Central America and the Caribbean Islands.

Vanilla: There wouldn't be vanilla ice cream without the vanilla bean. More than half the world's vanilla is grown in Madagascar.

Wool: Most of the world's wool is supplied by the sheep of Australia.
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#2

Selected World Rulers by Country or Region




Ancient and Historical Empire`s Rulers


Ancient Egypt: Rulers

Amenemhet I, king of ancient Egypt, founder of the XII dynasty (2000–1970 B.C.)

Sesostris I, king of ancient Egypt, second ruler of the XII dynasty (1980–1926 B.C.)

Amasis I, king of ancient Egypt (c.1570–1545 B.C.), founder of the XVIII dynasty

Thutmose I, king of ancient Egypt (1525–1495 B.C.), third ruler of the XVIII dynasty

Hatshepsut, queen of ancient Egypt (1486–1468 B.C.), of the XVIII dynasty

Ikhnaton, king of ancient Egypt (c.1372–1354 B.C.), of the XVIII dynasty

Ramses, name of several kings of ancient Egypt of the XIX and XX dynasties

Horemheb, king of ancient Egypt (c.1342–c.1303 B.C.), founder of the XIX dynasty

Seti I, king of ancient Egypt (1302–1290 B.C.), of the XIX dynasty

Merneptah, king of ancient Egypt (1224–1215 B.C.), of the XIX dynasty

Sheshonk I, king of ancient Egypt (950–924? B.C.), founder of the XXII (Libyan) dynasty

Piankhi, king of ancient Nubia (c.741–c.715 B.C.)

Taharka, king of ancient Egypt (688–663 B.C.), last ruler of the XXV dynasty

Psamtik, king of ancient Egypt (661–609 B.C.), founder of the XXVI dynasty

Apries, king of ancient Egypt (588–569 B.C.), of the XXVI dynasty

Amasis II, king of ancient Egypt (569–525 B.C.), of the XXVI dynasty

Ptolemy I (Ptolemy Soter), king of ancient Egypt (323–284 B.C.), the first
ruler of the Macedonian dynasty (or Lagid dynasty)

Ptolemy II (Ptolemy Philadelphus), king of ancient Egypt (285–246 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Berenice, queen of ancient Cyrene and Egypt (273–221 B.C.)

Ptolemy III (Ptolemy Euergetes), king of ancient Egypt (246–221 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy IV (Ptolemy Philopator), king of ancient Egypt (221–205 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy V (Ptolemy Epiphanes), king of ancient Egypt (205–180 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy VI (Ptolemy Philometor), king of ancient Egypt (180–145 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy VII (Ptolemy Physcon), king of ancient Egypt (145–116 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy VIII (Ptolemy Lathyrus), king of ancient Egypt (116–107 B.C., 88–81 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy IX, king of ancient Egypt (107–88 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy X, king of ancient Egypt (80 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Cleopatra, queen of Egypt (69–30 B.C.)

Ptolemy XI (Ptolemy Auletes), king of ancient Egypt (80–58 B.C., 55–51 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy XII, king of ancient Egypt (51–47 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty

Ptolemy XIII, king of ancient Egypt (47–44 B.C.), the last of the Macedonian dynasty













Ancient Persia: Kings

Cambyses, two kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia (c. 600–500 B.C.)

Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids and of the Persian Empire (c. 559–529 B.C.)

Darius I (Darius the Great), king of ancient Persia (521–486 B.C.)

Xerxes I (Xerxes the Great), king of ancient Persia (486–465 B.C.)

Artaxerxes I, king of ancient Persia (464–425 B.C.), of the dynasty of the Achaemenis

Xerxes II, king of ancient Persia (424 B.C.)

Darius II, king of ancient Persia (423?–404 B.C.)
Tissaphernes, Persian satrap of coastal Asia Minor (c.413–395 B.C.)

Artaxerxes II, king of ancient Persia (404–358 B.C.)
Mausolus, Persian satrap, ruler over Caria (c.376–353 B.C.)

Artaxerxes III, king of ancient Persia (358–338 B.C.)

Darius III (Darius Codomannus), king of ancient Persia (336–330 B.C.)

Tiridates, king of Parthia (c.248–211 B.C.), second ruler of the Arsacid dynasty

Shapur I, king of Persia (241–72)

Shapur II, king of Persia (310–79), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty

Ardashir II, king of Persia (379–83), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty

Shapur III, king of Persia (383–88), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty

Khosrow I (Khosrow Anόshirvan), king of Persia (531–79)

Khosrow II (Khosrow Parviz), king of Persia of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty (590–628)











Ancient Greece and Macedon: Rulers

Draco, Athenian politician (c. 621 B.C.)

Solon, chief magistrate of Athens (594–546 B.C.)

Pisistratus, tyrant of Athens (605?–527 B.C.)

Hippias, tyrant of Athens (527–510 B.C.)

Hipparchus, tyrant of Athens (c. 555–514 B.C.)

Themistocles, Athenian statesman (c. 525–462 B.C.)

Cimon, Athenian general and statesman (d. 449 B.C.)

Cleisthenes, democratic ruler of Athens (506 B.C.)

Pericles, Athenian statesman (c. 495-429 B.C.)

Cleon, Athenian statesman (d. 422 B.C.)

Alcibiades, Athenian statesman, (c. 450–404 B.C.)

Agesilaus II, king of Sparta (c. 444–360 B.C.)

Agis, name of four Spartan kings

Philip II, king of Macedon and Greece (359–336 B.C.)

Alexander the Great, , king of Macedon and much of Asia, (356–323 B.C.)

Lysimachus, general of Alexander the Great, ruler of Thrace, west Asia Minor, and Macedonia, (c. 355–281 B.C.)

Cassander, king of Macedon (358–297 B.C.)

Demetrius I, king of Macedon (c. 337–283 B.C.)

Antigonus II, king of Macedon (c. 320-239 B.C.)

Demetrius II, king of Macedon (c. 239–229 B.C.)

Antigonus III, king of Macedon (d. 221 B.C.)

Cleomenes III, king of Sparta (235–221 B.C.)

Philip V, king of Macedon (221–179 B.C.)

Perseus, last king of Macedon (179–168 B.C.)












Roman Republic and Roman Empire: Rulers

Roman Republic

Cato the Elder, statesman (234–149 B.C.)

Gracchi, (Tiberius Sempronius Graccus [d. 133B.C.] and Caius Sempronius

Gracchus [d. 121 B.C.], statesmen and social reformers

Caius Marius, general and consul (157–86 B.C.)

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, general and consul (138–78 B.C.)

Pompey, general and member of First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and
Crassus (106–48B.C.)

Marcus Licinius Crassus, member of First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey
(d. 53 B.C.)

Cato the Younger, statesman (95–46 B.C.)

Julius Caesar, general and statesman (100?–44 B.C.)

Marc Antony, politician and soldier, member of Second Triumvirate with
Lepidus and Octavian (Augustus) (83–30 B.C.)

Lepidus, member of Second Triumvirate with Marc Antony and Octavian (d. 13 B.C.)


Roman Empire

Augustus, (Octavian) first emperor, grandnephew of Julius Caesar, (27 B.C.–A.D. 14)

Tiberius, stepson of Augustus, (14–37)

Caligula, grandnephew of Tiberius (37–41)

Claudius, uncle of Caligula (41–54)

Nero, stepson of Claudius (54–68)

Galba, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (68–69)

Otho, military commander (69)

Vitellius, military commander (69)

Vespasian, military commander (69–79)

Titus, son of Vespasian (79–81)

Domitian, son of Vespasian (81–96)

Nerva, elected interim ruler (96-98)

Trajan, adopted son of Nerva (98–117)

Hadrian, ward of Trajan (117–138)

Antoninus Pius, adopted by Hadrian (138–161)

Marcus Aurelius, adopted by Antoninus Pius (161–180)

Lucius Verus, adopted by Antoninus Pius; ruled jointly with Marcus Aurelius (
161–169)

Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius (180–192)

Pertinax, proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard (193)

Didius Julianus, bought office from the Praetorian Guard (193)

Severus, proclaimed emperor (193–211)

Caracalla, son of Severus (211–217)

Geta, son of Severus, ruled jointly with Caracalla (211–212)

Macrinus, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (217–18)

Heliogabalus, cousin of Caracalla (218–222)

Alexander Severus, cousin of Heliogabalus (222–235)

Maximin, proclaimed emperor by soldiers, (235–238)

Gordian I, made emperor by the senate (238)

Gordian II, son of Gordian I, ruled jointly with his father (238)

Balbinus, elected joint emperor by the senate (238)

Pupienus Maximus, elected joint emperor with Balbinus by the senate (238)

Gordian III, son of Gordian II (238–244)

Philip (the Arabian), assassin of Gordian III (244–249)

Decius, proclaimed emperor by the soldiers (249–2251)


Hostilianus, son of Decius, colleague of Gallus (251)

Gallus, military commander (251–253)

Aemilianus, military commander (253)

Valerian, military commander (253–260)

Gallienus, son of Valerian, coemperor with his father and later sole emperor (
253–268)

Claudius II, military commander (268–270)

Aurelian, chosen by Claudius II as successor (270–275)

Tacitus, chosen by the senate (275–276)

Florianus, half brother of Tacitus (276)

Probus, military commander (276–282)

Carus, proclaimed by the Praetorian Guard (282–283)

Carinus, son of Carus (283–285)

Numerianus, son of Carus, joint emperor with Carinus (283–284)

Diocletian, military commander, divided the empire; ruled jointly with Maximian
and Constantius I 284–305)

Maximian, appointed joint emperor by Diocletian (286–305)

Constantius I, joint emperor and successor of Diocletian (305–306)

Galerius, joint emperor with Constantius I (305–310)

Maximin, nephew of Galerius (308–313)

Licinius, appointed emperor in the West by Galerius; later emperor in the East (308–324)

Maxentius, son of Maximian (306–312)

Constantine I (the Great), son of Constantius I (306–337)

Constantine II, son of Constantine I (337–340)

Constans, son of Constantine I (337–350)

Constantius II, son of Constantine I (337–361)

Magnentius, usurped Constans' throne, (350–353)

Julian (the Apostate), nephew of Constantine I (361–363)

Jovian, elected by the army (363–364)

Valentinian I, proclaimed by the army; ruled in the West (364–375)

Valens, brother of Valentinian I; ruled in the East (364–378)

Gratian, son of Valentinian I; coruler in the West with Valentinian II (375–383)

Maximus, usurper in the West (383–388)

Valentinian II, son of Valentinian I, ruler of the West (375–392)

Eugenius, usurper in the West (393–394)

Theodosius I (the Great), appointed ruler of the East (379–395) by Gratian;

last ruler of united empire (394–395)



Emperors in the East

Arcadius, son of Theodosius I (395–408)

Theodosius II, son of Arcadius, (408–450)

Marcian, brother-in-law of Theodosius II (450–457)

Leo I, chosen by the senate (457–474)

Leo II, grandson of Leo I (474)

Zeno (474–475)

Basilicus (475–476)




Emperors in the West

Honorius, son of Theodosius (395–423)

Maximus, usurper in Spain (409–411)

Constantius III, named joint emperor by Honorius (421)

Valentinian III, nephew of Honorius and son of Constantius III (425–455)

Petronius Maximus, bought office by bribery (455)

Avitus, placed in office by Goths (455–456)

Majorian, puppet emperor of Ricimer (457–461)

Libius Severus, puppet emperor of Ricimer (461–465)

Anthemius, appointed by Ricimer and Leo I (467–472)

Olybrius, appointed by Ricimer (472–473)

Glycerius, appointed by Leo I (473–474)

Julius Nepos, appointed by Leo I (474–475)

Romulus Augustulus, put in office by Orestes, his father (474–476)












Byzantium: Emperors

Leo I, Byzantine or East Roman emperor (457–74)

Justin I, Byzantine emperor (518–27)

Justinian I, Byzantine emperor (527–65)

Theodora, Byzantine empress (527–48)

Justin II, Byzantine emperor (565–78)

Maurice, Byzantine emperor (582–602)

Heraclius, Byzantine emperor (610–41)

Constans II, Byzantine emperor (641–68)

Constantine IV, Byzantine emperor (668–85)

Justinian II, Byzantine emperor (685–95, 705–11)

Leo III, Byzantine emperor (717–41)

Constantine V, Byzantine emperor (741–75)

Leo IV, Byzantine emperor (775–80)

Constantine VI, Byzantine emperor (780–97)

Irene, Byzantine empress (797–802)

Nicephorus I, Byzantine emperor (802–11)

Michael I, Byzantine emperor (811–13)

Leo V, Byzantine emperor (813–20)

Michael II, Byzantine emperor (820–29)

Michael III, Byzantine emperor (842–67)

Basil I, Byzantine emperor (867–86)

Leo VI, Byzantine emperor (886–912)

Constantine VII, Byzantine emperor (913–59)

Romanus I, Byzantine emperor (usurper) (920–44)

Romanus II, Byzantine emperor (959–63)

Nicephorus II (Nicephorus Phocas), Byzantine emperor (963–69)

John I (John Tzimisces), Byzantine emperor (969–76)

Basil II, Byzantine emperor (976–1025)

Romanus III (Romanus Argyrus), Byzantine emperor (1028–34)

Zoλ, Byzantine empress (1028–50)

Comnenus, family name of several Byzantine emperors in the 11th and 12th
centuries

Isaac I (Isaac Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1057–59), first of the Comneni
dynasty

Romanus IV (Romanus Diogenes), Byzantine emperor (1068–71)

Alexius I (Alexius Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118)

John II (John Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1118–43)

Manuel I (Manuel Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1143–80)

Alexius II, Byzantine emperor (1180–83)

Andronicus I (Andronicus Comnenus), Byzantine emperor (1183–85)

Isaac II (Isaac Angelus), Byzantine emperor (1185–95, 1203–04)

Alexius III (Alexius Angelus), Byzantine emperor (1195–1203)

Alexius IV, Byzantine emperor (1203–04)

Alexius V (Alexius Ducas Mourtzouphlos), Byzantine emperor (1204)

Baldwin I, first Latin emperor of Constantinople (1204–05)

Theodore I, Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1204–22)

Robert of Courtenay, Latin emperor of Constantinople (1218–28)

John III (John Ducas Vatatzes), Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1222–54)

Theodore II, Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1254–58)

Baldwin II, last Latin emperor of Constantinople (1228–61)

John IV (John Lascaris), Byzantine emperor of Nicaea (1258–61)

Michael VIII, Byzantine emperor (1261–82), first of the Palaeologus dynasty

Andronicus II (Andronicus Palaeologus), Byzantine emperor (1282–1328)

Andronicus III, Byzantine emperor (1328–41)

John V (John Palaeologus), Byzantine emperor (1341–91)

John VI (John Cantacuzene), Byzantine emperor (1347–54)

John VII (John Palaeologus), Byzantine emperor (1390, 1399–1402)

Manuel II, Byzantine emperor (1391–1425)

John VIII, Byzantine emperor (1425–48)

Constantine XI, last Byzantine emperor (1449–53)












Holy Roman Empire: Emperors

Charlemagne (Charles I), emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814)

Charles II, emperor of the West (875–77) and king of the West Franks (843–77)

Otto I, Holy Roman emperor (962–73) and German king (936–73)

Otto II, Holy Roman emperor (973–83) and German king (961–83)

Otto III, Holy Roman emperor (996–1002) and German king (983–1002)

Henry II, Holy Roman emperor (1014–24) and German king (1002–24), last of
the Saxon line

Conrad II, Holy Roman emperor (1027–39) and German king (1024–39), first of the Salian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire

Henry III, Holy Roman emperor (1046–56) and German king (1039–56)

Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor (1084–1105) and German king (1056–1105)

Henry V, Holy Roman emperor (1111–25) and German king (1105–25)

Lothair II, also called Lothair III, Holy Roman emperor (1133–37) and German king (1125–37)

Frederick I, Holy Roman emperor (1155–90) and German king (1152–90)

Henry VI, Holy Roman emperor (1191–97) and German king (1190–97)

Constance, Holy Roman empress, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI

Otto IV, Holy Roman emperor (1209–15) and German king (1208–15)

Frederick II, Holy Roman emperor (1220–50) and German king (1212–20), king
of Sicily (1197–1250), and king of Jerusalem (1229–50)

Henry VII, Holy Roman emperor (1312–13) and German king (1308–13)

Louis IV, Holy Roman emperor (1328–47) and German king (1314–47), duke of Upper Bavaria

Charles IV, Holy Roman emperor (1355–78), German king (1347–78), and king
of Bohemia (1346–78)

Wenceslaus, Holy Roman emperor (uncrowned) and German king (1378–1400), king of Bohemia (1378–1419) as Wenceslaus IV, elector of Brandenburg (1373–76)

Sigismund, Holy Roman emperor (1433–37), German king (1410–37), king of
Hungary (1387–1437) and of Bohemia (1419–37), elector of Brandenburg (
1376–1415)

Frederick III, Holy Roman emperor (1452–93) and German king (1440–93)


Maximilian I, Holy Roman emperor and German king (1493–1519)

Charles V, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (
1516–56)

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman emperor (1558–64), king of Bohemia (1526–64) and of Hungary (1526–64)

Maximilian II, Holy Roman emperor (1564–76), king of Bohemia (1562–76) and of Hungary (1563–76)

Rudolf II, Holy Roman emperor (1576–1612), king of Bohemia (1575–1611)
and of Hungary (1572–1608)

Matthias, Holy Roman emperor (1612–19), king of Bohemia (1611–17) and of Hungary (1608–18)

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman emperor (1619–37), king of Bohemia (1617–37) and
of Hungary (1618–37)

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman emperor (1637–57), king of Hungary (1626–57) and of Bohemia (1627–57)

Leopold I, Holy Roman emperor (1658–1705), king of Bohemia (1656–1705) and of Hungary (1655–1705)

Joseph I, Holy Roman emperor (1705–11), king of Hungary (1687–1711) and
of Bohemia (1705–11)

Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor (1711–40), king of Bohemia (1711–40) and, as Charles III, king of Hungary (1712–40)

Charles VII, Holy Roman emperor (1742–45) and, as Charles Albert, elector of Bavaria (1726–45)

Francis I, Holy Roman emperor (1745–65), duke of Lorraine (1729–37) as

Francis Stephen, grand duke of Tuscany (1737–65)

Joseph II, Holy Roman emperor (1765–90), king of Bohemia and Hungary (1780–90)

Leopold II, Holy Roman emperor (1790–92), king of Bohemia and Hungary (
1790–92), as Leopold I grand duke of Tuscany (1765–90)

Francis II, last Holy Roman emperor (1792–1806), first emperor of Austria as

Francis I (1804–35), king of Bohemia and of Hungary (1792–1835)









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India Rulers


Maurya, ancient Indian dynasty (c.325–c.183 B.C.)

Asoka, Indian emperor (c.273–c.232 B.C.) of the Maurya dynasty

Harsha, Indian emperor (606–47)

Prithvi Raj, ruler of the Chauan dynasty of N. India (d. 1192)

Mughal, Muslim empire in India (1526–1857)

Babur, founder of the Mughal empire of India (1494–1530)

Humayun, second Mughal emperor of India (1530–56)

Sher Khan, Afghan ruler in N. India (1540–45)

Akbar, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605)

Jahangir, Mughal emperor of India (1605–27)

Shah Jahan, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58)

Aurangzeb, Mughal emperor of India (1658–1707)

Sivaji, Indian ruler, leader of the Marathas (1674–80)

Shah Alam, Mughal emperor of India (1759–1806)

Haidar Ali , Indian ruler (1761–82)

Tippoo Sahib, Indian ruler, sultan of Mysore (1782–99)

Warren Hastings, first governor general of British India (1774–84)

Ranjit Singh, Indian maharaja, ruler of the Sikhs (1799–1839)

Bahadur Shah II, last Mughal emperor of India (1837–57)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian political and spiritual leader (1869–
1948)

Rajendra Prasad, first president of India (1950–62)

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian philosopher, president of India (1962–67)

Varahagiri Venkata Giri, president of India (1969–74)

Indira Gandhi, Indian political leader, prime minister (1966–77, 1980–84)

Rajiv Gandhi, prime minister of India (1984–89)

H. D. Deve Gowda, prime minister of India (1996–1997)

Atal Bihari Vajpayee, prime minister of India (1996, 1998–)
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