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  #1  
Old Thursday, October 12, 2006
Khadija Rathor's Avatar
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Cool need advise of senior members

salam 2 all.
i am a new member in this forum and need advise of senior members. i hv done masters in english literature and thought of trying my luck in css. i hv opted the following subjects and wanna know r they scoring subject or not?
english literature......200
history of pakistan & india....200
public administration......100
sociology......100
plzzzzzzzzz reply me hellllllp me
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  #2  
Old Thursday, October 12, 2006
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Welcome to the forum Khadija.

Well dear, your selected optionals are out of range for me, but i can comment on Indo Pak History, it's a scoring subject and helpful for the preparation of Pak Affairs paper as well.

Secondly the scoring position of any subject depends on the level of your preparation.

Hope you'll have advice for other optionals from some kind souls.



Regards,
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  #3  
Old Thursday, October 12, 2006
sara_khan
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Ms Rathore,
Welcome most here.
I wd rather advise you to replace indo-pak history with 2 other 100 each subjects like Journalism,IR,or Forestry etc as suits you because Indo-pak is too lenghty and all cramming.Past papers suggest that you cannot even expect exactly which period paper-setter selects say for 3-4 questions.For example most people skip Slave dynasty of less than 100 years with 17 kings just to avoid vigourous cramming,and are shocked to see when 3 questions outta 8 come from that period.
Moreover,as most candidates opt for this subject,it is always placed immediately after compulsories and checking is also very strict resulting in quite low-scores every year.Only too lucky and gud crammers score best.And also this concept is wrong that it helps Pak-Affairs.For if u compare both subjects you would conclude that Pak Affairs is purely conceptual with proper judgement and almost current for at least 3-4 questions come outta current problems facing pakistan,while indo-pak is purely historical and history is what historians say and hence cramming.
Hence Ms Rathore,better have a look at other 100 marks subjects which you have a little taste about, instead of opting this voluminous,unexpected bulk of almost unjustifiable history of our region.And also sometimes you really fail in both the papers of a 200 mark subject as you have but one subject as compared to having two apples to bite on.
wish u all the best
Maa salam
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  #4  
Old Thursday, October 12, 2006
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i would like to expostulate that each one have distinguish estimate.provided that you are holding robust grip in those subjects and u have studied them before then u should go for it deviod of mating in any intricacy.
and if u dont have any past study then it exceedingly gordian knot like a granite which is crucial to debris ....what ever u must persistence to do better than the best........we are always here for buttress...best of luck
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  #5  
Old Thursday, October 12, 2006
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Mr Sureshlasi,
The only thing that i gathered outta your post is that we must have solid background knoledge of any subject while selecting it.Yes,you are right.
But its unfortunately not all.Its arthmatic rather and catious calculation.Its comptetition and not passing.So please be logical and elucid while posting anything lest any guided gets misguided.
Maa salam
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  #6  
Old Thursday, October 12, 2006
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Khadija Rathor
salam 2 all.
i am a new member in this forum and need advise of senior members. i hv done masters in english literature and thought of trying my luck in css. i hv opted the following subjects and wanna know r they scoring subject or not?
english literature......200
history of pakistan & india....200
public administration......100
sociology......100
plzzzzzzzzz reply me hellllllp me
Wsalam

Dear u are welcome to the forum. I dont think that i really need to repeat my traditional text but let me make u sure that u will enjoy ur stay over here and ll never b disappointed in any regard.

Ur optionals are good coz u have slected them by urself. Eng literature will b not that scoring one but helpful. indo-pak history is good for Pak Affairs. PA and Scosiology are just ok. Have u started studyig them? How r u doing wid them?

All d best
Regards
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Last edited by I M Possible; Thursday, October 12, 2006 at 04:41 AM.
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  #7  
Old Thursday, October 12, 2006
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Originally Posted by sara_khan
Mr Sureshlasi,
The only thing that i gathered outta your post is that we must have solid background knoledge of any subject while selecting it.Yes,you are right.
But its unfortunately not all.Its arthmatic rather and catious calculation.Its comptetition and not passing.So please be logical and elucid while posting anything lest any guided gets misguided.
Maa salam
U need to be moderate. Its Sureshlasi's right to suggest what he finds pivotal. I did not find anything useless in his post. Kindly think before u leap otherwise i dont like to point u out like this.

Regards
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  #8  
Old Thursday, October 12, 2006
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Asalamoalikum the new comer Khadija
u will find this conversation helpful regarding the selection of ur subjects
Take imigate and good decision becoz time is too short for prepartion


Take care
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  #9  
Old Friday, October 13, 2006
Sureshlasi's Avatar
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sara_khan
Mr Sureshlasi,
The only thing that i gathered outta your post is that we must have solid background knoledge of any subject while selecting it.Yes,you are right.
But its unfortunately not all.Its arthmatic rather and catious calculation.Its comptetition and not passing.So please be logical and elucid while posting anything lest any guided gets misguided.
Maa salam
hello sara khan......first of all i never try to enlighten newcomers devious path.i never diffuse any illusory rumour.....meseems the intricacy that english literature is less scoring and most artistic subject.can u speak french .if u r avocate to speak it then its not a big deal but it is rather difficult to speak it without any background .can u walk devoid of perceieve that how to take steps i think no..so how can we propelled without any background knowledge about subject and i think i dint exert on any thing else...so how could ya arraign me that i try to mat newcomers in maze.......better u extract before proclaime and censure others thought
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  #10  
Old Saturday, October 14, 2006
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A brief account of PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Public administration is, broadly speaking, the study and implementation of policy. As a moral endeavor, public administration is linked to pursuing the public good through the creation of civil society and social justice. The adjective 'public' often denotes 'government', though it increasingly encompasses nonprofit organizations such as those of civil society or any entity and its management not specifically acting in self-interest. The term public administration sometimes is taken to refer narrowly to government bureaucracy. The history of the science of public administrationIn the development of the science of public administration four generations can be distinguished: one pre generation and three actual generations.
The pre generation
The pre generation includes thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle and Machiavelli.

Until the birth of the national state, the emphasis lay principally on the problems of moral and political nature, and on the organization of the public administration. The operation of this administration was a less urgent problem. Machiavelli wrote the book The Prince, which offered a guideline for European rulers. The operation of the administration, and not only the organization, also profited from the attention it received in this book.

From the 16th century, the national state was the reigning model of the administrative organization in Western Europe. These states needed an organization for the implementation of law and order and for setting up a defensive structure. The need for expert civil servants, with knowledge about taxes, statistics, administration and the military organization grew.

In the 18th century the need for administrative expertise grew even further. Therefore king Frederick William I of Prussia established professorates in Kameralism, an economic and social school of thought within 18th century Prussia to reform society, at the universities of Frankfurt and Halle. The most well know professor of Kameralism was Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi (1717-1771), who linked Kameralism and the idea of natural law with each other. Kameralism is a predecessor of the modern science of public administration.
The first generation
Lorenz von Stein, since 1855 professor in Vienna, is considered the founder of the science of public administration. In the time of Von Stein the science of public administration was considered to be a form of administrative law, but Von Stein thought that opinion was too restrictive.

His opinions were innovative in several respects:
He considered the science of public administration a melting pot of several scientific disciplines, like sociology, political sciences, administrative law and public finance. In the opinion of Von Stein the science of public administration was an integrating science.
According to Von Stein the science of public administration was an interaction between theory and practice. He considered the public administration as leading practically, but the theory had to form the base.
Von Stein thought that the science of public administration should strive to adopt a scientific method.
In the United States Woodrow Wilson was the first to consider the science of public administration important. Wilson was more influential to the science of public administration than Von Stein, primarily due to an article Wilson wrote in 1887 in which he argued in favor of four concepts:
Separation between politics and the public administration.
Consideration of the government from a commercial perspective.
Comparative analysis between political and private organisations and political schemes.
Reaching effective management by training civil servants and asses their quality.
The separation between politics and the public administration, which Wilson argued, has been the subject of fierce debates for a long time, and the different points of view on this subject differentiate periods in the science of public administration.
The second generation
The discussion about the separation between politics and the public administration as argued by Wilson continued to play an important role up to 1945.

Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick were the founders of the Science of Administration. They integrated the ideas of earlier theorists like Henri Fayol into a comprehensive theory of administration. Gulick and Urwick believed that the thoughts of Fayol offered a systematic treatment of management, which was unique at that time. They believed that this could be applied as well for the management of companies as for administrative sciences. They did not want to separate the two disciplines, but believed a single Science of Administration, which exceeds the borders between the private and the public sector, could exist. Later on the Science of Administration would focus primarily on governmental organizations. The reasoning of the Science of Administration was largely borrowed from the fourteen principles of organization of Fayol.
The third generation
After 1945 the third generation arose which questioned the ideas of Wilson and the second generation.

Initially the distinction between politics and the public administration was strongly relativized by the third generation, but the discussion would continue. Because of the unsuccessful American intervention in Vietnam and the Watergate scandal politics got discredited and in the eighties there was again a plee in favor of bureaucracy, especially in the United States. The public administation had to detach itself from politics. Public administration as an academic disciplineThe academic field evolved in the United States from both academic political science and law as a separate study in the 1900s. In Europe, notably England and Germany (Max Weber), it started as a separate scholarly field in the 1890s, but it was first taught in Continental universities in the 1720s. The Federalist Papers several times referred to the importance of good administration, and scholars such as John A. Rohr see a long history behind the constitutional legitimacy of government bureaucracy.

A few public administration theorists advocate a bright line differentiation of the professional field from related academic disciplines like political science and sociology. But, in general, the interdisciplinary nature of PA is acknowledged and it is viewed as a field of study rather than a discipline.

As a field, public administration can be compared to business administration, and the MPA viewed as similar to an MBA for those wishing to pursue governmental or non-profit careers. The MPA entails substantial ethical and sociological aspects not usually found in business schools. There are derivative and related degrees that address public affairs, public policy, and the like. Differences often connote program emphases on policy analysis techniques or other topical focuses such as the study of international affairs as opposed to focuses on constitutional issues such as separation of powers, administrative law, problems of governance and power, and participatory democracy.

Public administration theory is the domain where discussions of the meaning and purpose of government, bureaucracy, budgets, governance, and public affairs take place in the field. In recent years, public administration theory has occasionally connoted a heavy orientation toward critical theory and postmodern philosophical notions of government, governance, and power, but many public administration scholars support a classic definition of the term which gives weight to constitutionality, service, bureaucratic forms of organization, and hierarchical government.

There is minor tradition that holds that the more specific term public management refers to ordinary, routine or typical management concerns, but in the context of achieving public good. Others see public management as a new, economically driven perspective on the operation of government. This latter view is often termed "new public management" by its advocates and can be seen as a reform attempt aimed at reemphasizing the professional nature of the field versus its academic, moral or disciplinary characteristics.
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