Assistant Director Land Record (Notes)
Assalam O Alaikum,
Here, starting a thread for the preparation of AD Land Record, request to the members, post all relevant MCQ's ,notes and material here.
1. Land Revenue Act 1967, 7th December, based on Punjab Revenue Act, 1887
2. Punjab Revenue Act 1887, before integration, was applicable to Punjab, N.W.F.P (now KPK) and to Baluchistan and Bahawalpur state with certain modifications, after integration, it was extended to the District Kalat , Kharan, Makran and Lasbela.
3. The Land Revenue Act, 1967, define and prescribe the right and relation between the state and the land-owners.
5. Tenancy Act, defines the relation between landowners and tenants.
6. Revenue courts are bound to follow the rules of C.P.C.
7. Maintenance of Record-of-Rights in cities and town is also a function of Board of Revenue.
8. After Disintegration of One Unit each Province has now its own Board of Revenue.
9. The Board of Revenue is the controlling authority in all matters connected with the administration of land, collection of Land Revenue, preparation of Land Records and other matters relating to thereto.
10. The Board of Revenue is the highest Court of Appeal and Revision in revenue cases in the Province.
11. It is not permissible for the Revenue Courts to go behind the decision of Civil Courts.
[B][CENTER][COLOR="Navy"]Terms and Definitions [/COLOR][/CENTER][/B]
Terms defined in the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967, are following:-
[B]1.Land[/B] - The world [B]Land[/B] has not been defined in this Act, but under the Punjab Tenancy Act,1887 it means" any land occupied or let for the agricultural purpose or for the purpose subservient to the agricultural or for the pasture, and includes the sites or building and other structure on such land "
[B]2. Agricultural Year [/B] -the year commencing on the first day of July, or on such other date as the Board of Revenue, appoint for any specified area.
[B]3. Arrears of Land-Revenue [/B] - Land-revenue which remains unpaid after the date on which it becomes payable.
[B]4. Assessment Circle[/B]- Group of estates which in the opinion of the Board of Revenue, sufficiently homogeneous to admit of a common set of rates being used as a general guide in calculating the land-revenue to be assessed upon them.
[B]5. Board of Revenue [/B] - The Board of Revenue established under the Board of Revenue Act, 1957. (West Pakistan Act XI of 1957)
[B]6.Boundary Mark[/B] - Any object or mark, whether natural or artificial, which is set up, employed or specified by any authorized Revenue Officer to designate the boundary of any portion of land.
[B]7. Commencement [/B]- the day/date on which this Act or any provision thereof, comes into operation.
[B]8. Defaulter[/B] - Person liable for payment of land-revenue, and includes a person who is responsible as surety for payment, do not pay it on the date, they become defaulters.
[B]9. Encumbrance[/B] – Burdens or charges upon or claim against land, arising out of a private grant or contract.
[B]10. Estate[/B] – Any area for which a separate record-of-rights has been made; or which has been separately assessed to land-revenue; or which the Board of Revenue, declare to be an estate.
[B]11. Holding[/B] - A share or portion of an estate held by one land-owner or jointly by two or more land-owners.
[B]12. Irrigated Land [/B]- Land irrigated by a canal, tube well, well, lift, spring, tank or by any other artificial means of irrigation
[B]13. Unirrigated Land[/B]- land other than irrigated land, and includes land fed by rains, floods, hill torrents, and uncultivable or waste land.
[B]14.Landlord[/B] - a person under whom a tenant holds land, and whom the tenant is, or a lessor.
[B]15. Land Owner[/B] – a person whom a holding has been is transferred or an estate or holding has been let in farm, but exclude a tenant.
[B]16.Kanungo [/B]- supervising Tapedar.
[B]17. Land-Revenue[/B] – "Land-revenue assessed or assessable under the Land Revenue Act, or under any other law for the time being in force relating to land-revenue, and includes any rates imposed on account of increase in the value of land due to irrigation”.
[B]18.Tenant [/B]- A person who holds land under another person, and is, or but for a special contract would be, liable to pay rent for that land to that other person, and includes the predecessors and successors-in-interest of such person, but does not include a mortgagee of the rights of a land-owner.
A person who takes from Government a lease of unoccupied land for the purpose of subletting it.
[B]19.Tenancy[/B] - a parcel of land held by a tenant under one lease or one set of conditions.
[B]20. Legal Practitioner[/B] - Any legal practitioner within the meaning of the Legal Practitioners Act, 1879 (Act XVIII of 1879), except a Mukhtar and Revenue Agents.
[B]21. Net Assets [/B]– The Profit after all expenses of cultivation (including water rates ) but before payment of Land Revenue and cesses.
[B]22. Patwari[/B] - Tapedar and a Special or Additional Tapedar.
[B]23. Pay [/B]- to rent, “deliver” and “render”.
[B]24.Prescribed [/B]- prescribed by rules made under this Act
[B]25. Rates and Cesses[/B] - Primarily payable by land-owners by the authority of Government; village officers’ cess ; and any sum payable on account of village expenses.
[B]26. Rent[/B] - Whatever is payable to a land-lord in money or kind by a tenant on account of the use, but shall not include any cess, or other contribution.
[B]27. Revenue Court[/B] - Court constituted as such under the law relating to tenancy as in force for the time being.
[B]28. Revenue Officer[/B] -Having authority under this Act to discharge the function of a Revenue Officer.
[B]29. Service Centres[/B] - The Computerized Service Centre established by the Board of Revenue.
[B]30. Service Centre Official [/B]– A Person appointed as the Service Centre Official.
[B]31. Survey Mark[/B] - Any mark set up by the Department of Survey of Pakistan.
[B]32 . Survey Number/Khasra Number [/B]- A Portion of land of which the area is separately entered under an indicative number in the record-of-rights.
[B]33. Village Officer[/B] - Any person appointed under this Act whose duty it is to collect, or to supervise the collection of, the revenue of an estate.
[B][COLOR="DarkSlateBlue"][SIZE="4"]Some More Terms and Their Definations[/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]
[B]1. Mussavie (Index Map)[/B] : Geographic data is recorded on special kind of paper maps for each village.These are known as the Mussavies .These are surveyed paper maps at different scales depending upon village area, normally at a scale of [B]1”=40 Karam[/B] .The measuring unit on Mussavies is“[B]karam[/B]”. Mussavies are developed at the time of settlement. No changes can be made in this record set till next settlement.
[B]2. Shajrah Parcha /Latha/Kapra[/B] :The reflection mussavie on big cotton cloth map is known as “latha” or “kapra”. This record set is primarily kept by patwari of the village, who makes temporal changes like splitting or merging of land parcels. (usually with a red pencil)
[B]3.Field Book:[/B] It is an alphanumeric representation of Mussavie, which keeps the entire attribute information related to every land parcel of that particular village .
The Attributes of Field Book includes:
•The dimensions of plot in various directions ,
•Old Khasra number (Plot ID of last settlement),
• New Khasra number (Plot ID of current settlement),
• Khatuni number (Farmer ID),
• Type of land for every parcel,
• Area of each type of every parcel.
• Aggregated chart of the village at the end (shows total land types and
their areas in the village, total agricultural land in the village and some
other aggregated information like total number of plots, etc.)
[B]4.Records of Rights (Register Haqdaaraan-e-Zamin or Misl-e-Haqiat):[/B] This register contains ownership records and is developed at the time of settlement along with field book and Mussavie, and owner information. It indicates the ownership of each parcel .
Records of Rights Book contains
•Pedigree sheets (which gives the details of the cultivating and
landowner families of the village and their relationship. This record
set contains several indexes such as: Owner ID vs Parcel ID List
(Khaivet number vs Khasra number),Alphabetical index of owners
(Index Radeef war Malkaan) etc.
• Owner ID ,
• Participants in the Ownership,
• Land parcels comes under their Ownership,
• Share of each owner names of farmers who plough this field,
•Types and areas
• Information of levy and taxes .
[B]5. Mutation Register (Register Intaqaal):[/B] This register dynamically changes as mutation in land records happen. This register contains all transitional land ownership record. At the time of new settlement it replaces the name of old owner with new owner. This is a very important register that contains the sale purchase value of mutation.
[B]6.Khasra Girdawari:[/B] It is the crop inspection register, wherein entry of every crop cultivated in every Khasra number (per acre) is made after spot visit by the Patwari in presence of Lambardar (Village headman) and other interested persons. It also indicates ownership, person cultivating and the crop sown on the land. It is made twice in a year i.e. for crops of[B] Kharif (October) and Rabi (March). [/B]
[B]7. Roaznamchah (Diary):[/B] It is a daily report register in which all important daily events are written like crop health, pesticide attack on crop, land transfer or mutation, village boundary benchmark(SehHadda) status and other similar activities
According To the Land Revenue Act , 1967,[B]Ordinary Expenses of Cultivation[/B] - include payments, if any, which the land-owner customarily bears, whether in kind or in cash, and in whole or in part, in respect of:-
(a) Water Rates,
(b) Maintenance of Means of Irrigation,
(c) Maintenance of Embankments,
(d) Supply of Seed,
(e) Supply of Manure,
(f) Improved Implements of Husbandry,
(g) Concessions with Regard to Fodder,
(h) Special Abatement Made for Fallow or Bad Harvest,
(i) Cost of Collection of Rent,
(j) Allowance for Shortage in Collection of Rent,
(k) Interest Charges Payable in Respect of Advances made in Cash, Free of
interest, to tenants for the purpose of cultivation,
(l) Wages or Customary dues Paid to Village Auxiliaries whose Products or Labour
are Utilized for the Purposes of Cultivation and Harvesting
[B]BRIEF INFORMATION ABOUT AD LAND RECORDS AND TEHSILDAR[/B]
The Land Reforms Act, 1977 came into force on 9 January, 1977.
The Provincial Assembly passed amendments to the Land Revenue Act, 1967 in March 2007.
The Patwar system was first introduced during the short but eventful rule of Sher Shah Suri and the system was further enhanced by Akbar.
The first significant attempt at redistributive land reforms was undertaken by the military regime of Ayub Khan in 1959.
Land Records Management & Information Systems is a major project of the Government of Punjab being executed by the Board of Revenue with financial assistance of World Bank.
The first computerise project, named as Participatory Information System (PIS) was initiated in the Balochistan.
The Support to Devolution Reforms in Balochistan Project (SDRB, formerly known as Balochistan Trial District Management Project), funded by UNDP, aimed to support decentralisation in Balochistan Province.
"Tahsil" meaning "revenue generating; collection" and "dar", Persian for "holder of a position", together meaning tax collector. "Tahsil" derived from Arabic.
There are two principal crop seasons in Pakistan namely “Kharif”, with sowing beginning in April and harvest between October and December and “Rabi” beginning in October-December and ending in April-May. Rice, sugar cane, cotton, maize and millet are Kharif crops, while wheat, gram, tobacco, rapeseed, barley and mustard are Rabi crops.
A village’s common land is called Shamilot.
Genealogical tree of the land owner s is called Shajra Nasb.
For mutation process Halqua Patwari resorts in prescribed form called P-1
Certified copies of land records can be obtained by applying in form CA-1.
Amalgamation and redistribution of all or any of the land to reduce the number of plots in the holding consolidation. Consolidation also called Chak Bandi.
The Court Fee Act, 1870 is a fiscal enactment with primary object to secure the revenue. Court fee is charged at the rate of 7.5% of the value of suit subject to maximum of Rs.15, 000/. All revenue and civil suits with value of less than Rs.25, 000/- are exempt from court fee.
Khasra Girdawri is conducted by Patwari in the months of October, February and April. The first six monthly inspection of crops in the month of October called Kharif Girdawri ; the second inspection of crops in the month of February is called Rabbi Girdawri and Girdawri done during the month of April is called Zaid Girdawri.
Punjab Assembly passed The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998 on 6th February, 1998. This Act was published in Punjab Gazette on 24 February, 1998. There are 197 pages in The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998. Section 2 & 3 of The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998 have abolished the Land revenue
Land which remained unsown for eight successive harvests is called Banjar qadim.
Land which remained unsown for four successive harvests is called Banjar jaded.
Senior Member Board of Revenue is Chairman of Board of Revenue or Chief Land Commissioner.
Kanugos, Patwaris, Kotars and Lambardars are called Village Officers.
A portion of land of which the area is separately entered under an indicative number in the Record of Rights is called Khasra Number.
Cultivated land is classified into Seven types.
The register of crops inspection is called Khasra Girdawari.
The Periodical record is prepared once in every Four years.
Khewat is the name of list of owner’s holding.
Land administration is “the regulatory framework, institutional arrangements, systems and processes that encompass the determination, allocation, administration and information concerning land.
The Land Administration System (LAS) in Pakistan is organized on the traditional system of Land registers and maps.
Khatauni is prepared by patwari.
Record of Khatauni is kept under the custody of Halqua patwari.
Lord Dufferin was the Viceroy of India at the time of enforcement of Punjab Tenancy Act, 1887.
A person liable for an arrear of Land Revenue is called Defaulter.
An area for which a separate record-of-Rights has been made is called Estate.
A piece of cloth on which the village map is drawn showing the position and boundaries of every field is know as Shajra Parcha.
Lal Kitab is prepared for each Estate. Village note book is also known asLal Kitab.
Sher Shah Suri introduced land record system in subcontinent first time. Land record system was introduced in subcontinent in 1540.
Khatauni register is used for all persons cultivating or otherwise occupying land in a village.Khatauni contains entries regarding Ownership, Cultivation and Various rights in land.
Akbar's dahsala system is credited to Raja Todar Mal.
Raja Todar Mal served as a revenue officer under Sher Shah Suri.
British redesigned land record and revenue system in 1848.
The estimated average annual surplus produce of estate or group of estates remaining after deduction of the ordinary expenses of cultivation is called Net Assets.
Ghalla Bakhshi (Crop-sharing): In some areas it was called bhaoli and batai.
The share was decided when the crop was still standing in the fields, and a division of the field was marked is called Khet batai.
The crop was cut and stacked in heaps without separating grain and a division of crop in this form was made? Lang batai
The word kankut is derived from the words kan and kat. Kan denotes grain while kat means to Estimate.
Sher Shah Suri had established a Rai or per bigha yield for lands which were under continuous cultivation.
"If the peasant does not have the strength to bear Zabti, the practice of taking a third of the crop as revenue is followed."
The statement of customs respecting rights or liabilities in the estate is called Wajib-ul-Arz.
The report for mutation to the Patwari must be made within time of three months.
What is the penalty for encroachment on any village road? imprisonment for three months
The Board of Revenue is the custodian of the rights of Land holders.
Ryotwari system was introduced by Sher Shah Suri for purpose of Land revenue. The revenue department during Sher Shah Suri was headed by a Wazir.
In the absence of fixation of inspection date by Board of Revenue, the inspection of Kharif harvest shall commence on1st October.
In the absence of fixation of inspection date by Board of Revenue, the inspection of Rabi harvest shall commence on1st March.
In the absence of fixation of inspection date by Board of Revenue the inspection of Extra Rabi (Zaid Rabi) harvest shall commence on 15th March.
A village note book or Lal Kitab shall be prepared for each Estate.
A portion of crop which has failed to come to maturity is called Kharaba.
Board of Revenue Department maintained the land record in Pakistan.
Board of Revenue Departmen is the controlling authority in all matters connected with the administration of land, collection of government dues including land taxes, land revenue, preparation of land records and other matters relating thereto.
Lal Kitab comprises following statements Annual area, annual corps and annual revenue account, Annual transfer of land and Annual sales and mortgages, assessment.
Fixing the amount of and imposing land revenue upon an estate is called Assessment.
Intiqal is the vernacular word for ‘mutation’.
A group of estates forming a sub division of a district or Tehsil is called Pargana.
Akbar changed to a decentralised system of annual assessment, but this resulted in corruption among local officials and was abandoned in 1580.Akbar replaced old revenue system with a system called Dahsala.
In Pakistan how many books and registers are used for land record? 190 million
In Pakistan how many land owners are there?50 million
No changes can be made in this record-set till next settlement which is normally carried out after every 30-35 years.
Field Book contains the details of measurement of each field e.g. its length, breadth, diagonal detail, and worked out total area.
The work of Patwari is supervised by a Kanungo.The work of Kanungo is supervised by a Naib tehsildar and Tehsildar.
How many registers are being used by patwari? 17
The mutation register is also known as the Register Dakhil Kharij.
The shape of land measurement or survey shall be based on square system or rectangulation.
The khewat is the number of owner's holdings which should be arranged in the order in which the names of owners are given in the village? genealogical tree
In the case of towns where the genealogical trees are not in existence, the order of khewat number is governed by Khasra Numbers.
Jamabandi are kept under the custody of Patwari.
khasra girdhawari register is used for harvest inspections.
Certified copies of land records like Khatauni/Jamabandi & Kharsa Gurdhawari can be obtained by any person of any revenue record available in the office of Tehsildar.
Jamabandi is a document prepared as part of record-of-right of all persons owning land in a village according to Punjab Land Record Manual. Jamabandi contains entries regarding ownership, cultivation and various rights in land.
Field Map shows all the fields, duly measured and numbered in a Village.
What is Khata? Holding of a landlord
Collector can determine that what lands are included within the site of a town or village.
The periodical record is prepared once in every four years is called.
A Collector cannot review the orders of his predecessor-in-office without first obtaining the sanction of Commissioner.
The mutation register referred to in section 41, sub-section (3) of the Act is also known as the Register Dakhil Kharij.
The Board or Revenue itself is subject to the administrative control of the Provincial government.
Maintenance of Records of rights in cities and towns is a function of Board of Revenue.
Survey number is also called as Khasra Number.
During Akbar period the process of land revenue collection has Two stages. Akbar's dahsala system is credited to Raja Todar Mal. Akbar replaced old revenue system with a system called Dahsala.
The Persian term for land revenue during the Mughal period was mal and mal wajib.
Record of Khatauni is kept in the custody of: Halqua patwari.
Under the new system of Akbar, revenue was calculated as one-third of the average produce of the previous 10 years, to be paid to the state in cash.
Major Functions of the Revenue Department are collection of land revenue, transaction of land, maintenance of record of rights, conduct of girdawari, decision of cases and appointment as local commission.
Which register is used for harvest inspections? khasra girdhawari
The land record data is maintained at Tehsil offices whereby record sets are developed at the time of Settlement.
Field Map shows all the fields, duly measured and numbered in a Village.
For mutation any person must acquire any right in estate through Inheritance or Gift, Purchase and Mortgage.
Patwari is a person acquiring any right in an estate as a land-owner should report for mutation.
Board of Revenue can confer on any person the powers of Assistant Collector.
A Collector cannot review the orders of his predecessor-in-office without first obtaining the sanction of Commissioner.
What is meant by “Girdawari”? Inspection of Harvest
Register of crops inspection is Khasra Girdawari.
Assistant Collectors of the Second grade is the lowest authority in the classification of Revenue Officers.
Local revenue administration of a Division has been entrusted to Commissioner.
Assessment shall remain in force for a period of 25 years.
When the period of Kharif crop starts in Pakistan? May and June
What do you mean by Ret? Sand
Sarsahi is a unit of Area.
Sher Shah Suri had established for per bigha yield for lands which were under continuous cultivation is called Rai.
The rai was based on 3 rates.
The work of Halqa patwari is supervised by a field Kanungo, whose main duties are General Supervision over Patwari, Supervision over Village Maps and Checking of patwari's records and statistics.
All the Mussavis of a village are drawn up conjointly on a cloth (Lattha) for day-to-day use by the Patwari which is called Shajra Kishtwar.
Mussavi is developed at the time of Settlement.
The Government of the Punjab can confer on any person the powers of a Commissioner or Collector.
Village Officer’s Cess can be imposed at such rate not exceeding five percent of the Land Revenue.
Two types of Records are present in Land Revenue Act 1967.
Dam means Grain; What is bandi? It is fixing or determining anything
Land revenue is the revenue of the nature of a rent charged by the state as Overlord of the land.
The revenue department during Sher Shah Suri was headed by a wazir, who is responsible for all finances and management of jagir and inam lands
Akbar's dahsala system is credited to Raja Todar Mal, who also served as a revenue officer under Sher Shah Suri
The Persian term for land revenue during the Mughal rule was mal and mal wajib. Kharaj was not in regular use.
The process of land revenue collection has two stages: (a) Assessment (tashkhis/jama) (b) Actual collection (hasil).
Assessment was made to fix the state demand. On the basis of this demand, actual collection was done separately for kbarif and rabi crops.
Under the Mughals assessment was separately made for kharif and rabi crops. After the assessment was over a written document called patta, qaul or paul-e-qarar was issued in which the amount or the rate of the revenue demand was mentioned.
Under the new system of Akbar, revenue was calculated as one-third of the average produce of the previous ten years, to be paid to the state in cash.
The structure of the revenue administration was set out by the latter in a detailed memorandum submitted to the Emperor Akbar in 1582-83
The Mughals used the mansabdar system to generate land revenue. The emperor would grant revenue rights to a mansabdar in exchange for promises of soldiers in wartime
In kankut, at first, the field was measured either by means of a rope or by pacing.
Sher Shah had established a rai or per bigha yield for lands which were under continuous cultivation (polaj), or those land which very rarely allowed to lie fallow (parauti).
The rai was based on three rates, representing good, middling and low yields and one third of the sum of these was appropriated as land revenue.
Akbar adopted Sher Shah's rai. Akbar introduced his so-called karori experiment and appointed karoris all aver North India in 1574-75.
"If the peasant does not have the strength to bear zabti, the practice of taking a third of the crop as revenue is followed."This was an expensive method as a cess of one dam per bigha known as zabitana was given to meet the costs towards the maintenance of the measuring party;and Ijara syrtem or revenue farming war another feature of the revenue system of that time.
In 1574-75, the office of karori was created.The karori was appointed by the diwan of the province.
The next important revenue official was amin. The office of amin was created during Shah Jahan's reign. His main function was to assess the revenue. He, too, was appointed by the diwan. He was responsible jointly with the karori and faujdar for the safe transit of the collected revenue. The faujdar of the province kept a vigilant eye on the activities of amin and karori .
Qanungo was the local revenue official of the pargana, and generally belonged to one of the accountant castes. It was a hereditary post, but an imperial order was essential for the nomination of each new person.
The qanungoo was paid 1% of the total revenue as remuneration, but Akbar started paying them salary.
The Chaudhari distributed and stood surety for the repayment of the taqavi loans.
Under Sher Shah, Shiqqdar was the incharge of revenue collection and maintained law and order.
The muqaddam and patwari were village level officials.
The former was the village headman. In lieu of his services; he was allowed 2.5 percent of the total revenue collected by him.,
The patwari was to maintain records of the village land, the holdings of the individual cultivators, variety of crops grown and details about fallow land.
A tehsildar is a revenue administrative officer in Pakistan in charge of obtaining taxation from a tehsil.
The term is of imperial Mughal origin made of "tahsil", an Islamic administrative derived from Arabic, meaning "revenue generating; collection" and "dar", Persian for "holder of a position", together meaning tax collector.
The deputy of a tehsildar is known as a naib tehsildar.
During British rule the tehsildar was a stipendiary officer of the government to raise revenue.
In Pakistan a Tehsildar is responsible for obtaining revenue from a Tehsil, or Taluka (as called in Sindh), which is then used by the district government.
A Tehsil is a sub-division of a District and will have multiple smaller administrative units called 'Mouza' or 'Deh'. Typically a district will contain multiple Tehsils.
Tehsildar is a gazetted officer (class I)
TEHSILDAR is a principal Agent of Deputy Commissioner.He Collect of Govt Dues: Abiana,,Agriculture Income Tax, Land Tax, Ushar, Local Rate, Stamp Duty – Mutation Fees and Arrears. His other functions are Attestation of Mutation, Inspection of Khasra Gardawari, Inspection of Preparation of Revenue Records, Disposal of Partition Cases, Execution of Court Decrees, Conduct Inquiries of other official and private cases, Attestation of Domicile, Duty Magistrate / Price Magistrate,Special Duty (Flood, Earthquake etc), Special Inquiries, Duty in census and With election commission of Pakistan, Acquisition of Land for Govt from the public through land acquisition act, Reporting and Besides it, he decides the Lambardari cases.
The post of Additional Deputy Commissioner has been created to assist the Deputy Commissioner in his day-to-day working. The Additional Deputy Commissioner enjoys the same powers as that of Deputy Commissioner under the rules.Functions of Additional Deputy Commissioner, With a view to lighten the enormously increasing workload of the Deputy Commissioner, the post of Additional Deputy Commissioner was created in the year 1979. He has been vested with the following powers under the various Acts-within the limits of the district:-As Collector under the following Acts
o The Punjab Land Revenue Act,1887.
o The Punjab Occupancy Of Tenants(Vesting of Proprietary Rights)Act,1952.
o The Punjab Tenancy Act,1887.
o The Land Acquisition Act,1894.
o The Punjab Restitution of Mortgage Land Act,1938.
o The Punjab Village Common Land(Regulation) Act,1961.
o The Indian Stamp Act,1899.
Tehsildars are appointed by the Financial Commissioner, Revenue and Naib Tehsildar by the Commissioner of the Division. Their duties within Tehsil /Sub Tehsil are almost similar and manifold (except that partition cases are decided by Tehsildar). They enjoy the powers of Executive Magistrate, Assistant Collector and Sub Registrar/Joint Sub Registrar. Although there has been a recent move to appoint full fledged Sub-registrar for some of the larger Tehsils. The Revenue duties of Tehsildar are important. He is the Incharge of tehsil Revenue Agency and is responsible for proper preparation and maintenance of tehsil Revenue Record and Revenue Accounts. He is also responsible for recovery of government dues under the various Acts. He is supposed to have proper control over the working of Patwaris and Kanungos and for this purpose the Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildars make inspection of patwaris and kanungos working under them.
Tehsildars and Naib Tehsildar in fact are called Revenue officers holding separate circles and it is provided in para 242 of land Administration Manual that such allotted circle should be changed every year on October first, so that the responsibility of the Tehsildar for the whole of his charge may not be impaired. In Tehsil and Sub Tehsil, as and when Treasury Officers are not posted, then the Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildar work as Treasury Officer in addition to their own duties. Tehsildar also registers the marriages solemnized.
The Kanungo establishment consists of field Kanungo, office Kanungo and the District Kanungos. Its strength in each district can only be altered with the sanction of the government.The field Kanungo should be constantly moving about his circle supervising the work of Patwari on the spot, except in the month of September when he stays at the Tehsil to check the Jamabandis received from the Patwaris. He also disposes of the demarcation applications marked to him by the Circle Revenue Officer. A field Kanungo is also responsible for the conduct and the work of the Patwari under his charge and it is his duty to report the work or neglect of duty or misconduct on the part of any Patwari.The office Kanungo is the Tehsildar Revenue clerk and he is the custodian of all the record received from the patwari.The District Kanungo is responsible for the efficiency of both the office and the field Kanungo and should be in camp inspecting their work for at least 15 days in each month from first October to 30th April. He is the keeper of all record received from Kanungo patwari, at sadar office.
Patwari is an important and effective official of the lowest ebb in the Revenue Agency. No efficient Revenue Administration of a district is possible unless the patwari staff is strong, properly trained and strictly supervised.A Patwari has three chief duties:- The maintenance of record of the crop grown at every harvest;the keeping of the record of rights uptodate by the punctual record of mutations and the account of preparation of statistical returns embodying the information derived from the harvest inspections, register of mutation and record of rights.
The limits of "Patwar circle" is a matter for the Commissioner to decide under para 238 of Land Administration Manual.It is the responsibility of Patwari to report at once all serious calamities affecting the land or the crops and all severe outbreaks of diseases amongst men and beasts. He must aid the headman in revenue collection. He keeps up a diary and a work book. The entries should be made on the day on which the events come to the notice of the patwari.
The Patwari is responsible for the safe custody of all the records, maps and equipments of his circle that are in his charge. In the work book the Patwari will enter the work done by him on each day. His work is supervised by the field Kanungo, Sadar Kanungo & Circle Revenue Officer.
Each Village is assigned to a particular halqwa patwari who maintains the record of ownership of land(khatauni/Jamabardi), record of cultivation on the land (Kharsa Girdawari), map of the village called 'Aks Sizra' mutation register and other records of the village.
In every cropping season, ie. Kharif, Rabi & Zaid, the halqua patwari inspects every field and records the cultivation data.
He also initiates mutation(ie. change in ownership) and gives certified copies of land records.
The work of Halqa patwari is supervised by a field Kanungo, whose main duties are :
o General Supervision over Patwari
o Supervision over Village Maps
o Checking of patwari's records and statistics
The work of Halqa patwari and Kanungo is further supervised by both the Naib Tehsildar and Tehsildar. It is the duty of Naib Tehsildar and Tehsildar that the land records are maintained correctly and all subordinate staff discharge their duties efficiently and properly. It is also the duty of Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildar that 'Jamabandi' and 'Khatauni' are prepared as per the schedule given in the Act.
Above the Tehsildar in the Hierarchy are the Revenue Assisstant(ie.-SDM) and the Collector(ie. Deputy Commissioner).
The record of ownership of land under the DLR Act 1954 is known as 'Khatauni' and is prepared in form no. P-VI. In case of Punjab Land Revenue Act, the records of ownership of land is known as 'Jamabandi'.
Khatauni is the register of all persons cultivating or otherwise occupying land in a village as prescribed according to Delhi Land Revenue Rules. It is prepared in Form P-VI. It is a document prepared as part of record-of-right in every estate. It contains entries regarding ownership, cultivation and various rights in land. It is revised every 4 years when it is prepared by patwari and attested by Revenue officer.
JAMABANDI is a document prepared as part of record-of-right of all persons owning land in a village according to Punjab Land Record Manual. It contains entries regarding ownership, cultivation and various rights in land. It is revised every 4 years when it is prepared by patwari and attested by Revenue officer. The changes of rights in land coming to the notice are reflected in the Jamabandi according to a set procedure after verification by Revenue Officer.
Khatauni/Jamabandi are kept in the custody of halqua patwari. They are re-written after every four years incorporating all the mutations (ie. charge of ownership) that has taken place during the four year period. Khatauni/Jamabardi is the most important document as far as ownership of agricultural land is concerned and one must ensure when he buys a piece of land that his / her name is incorporated in Khatauni/Jamabandi by way of mutation. There is a seperate khatauni/jamabandi for each village.
KHASRA GIRDHAWARI : ( Record of Cultivation)
It is a register of harvest inspections. The patwari conducts the field harvest inspections in the month of October, February & April, wherein he records facts regarding crop grown, soil classification, cultivable capacity of the cultivators. The first six monthly inspection starting from Ist October is called as Khariff girdhawari while the second commencing from Ist February is called Rabi girdhawari. In the month of april the "Zaid" girdhawari is done.
The entries made by the halqa patwari are verified by the field Kanungo Kharsa Girdawari entries are made in form P-1V in case of Delhi Land Revenue Act 1954 and in form no.11 in case of Punjab Land Revenue Act 1887.
Mutation indicates the changes that have to be brought about in ownership and title of the land. Mutations are done on the basis of Sale deed, Inheritance, Gift deed, Relinquish deed, Will etc.
Procedure for carrying out mutation
o Apply on a plain paper with a Non-judicial stamp of Rs.5 affixed on it.
o Application should be addressed to the Tehsildar of the area in which the land is situated.
o Clearly mention the name of the village in which the right has been acquired & give description of the land.
o The name, parentage, residence of the person from whom the right has been acquired and the manner in which the right has been acquired.
o The name, parentage and residence of the person who has acquired the right.
o The date of acquiring the right.
o The application should be submitted along with copies of documents on the basis of which the mutation is sought.
o A proclamation is issued inviting objections to the proposed mutation and specifying the date (being not less than 15 days from the date of the proclamation) upto which any objection to the mutation will be entertained.
o Halqa patwari submits his report in prescribed format no.P-I
o Statement of parties are recorded
o Contents of documents are matched with the recorded statements
o If no objection is received, the mutation is sanctioned.
o If objection is received against the mutation application, the same is referred to Revenue Assistant (SDM) of the area for taking appropriate decision. This is applicable only in case of land governed by DLR Act 1954.
o Any party aggreived by an order of mutation may file appeal before Collector (Deputy Commissioner / Additional District Magistrate) within 30 days of such order.
Certified copies of land records like Khatauni/Jamabandi & Kharsa Gurdhawari can be obtained by any person of any revenue record available in the office of Tehsildar. It can be obtained by applying in Form CA-I duly stamped with non-judicial stamp and the certified copy is issued after locating the original record. Mostly the copies are issued by In-charge of the Record Room. The certified copy is normally issued in 7 days time.
The applications for demarcation of land can be made to the Tehsildar concerned after depositing the prescribed fees. The applications for demarcation in case of boundary disputes shall be entertained by the Revenue Assistant (SDM), which should be accompanied by a certified extract from the map and khasras on the basis of which demarcation is sought. After obtaining application for demarcation, a notice will be issued to the parties concerned in the demarcation. The demarcation is done in presence of parties concerned by the Kanungo. Thereafter demarcation report is submitted to the Tehsildar &Revenue Assisstant (RA) and shall be consigned to the record room of Tehsil. Then parties concerned can obtain certified copy of demarcation report from i/c Record Room.
Lambardar is the most important functionary in the village. His main function is to keep watch over the law and order situation in his area and report the matter to the nearest police station in case of breach of law. It is also his duty to collect the revenue dues for Government from various sources and to remit these into treasury. He is given 5 per cent of land revenue collection which is called pachotra. He is the custodian of all government properties in the village. He also reports to the Tahsildar about the deaths of assignees and pensioners and their absence for over a year. Above all, he is the representative of Government in the village. He is assisted by a village Chowkidar.
A tehsildar is a revenue administrative officer in Pakistan and India in charge of obtaining taxation from a tehsil. The term is of imperial Mughal origin made of "tahsil", an Islamic administrative derived from Arabic, meaning "revenue generating; collection" and "dar", Persian for "holder of a position", together meaning tax collector. The role of tehsildar continued during the period of British Rule and was subsequently used by Pakistan and India following their independence from the British. The deputy of a tehsildar is known as a naib tehsildar.
During British rule the tehsildar was a stipendiary officer of the government to raise revenue, in the "History of the Colonies of the British Empire: From the Official Records", Robert Montgomery Martin described local government as follows:
In Pakistan a Tehsildar is responsible for obtaining revenue from a Tehsil, or Taluka (as called in Sindh), which is then used by the district government. A Tehsil is a sub-division of a District and will have multiple smaller administrative units called 'Mouza' or 'Deh'. Typically a district will contain multiple Tehsils.
He is a gazetted officer (class I), a Tehsildar enjoys a fair amount of authority and respect, especially in the rural and urban areas and is also tasked to forecast the expected seasonal crop yields and classify and map the landuse in the respective Tehsil.
A Tehsildar is also called a 'Mukhtiarkar' in Sindh.
Tehsildars are appointed by the Financial Commissioner, Revenue and Naib Tehsildars by the Commissioner of the Division. Their Duties within Tehsil /Sub Tehsil are almost similar and manifold (except that partition cases are decided by Tehsildar). They enjoy the powers of Executive Magistrate, Assistant Collector and Sub Registrar/Joint Sub Registrar. Although there has been a recent move to appoint full fledged Sub-registrar for some of the larger Tehsils. The Revenue Duties of Tehsildar are important. He is the In charge of tehsil Revenue Agency and is responsible for proper preparation and maintenance of tehsil Revenue Record and Revenue Accounts. He is also responsible for recovery of government dues under the various Acts. He is supposed to have proper control over the working of Patwaris and Kanungos and for this purpose the Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildars make inspection of patwaris and kanungos working under them.
Halqua Patwari or Lekhpaal: Each Village is assigned to a particular halqwa patwari who maintains the record of ownership of land(khatauni/Jamabardi), record of cultivation on the land (Kharsa Girdawari), map of the village called 'Aks Sizra' mutation register and other records of the village. In every cropping season, ie. Kharif, Rabi & Zaid, the halqua patwari inspects every field and records the cultivation data. He also initiates mutation(ie. change in ownership) and gives certified copies of land records.
Registrar Kanungo: The work of Lekhpaal is supervised by a Reg. Kanungo, whose main duties are :
o General Supervision over Patwari
o Supervision over Village Maps
o Checking of patwari's records and statistics
Naib Tehsildar & Tehsildar: The work of Lekhpaal and Reg. Kanungo is further supervised by both the Naib Tehsildar and Tehsildar. It is the duty of Naib Tehsildar and Tehsildar that the land records are maintained correctly and all subordinate staff discharge their duties efficiently and properly. It is also the duty of Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildar that 'Khatauni' are prepared as per the schedule given in the Act.
Khatauni: Khatauni is the register of all persons cultivating or otherwise occupying land in a village as prescribed according to Uttar Pradesh Land Revenue Rules. It is prepared in Form P-VI. It is a document prepared as part of record-of-right. It contains entries regarding ownership, cultivation and various rights in land. It is revised every 6 years. This duration of six years is called Fasli-year.
Khasra: (Record of Cultivation): It is a register of harvest inspections(parhtaal). The Lekhpaal conducts the field harvest inspections in the month of October, February & April, wherein he records facts regarding crop grown, soil classification, cultivable capacity of the cultivators. The first six monthly inspection starting from Ist October is called as "Khariff" parhtaal while the second commencing from Ist February is called "Rabi" parhtaal. In the month of april the "Zaid" parhtaal is done.
[B]Measurements of land Linear Measure[/B]
1 inch = 2.54 centimetres
1 foot = 30.48 centimetres
1 yard = 91.44 centimetres
1 mile =1.61 kilometres
1 Ghatta = 8.25 feet
1 square foot = 0.093 square metre
1 square yard = 0.836 square metre
1 square mile = 2.59 square kilometre = 259 hectares
1 acre = 0.405 hectares
1 Acre = 4 Bigha 16 Biswa (4840 Sq.Yds)
1 Bigha = 20 Biswas (1008 Sq.Yds)
1 Biswa = 50 Sq.Yards
The following are the basic measurements of land used in Punjab, Pakistan and Punjab, India in ascending order.
• 1 karam is 5.5 feet
• 1 marla is 9 Sq karams (272.25 sq ft)
• 1 kanaal is 20 marlas (5,445 sq ft)
• 1 keela is 8 kanaals (43,560 sq ft = 1 acre)
• 1 marabba is 25 keelas (1,089,000 sq ft = 25 acres)
A keela is measured rectangularly, reckoned as an area 36 karams x 40 karams, or 198 feet x 220 feet = 43,560 square feet.
Kothis are measured in marlas and kanaals. Most are 2-4 kanaals but the big ones can be anything from 4-6 kanaals.
A couple of older measures:
1 biswa = 15 Sq karams; 12 biswas = 1 kanaal
1 bigha = 20 biswas - 1008 Sq Yards - 842.68 Sq Mtr
In land transaction the acre is often used to express areas of land. Land records are written in metric system. An acre is approximately 40% of a hectare.
The measurement of agricultural land was carried in British Units. The units used for land measurement were as follows:
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
9 Square Feet = 1 square yard
121Square yard = 1 Guntha
40 Gunthas = 1 acre
In so many village maps you might have seen scale as a for example 1Inch=10 Chain.
You have to convert chain into feet as follows:
1 Chain = 66 feet or 22 yards
10 chains = 1 furlong
1 furlong = 201.168 Metres
The land is now measured in Metric System using following decimal table.
1000 Millimeters = 1 Metre
100 Square Metres = 1 Are
100 Ares = 1 Hector
In 1958, the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations defined the length of the international yard to be 0.9144 meters. Consequently, the international acre is exactly 4,046.8564224 square meters. Accordingly
1 Hector = 2.47 acres (approximately)
In the Village Form VII-XII when you read in the “area” column numbers for example
01-34-21 it means
01 = 10000 Square Metres
34 = 3400 Square Metres
21 = 21 Square Metres
Total = 13421 Square Metres
1 Inch = 2.54 Centimetre
36 Inches = 1 yard
1 yard = 91.44 Centimetres
1 yard = 00.9144 Metres
1 Centimetre = 00.393 inches
100 Centimetres = 39.3 inches
1 Metre = 3.28 ft
1 acre = 1 furlong X 1 chain
1 acre = 660 ft X 66 ft
1 acre = 43560 Sq. ft.
1 acre = 4840 square yards
1 acre = 4046.8564224 Square Metres
1 hectare = 10,000 Square Metre
1 hectare = 107,639 sq ft
1 hectare = 11959.8 sq. yards (1 sq. yard = 0.83612736 sq. Metre)
1 hectare = 11959.8/4840 = 2.47 acre
[B]LAND RECORD INFORMATION[/B]
1. What are the distinguishing features of LRMIS system?
The manual paper-based land records are transformed into computerized data base. The right holders will be able to acquire land records related services easily from the service centers. Any transaction in revenue record will immediately be incorporated in Register Haqdaran-e-Zameen which will be updated at once.
2. Will I be able to get my fard-e-malkiat conveniently?
Yes, every right holder can easily obtain fard-e-malkiat and other record related services from the respective LRMIS center, after paying specified fee.
3. What will be the process of getting fard in new system?
The right holders will have to go to the service center. The staff will search their record by their name, father/husband name, khewat number and will desire for CNIC. The service center staff will take the thumb impression through a bio-metric device and a photo. The right holder will get copy of their record within 10-15 minutes after paying the specified fee.
4. The Patwari can easily search out the desired record due to his personal knowledge. How will the LRMIS system search out the records?
LRMIS provides the options for searching out the record by i): name, ii): father/husband name, iii): relevant khewat number, iv): CNIC (if the right holder has got his CNIC incorporated in Register Haqdaran-e-Zameen).
5. What will be the process of mutation?
Anyone who intends to mutate any land can apply for mutation verbally of in form of written application in the service center. The staff will register their request and provide them the challan for payment of specified fee and will fix a date for next visit. On that scheduled date the buyer, seller along with the witnesses will visit the service center wherein the Revenue Officer will decide the mutation. In cased of approval of mutation both buyers and sellers will be provided with a copy of the mutation and updated fard-e-malkiat, free of cost, with the photographs of the buyers printed thereon.
6. Will the mutation fee be deposited to the bank through service center staff?
The service center staff will not collect the mutation fee yet they will provide computer generated challan for payment of applicable government dues in the bank.
7. How much time will be required for mutation of inheritance?
The right holders will be given a date for next visit to service center within next 15 days after the registration of their request for mutation, in order to get their mutation decided.
8. How will the right holders identify the piece of land for which they would have requested for particular service (fard/mutation) as majority of land owners do not know their khewat numbers; whereas currently this situation is tackled with the help of patwari and the village map (masawi)?
The scanned images of village maps (masawi) are available in the database in the service center in order to identify the piece of land. At the same time all records will also be available with patwari and any one can take his help before approaching service center.
9. Can the buyer and seller contact the patwari for getting fard or mutation
There will an interim period of one year for transition from old system to new system. Meanwhile the fard can be issued and mutation can be entered both by the Patwari and service center.
10. Can a mutation be decided without witnesses?
All the mutation will be attested in presence of both parties (buyer and seller) as well as witnesses
11. Majority of right holders/villagers are illiterate therefore getting such automated/sophisticated services will be difficult for them.
The LRMIS is user friendly system. The staff over there will be well qualified very cooperative and will guide the right holder in case of any difficulty.
12. Will the staff at service center be visiting country side like patwaris?
Unlike patwaris, the service center staff does not have to go to field visits and will remain available at service center during working hours on every working day; whereas the ex-revenue staff will keep on performing the field duties.
13. Will signature from Patwari be required on fard-e-malkiat for registration of a transaction?
Signature from Patwari will not be required on fard-e-malkiat for registration of any transaction.
14. Who will issue the pass book?
The pass book will be prepared by the patwari and verified from the service center.
[B]Central Board of Revenue (CBR)[/B]
The Central Board of Revenue (CBR) was created on April 01, 1924 through enactment of the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1924. In 1944, a full-fledged Revenue Division was created under the Ministry of Finance. After independence, this arrangement continued up to 31st August 1960 when on the recommendations of the Administrative Re-organization Committee, FBR was made an attached department of the Ministry of Finance. In 1974, further changes were made to streamline the organization and its functions. Consequently, the post of Chairman FBR was created with the status of ex-officio Additional Secretary and Secretary Finance was relieved of his duties as ex-officio Chairman of the FBR.
In order to remove impediments in the exercise of administrative powers of a Secretary to the Government and effective formulation and implementation of fiscal policy measures, the status of FBR as a Revenue Division was restored under the Ministry of Finance on October 22, 1991. However, the Revenue Division was abolished in January 1995, and FBR reverted back to the pre-1991 position. The Revenue Division continues to exist since from December 01, 1998.
By the enactment of FBR Act 2007 in July 2007 the Central Board of Revenue has now become Federal Board of Revenue.
In the existing setup, the Chairman, FBR, being the executive head of the Board as well as Secretary of the Revenue Division has the responsibility for (i) Formulation and administration of fiscal policies,
(ii) Levy and collection of federal taxes and (iii) Quasi-judicial function of hearing of appeals.
His responsibilities also involve interaction with the offices of the President, the Prime Minister, all economic Ministries as well as trade and industry.
The Chairman, FBR/Secretary, Revenue Division is assisted by nine Members ; Member Strategic Planning and Statistics (SP&S), Member Inland Revenue; Member Customs; Member Enforcement and Accounting (E&A); Member (Taxpayers Audit); Member Facilitation and Taxpayer Education(FATE) ; Member Legal; Member Reformed General Sales Tax (RGST)/Expeditious Refund Payment System(ERPS) and Member (Administration); (As per circular NO. F.1/1CH-FBR/2009 dated, 26-Jan-2011)
The post of Member Reformed General sales Tax (RGST)/Expeditious Refund Payment System(ERPS) will continue till first of January,2012, only.
The Member Facilitation and Taxpayer Education(FATE) is also official spokesperson of FBR.
The followings are the major functions of Revenue.
1. Supervises revenue work of Commissioners, Deputy Commissioners, Assistant Commissioners and other Officers/Courts in the province
2. Member (Revenue) is the highest court of appeal and revision in revenue cases in the province
3. Classes of Revenue Officers/Courts
4. Is responsible for recovery of Government Dues/Agricultural Income Tax, Land Revenue, Water Rate, Ushr, Mutation Fees, Stamp Duty, Registration Fee, Copying Fee, Arrears relating to Banks, Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan and Cooperative Societies
5. Frames Laws/Rules/Policies relating to the revenue matters
6. Provides guidelines for maintenance and updating of Record of Rights, Periodical Record for use of the Right-holders/Revenue Department
7. Notifies new administrative units such as divisions, districts, sub-divisions and Kanungo/Patwar Circles Deals with all service matters relating to revenue staff
The followings points describes the duties of revenue officers and officals.
1. Member (Revenue) is the Chief Controlling Authority for revenue matters in the Province
2. Commissioner is appointed by the Government for each Division and exercises control over all the Revenue Officers and Courts in his division
3. Deputy Commissioner is appointed by the Government for each district. He is vested with the ex-officio powers of Collector of the district. All Revenue Officers and Revenue Courts in the district are subject to his control and superintendence
4. Assistant Commissioner exercises the powers of the sub-divisional Collector
5. Tehsildar is vested with the powers of Assistant Collector, 1st grade
6. Naib-Tehsildar is vested with the powers of Assistant Collector, 2nd grade
7. Kanungo supervises the work of the Patwaris in the Kanungoi
8. Patwari is the lowest functionary of the Revenue department. He maintains and updates the records pertaining to his Patwar Circle
9. Patwari carries out field survey/crop inspection twice a year in the months of March (Rabi) and October (Kharif)
Lambardar or headman is a person who is appointed by the District Collector under the Land Revenue Act 1967. His duties include collection of land taxes of an revenue estate (mauza)
[B]Classes of Revenue Officers/Courts[/B]
Member (Revenue) Province
Deputy Commissioner/Collector District
Assistant Commissioner/Sub-Divisional Collector Sub- division
Tehsildar /Assistant Collector, 1st Grade Tehsil
Naib-Tehsildar / Assistant Collector, 2nd Grade Assigned circle/ area
The Revenue Department also deals with the land acquisition matters. The power to take the private property of individuals for public purposes is regulated by the LAND ACQUISITION ACT, 1894. Salient features of the said Act/Steps for acquisition are :
1. Government shows its intention to acquire specific piece of land for a public purpose or for a company through publication of notification in the official gazette and invites objections against notification
2. After marking and measurement of the land to be acquired, notices are issued to persons having rights/interests in the land inviting claims from them for compensation
3. Before possession of land is taken, award of compensation for the owners is announced by the Collector after necessary enquiries
4. Compensation for acquired land is determined at its market value plus 15% in consideration of compulsory nature of the acquisition for public purposes and 25% for a company
5. A reference can be made by the Collector to Civil Court where any person affected by land acquisition has not accepted the award by given the Collector
6. In case of urgency, Commissioner can make a declaration U/S 17(4)(6) directing the Collector to take possession of the land needed for a public purpose before award of compensation
Land means land which is not occupied by the site of a town, village, factory or industrial establishment, and is occupied or has been or can be let for agricultural purpose allied or subservient to agriculture and includes the sites of buildings and other structures on such land.There are 10 main categories of land based on mode of Irrigation and type of soil i.e. Chahi, Nul Chahi, Nehri, Nul Nehri, Sailabi, Abi, Barani, BanjarJadeed, Banjar Qadeem and Ghair Mumkin
[B]These are the various levis of land[/B]
1. Agricultural Income Tax
2. Local Rate
3. Water Rate
4. Mutation Fee
5. Charges for Inspection of Record of Patwaris and for Grant of Copies of Extracts
A settlement thus consists of : fixing the assessment; and framing the record of rights
[B]OBJECTIVES OF THE SETTLEMENTS[/B]
The main feature of the settlement is to assess the Land-Revenue. The settlement system of Punjab started systematically in the British Regime and settlements were carried out in the Province of Punjab for the following purpose
• To proper field survey with the results embodies in a map and field register
• A full inquiry into the right and liabilities of all persons having interest in the soil, and the record of these rights and liabilities in permanent registers
• A moderate assessment based on general considerations rather than an attempt to deduce the demand from an exact calculation of the landlords net assets and the share thereof claim able by Government
Conducts audit and inspection of receipts under the following enactments
1. The Stamp Act, 1899
2. The Registration Act, 1908
3. The Court Fee Act 1870
QUESTIONS RELATED TO PUNJAB LAND REVENUE ACT
1. The West Pakistan Land revenue Act enforced on_____ Dec 07,1967
2. The Punjab Land Revenue act is divided in to_______ chapters. 15
3. The Sections in the Punjab Land Revenue act 1967 are -------- 184
4. The schedules in Punjab Land Revenue act 1967 are-----------one
5. Lambardar is the most important functionary at _________ level. Village
6. Lambardar is given __ percent of Land Revenue which is called Pachotra. 5%
7. The West Pakistan Land revenue Act was passed on ------ 4th November 1967
8. The income a nation collects from Taxes is called ----------------revenue
9. Holdings of a land Lord is called _-------------- Khata
10. A list of Owner's holdings is called ---------------- Khewat Number
11. Survey Number is also called ---------------------Khasra Number
12. Village officers are---------------------Kanungo, Patwaries, Kotars, Lambardars,
13. Hereditary Lambardari system was abolished by----Supreme Court of Pakistan
14. Hereditary Lambardari system was abolished by SC in ------------2002
15. What is the period of limitation an Appeal before Collector--------------30 days
16. What is the period of limitation an Appeal before Commissioner--------60 days
17. What is the period of limitation an Appeal before Board of revenue----90 days
18. The types of revenue officers are---------------------------------------------- 5
19. Revenue Administration of a Tehsil is entrusted to------------------Tehsildar
20. Inspection of Harvest is called ---------------------------------------------- Girdawri
21. What is Shajra Kishtwar? The map of a village showing the position and boundary of every field.
22. Under which section of Land Revenue Act 1967 mutation is laid down---- 42
23. The post next higher to Patwari is -------------------------------- Kanungo
24. The register of crops inspection is called ---------------------- Khasra Girdawri.
25. What is the vernacular word for mutation?----------------------------- Intiqal
26. When the period of Khareef Crops starts in Pakistan?--------------May and June
27. When the period of Khareef Crops ends in Pakistan? --September and October
28. The Assessment of Land revenue remains in force for ------- years. 25
29. What is Karam? -------------------------------------------- Unit of Length
30. What is Sarsahi? -------------------------------------------- Unit of Area
31. Un irrigated Land which depends on rainfall for cultivation is called --- Barani
32. Un irrigated Lands which are affected by flooding or moisture of rivers are called------------ Sailabi
33. The Land which is irrigated by canals is called ---------------------------- Nehri
34. The Land which is irrigated from water of the Wells is called------------ Chahi
35. Land which is irrigated from water of the Tube Wells is called--Nul-Chahi
36. The land which is irrigated from two sources; 1.from wells & 2. from canals is called ----------- Chahi-Nehri
37. The land which is irrigated from tanks, jhils, streams, springs or kareezes is called ------------ Abi
38. The land which is irrigated from hill torrents is called -- Rod-Kohi or Bandeza
39. The Land which remains un-sown for 4 to 11 harvests is called --Banjar Kham
40. The Land which remains un-sown for twelve harvests is called ---Banjar Jadid
41. The statement of customs respecting rights or liabilities in the estate is called-------------------- Wajib-ul-Arz
42. A village note book is prepared for each---------------------------- Estate
43. A village note book is also called ----------------------------- Lal Kitab
44. The period of Rabbi crops starts in Pakistan in the months of -------Oct & Nov
45. Period of Rabbi crops ends in --------------------------- April & May
46. Low lying land near rivers is called ------------------------ Khadir
47. A portion of crop which has failed to come to maturity is called ------ Kharaba
48. A surcharge of 5 % on the revenue paid to village Headman is called -Pachotra
49. The deputy of Tehsildar is known as---------------------------- Naib Tehsildar
50. What is Parta? The assessment rate for land revenue is called -------------Parta
51. What is vernacular word for Killa?----------------------------------- Karam
52. The report for mutation to the Patwari must be made with in------ three months
53. The book which contains the details of measurement of each field is called------------------ Field Book
54. All the Mussavis of a village are drawn on a cloth (Lattha) by Patwari is called------------Shajra Kishtwar
55. Register Haqdaran-e- Zamin contains information about-------ownership, tenancy, khasra number,source of irrigation
56. Khatauni are kept in custody of ---------------Halqua Patwari
57. Khatauni contains information about------------ Ownership, cultivation, rights in Land
58. Khatauni is revised after every ------------- years. 4 Years
59. Khatauni is prepared by ------------------------Patwari
60. The register of all persons cultivating or otherwise occupying land in a village is called-------------Khatauni.
61. Section-22 deals with--------- Power of revenue officer to summon persons to give evidence and produce documents.
62. Section 23 deals with --------- Summons to be in writing signed & sealed
63. Section 24 deals with --------- mode of service of Summons
64. Section 26 deals with --------- mode of making proclamation
65. Section 28 deals with --------- Language of Revenue officer
66. Section 30 deals with --------- power of revenue officers to enter upon any Land/ premises for purpose of measurement.
67. Section 32 deals with --------- proceeding held on Holidays
68. Section 36 deals with --------- rules regulating appointment of village officers
69. Section 37 deals with --------- village officer cess
70. Section 41 deals with ---------periodical records
71. Section 44 deals with -------------- Determination of disputes
72. Section 46 deals with -------------- Mutation Fees
73. Section 48 deals with -------------- Penalty
74. Section 49 deals with ------------- Rights of Govt, in Mines and Minerals
75. Section 56 deals with ------------- Assessment of Land Revenue
76. Section 56-A deals with ---------- Exemption of Land Revenue
77. Section 57 deals with ----------------- Basis of assessment
78. Section 58 deals with ----------------- Limits of assessment
79. Section 80 deals with ---------------- Process for recovery of Arrears.
80. Section 81 deals with ---------------- Notice of Demand
81. Which Law has abolished Land Revenue in the Province of Punjab? --------------- The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998.
82. When was The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998 passed? --------------- 6th Feb 1998.
83. Who passed The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998? --------------------- Punjab Assembly
84. When The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998 was published in Punjab Gazette.? ------- 24 Feb 1998
85. How many Pages are there in The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998? 197
86. Which sections of The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998 have abolished the Land revenue? ----- Section 2 & 3
87. Khasra Girdawri is conducted by-------------------- Patwari
88. Khasra Girdawri is conducted by Patwari in the months of ------------------ October, February, April
89. The first six monthly inspection of crops in the month of October is called------------- Kharif Girdawri
90. The second inspection of crops in the month of February is called ------------------------ Rabbi Girdawri.
91. Girdawri done during the month of April is called ------------- Zaid Girdawri.
92. Amalgamation and redistribution of all or any of the Land to reduce the number of plots in the holding---- Consolidation
93. Consolidation is also called --------------------- Chak-Bandi
94. certified copies of Land records can be obtained by applying in Form-------------------- CA-1
95. For mutation process Halqua Patwari reports in prescribed form called---------------- P-1
96. Jamabandi is revised after how many years?------------------- 4 years
97. Sale of the holding of the defaulter for recovery of Arrears is laid down in Section---------------- 88
98. Genealogical tree of the Land owners is called-------------------- Shajra Nasb
99. A village's common Land is called------------------------ Shamilat
100. Kharif is also know as--------------------- Autumn Harvest & Rabbi is known as---------- Spring Harvest
Dear Members please correct the answer if you find wrong. Thanks
[B]Land Administration:[/B]-Land administration is “the regulatory framework, processes that encompass the determination, allocation, administration and information concerning land. It is also defined as “the processes of determining, recording and disseminating information about the ownership, value and use of land when implementing land management policies”.(UN-ECE, 1996; 2005)
• The determination and conditions of approved uses of land
• The adjudication of rights and their registration via titling
• The recording of land transaction and
• The estimation of value and taxes based on land and property.
[SIZE="4"][B]Components of Land Administration:[/B]
1.The land rights registration and management,
2.The land use allocation and management,
3.The land valuation and taxation
[B][COLOR="Black"][SIZE="4"]Functions of Land Revenue Administration:[/SIZE][/COLOR][/B]
1.Assessment and Collection of Land Revenue
2. Development Cess and surcharges thereon and Agricultural Income Tax
3.Land Surveys and record of rights including restrictions over transfer of title
4. Alienation of revenue
5.Jagirs and muafis – Punjab Abolition of Jagirs Act
6.. Religious endowment of land
7. Revenue Tribunal
10. Alienation of Land Act
[COLOR="DarkSlateBlue"][SIZE="5"][CENTER]The Board of Revenue[/CENTER][/SIZE][/COLOR]
The Board of Revenue (BOR) at provincial level is mandated with all matters connected with administration of the land, collection of land revenue, preparation of land records and other matters. The BOR is also the highest court of appeal and revision in revenue cases within the Province .The Board of Revenue Punjab, with the financial assistance of Government of the Punjab, established under Punjab Board of Revenue Act 1957, is the successor of the Financial Commissioner under the repealed Punjab Revenue Act 1887.
[B][SIZE="4"]Classification of Functions of BOR [/SIZE][/B]
1. Maintenance of Records of Rights
2. Collection of Agricultural Income Tax, Water Rate
3. Facilitation of Agricultural Loans
4. Land Acquisition
5. Registration of Deeds
6. Resolution of record and tenancy related disputes
[B][SIZE="4"]Major Activities Perform by of the Revenue Department[/SIZE][/B]
1.Administration and Management of State Land.
2.Disposal of State Land, through sale, lease and exchange.
3.Transfer of State Land to Provincial Government Departments free of cost for public process
4.Transfer of State Land to Federal Government and Autonomous Bodies at market price
plus 10% surcharge
5.To consolidate scattered holdings of landowners in compact blocks
6.To reduce the number of plots of land of the right holders of a Revenue
Estate by consolidating scattered Chunks of their land into minimum
number of compact blocks.
7.To prepare an up-dated record of right holders for use by the Revenue
8.To eject illegal /un-authorized occupants of Government state land.
9.To carve out new paths besides retaining the old paths where necessary for
10.Communication between the villages
11.Compulsory Acquisition of Land, Land Acquisition Act and Rules made
12.Demarcation and Rectangulation of Land.
14.Registration of deeds and documents including Registration Fees.
16.Court of Wards, encumbered and attached estates.
18.Debt Conciliation Boards.
20.Settlement and Re-assessment.
21.Tenancy Laws and relations between landlords and tenants.
22.Waterlogging and salinity other than schemes related thereto.
23.Suspension and remission of Land Revenue and Water Rate.
25.Muslim Personal Laws (Shariat) Application Act, 1962.
26.Change of names of Villages, Tehsils and Districts in the Punjab.
27.Conferment of powers under the Revenue Laws.
28.Patwar SchoolsTerms of Reference
29.All matters relating to Katchehri Compounds in the Divisional/District
Offices under the
30.Katchehri Compound Fund Rules, 1937
31.Transfer of Property Act
32.Stamps and Court Fees Judicial and non-Judicial under Court Fees Act
33.Printing and Revision of Gazetteers
34.Territorial Adjustments and changes
36.Transfer of Revenue Record Pak-India
37.Matters relating to District and Tehsil/Town office buildings etc. except
38.Construction, maintenance and repairs.
39.Refund of Revenue Deposits lapsed before independence
40.Malba Cess Fund
41.Printing, revision, publication and distribution of revenue manuals
44.Restitution and Redemption of Mortgaged Lands Act
45.Evacuee Property Displaced Persons Law (Repeal) Act
46.Residual Work of the defunct Settlement and Rehabilitation Department
[B][CENTER][COLOR="DarkSlateBlue"][SIZE="4"]Legislative Framework [/SIZE][/COLOR][/CENTER][/B]
There are several Laws and Acts that deal with the land, relationship between landlord and tenants, mortgagor and mortgagee, assessment and collection of land tax, agriculture income tax, local rates, and land acquisition for public purposes.
[B][SIZE="4"]Main Acts Administered By The BOR [/SIZE][/B]
[B]1. Land Revenue Act 1967:[/B] This Act was passed during the one-unit times but has been adopted and amended by all of the provinces together with the necessary changes. It deals with the issues of record of rights and land revenue. The Land Revenue Act was revised in 1967 having 15 Chapters and 184 Sections.
[B]2. NWFP Tenancy Act 1887:[/B] All the provinces have adopted this Act. It deals with the relationship of landlord and tenants regarding produce of land and ejection of tenants due to non-payment of rent or produce by the tenant to the landlords. It is the only legislation which deals with various aspects of tenancy rights in Pakistan.
[B]3. Pre-Emption Act:[/B] This law has become operative by revenue department after promulgation of para-25 of the Martial law Regulation (MLR-115) in 1972 which has given the first right of pre-emption to a tenant. Normal cases of pre-emption of land are dealt with by the civil courts. The revenue courts entertain only those cases in which a tenant brings a pre-emption suit. Pre-emption laws give certain preferential rights to neighbours in matters of sale of land.
[B]4. Land Acquisition Act:[/B] This act deals with acquisition of land needed for public purpose and determining the amount of compensation to be paid on account of such acquisition. Whenever any land is acquired by the government for any public purpose or by a company, the proceedings are undertaken by the District Collector under the jurisdiction of this Act.
[B]5. Registration Act 1908:[/B] This act deals with the registration of various documents (including those relating to land) with registration authorities. Normally revenue officers are declared as registration authorities. Under this act various documents are executed and registered in the office of Sub-Registrar like sale deeds, mortgage deeds, lease deeds, power of attorneys, partnership deeds, and other deeds. Deeds are entered in the relevant registers after the documents are properly stamped, checked and duly witnessed.
[B]6. Land Consolidation Act 1960:[/B] In order to achieve better agriculture yields, the government has passed a law known as Land Consolidation Act 1960. The purpose of this act is that with the consent of the land owners, exchange of land takes place in a consolidated shape. It provides law relating to consolidation of holdings and the matter incidental thereto.
[B]7. Transfer of Property Act 1982:[/B] This act deals with the transfer, sale/mortgages charges, leases exchanges, and actionable claims in respect of property. This is very important piece of legislation in terms of disputes, but is normally ignored in land matters.
[B]8. Land Reforms Act:[/B] The Land Reforms Laws have been introduced at various stages including the MLR-64 on 7.2.1959, MLR-115 on 12.3.1972 and Land Reforms Act: II on 5.1.1977. The main aim of these land reforms was to determine the individual holdings to a manageable size for improving the lot of peasantry. This act gives rights to ‘tenant-in-possession’ of a certain property. Several rules and manuals are also available in order to implement above acts. These include:
1.Land Revenue Rules
2.Settlement Manual Rules
3.Land Record Manual
4.Land Administration Manual
[B][SIZE="4"][CENTER][COLOR="Navy"]Terms and Meanings[/COLOR][/CENTER][/SIZE][/B]
[B]Batai:- [/B] Crop product sharing between landowner and peasant
[B]Benami :-[/B] Alienation of land to anonymous persons
[B]Bhaichara Village :-[/B]Village where all claimants of landholdings were perceived to be the joint holders of the village
[B]Deh:-[/B] Smallest Administrative Division of land (in sindh) for Land Revenue purposes
[B]Doabs :-[/B] Territory between two rivers
[B]Goth:-[/B] Village in Sindh
[B]Haari:- [/B]Sharecropper in Sindh
[B]Jagirdari:-[/B]Possession of 'Jagir'
[B]Jagirs:-[/B]Land awarded by colonial officers on which Revenue was not due
[B]Kammis:-[/B] Pejorative term used for menial workers
[B]Katchi Abadi:-[/B] Irregular Settlement
[B]Khasra Girdavri:- [/B]Village Revenue Record
[B]Laapo:- [/B]Share of crop belonging to 'Zamindar', equivalent To 1/16th of Total Crop Produce
[B]Lambardar:-[/B] Honorary Government-appointed person for Revenue Collection and control of Village affairs
[B]Mahal:-[/B] Smallest Administrative Division of Land (In Punjab And Nwfp) for Land Revenue Purposes; Village
[B]Mahalwari:-[/B]Land Revenue System In Punjab And Nwfp, based on recognizing the village as the Basic unit of Land Administration
[B]Mukhtiarkar:- [/B]Town level Land Revenue Government Official in Sindh
[B]Nambardar:-[/B]Landowner in villages in Punjab, appointed by The Revenue Department as its Honorary representative; responsible for collecting Land Revenue.
[B]Nambardari:-[/B] Having The Status Of A 'Nambardar'
[B]Nawab:-[/B] Chief of 'Jagir' Or State
[B]Pattidari:-[/B]Land on Claim
[B]Patwar:-[/B]Low tier (lower than 'Tehsildar') Revenue Government Employee In Punjab
[B]Rakh:-[/B]High Land Away From The Riverine Tracts
[B]Ryotwari :-[/B]Cultivator-based land settlement
[B]Sardar:-[/B]Chief of Tribe
[B]Sardari:-[/B] Pertaining to Chief of Tribe
[B]Shaamilat:-[/B]Land not individually owned, Communal Land or Common Property
[B]Tehsildar:- [/B]Town level Land Revenue Government Official in Punjab
[B]Zamindari:- [/B]Land held by a 'Zamindar'
[B]1).TOTAL AREA REPORTED[/B]:-The total physical area of the villages/deh, tehsils r districts etc.
[B]2).FOREST AREA[/B]:-The area of any land administered as forest under any legal enactment dealing with forest. Any cultivated area which may exist within such forests is shown under heading cultivated area.
[B]3).AREA NOT AVAILABLE FOR CULTIVATION[/B]:-The uncultivated area of the farm which is under farm homesteads, farm roads and other connected purposes and not available for cultivation.
[B]4).CULTURABLE WASTE:-[/B]The uncultivated area which is fit for cultivation but was not cropped under the year of reference nor in the year before that.
[B]5).CURRENT FALLOW/ploughed but un-cropped:-[/B]Area which is vacant during the year under reference but was sown at least once during the previous year.
[B]6).CULTIVATED AREA:-[/B]Area which was sown at least during the year under reference or the previous year.
Cultivated Area= Net Area Sown+ Current Fallow
[B]7).NET AREA SOWN:-[/B]Areas which is sown at least once (Kharif and Rabi) the year under reference.
[B]8).TOTAL CROPPED AREA:-[/B]The aggregate area of crops raised in a farm during the year under reference including the area under fruit trees.
Source:Economics Survery, 2006-07.
Divisions and Districts
[B][CENTER][SIZE=4][SIZE=5][COLOR=Navy]Divisions and Districts
According to Land Revenue Act 1976, the Government may, by notification specifies /declares as many with such limits and such areas, or can vary the number and limits
• Province into Divisions
• Division into Districts
• Districts into Tahsils and sub Tahsils (Taluka in Sind)
[B][SIZE=4]Divisions in Pakistan[/SIZE][/B]
In Auguest 2000 ,division wrere abolished , as an administrative tier by the government of president Pervez Musharraf . At the time of abolition, there were:
Total divisions in Pakistan = [B]26[/B]
Divisions in Sindh = [B]5 [/B]
Divisions in Balochistan= [B]6[/B]
Divisions in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa=[B]7[/B]
Divisions eight in Punjab =[B]8[/B]
In 2008, after the public elections, the new democratic government restores the divisions of all provinces.
[B]Currently, there are [/B]
Total divisions in Pakistan= [B]27[/B]
Divisions in Sindh = [B]5[/B] (Hyderabad, Karachi, Larkana, Mirpur Khas, Sukkur)
Divisions in Balochistan= [B]6[/B] ( Kalat, Makran, Naseerabad, Quetta, Sibi, Zhob)
Divisions in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa=[B]7[/B] (Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Hazara, Kohat, Malakand, Mardan, Peshawar)
Divisions in Punjab = [B]9[/B](Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Lahore, Multan, Rawalpindi, Sargodha and Sahiwal *the newest, )
[B][SIZE=4]Districts in Pakistan[/SIZE][/B]
Total Districts in Pakistan= [B]134+ Islamabad Capital Territory+7 Tribal Agencies + 6 Frontier Regions[/B]
District of Balochistan = [B]30[/B]
Districts Punjab = [B]36[/B]
Districts of Sindh = [B]26[/B]
District of KPK = [B]25[/B]
District of Azad Kashmir = [B] 10 [/B]
Districts of Northern Areas/Gilgit-Baltistan = [B]7[/B]
[B]• Districts of Punjab(36)[/B]
5. Chakwal District
6. Dera Ghazi Khan
19. Mandi Bahauddin
24. Nankana Sahib*
27. Rahim Yar Khan
34. Toba Tek Singh
[B]• Districts Of Sindh (26)[/B]
7. Karachi Central
8. Karachi East
9. Karachi South
10. Karachi West
17. Naushahro Firoze
18. Shaheed Benazirabad
19. Qambar Shahdadkot
23. Tando Allahyar
24. Tando Muhammad Khan
[B]• Districts Of KPK(25)[/B]
7. Dera Ismail Khan
13. Lakki Marwat
14. Lower Dir
24. Upper Dir
25. Tor Ghar
[B]• Districts of Balochistan(30)[/B]
5. Dera Bugti
9. Jhal Magsi
11. Kech (Turbat)
15. Killa Abdullah
16. Killa Saifullah
[B]• Districts of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (13)[/B]
5. North Waziristan
7. South Waziristan
8. Six Frontier Regions combined
[B]• Districts of Northern Areas/Gilgit-Baltistan(6) [/B]
[B]• Districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (10)[/B]
Classes of Revenue Officers
[B][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Navy"]Classes of Revenue Officers[/COLOR][/SIZE][/B]
1. The Board Of Revenue
2. The Commissioner (In charge of each Division
3. The Collector/ Deputy Commissioner (In Charge of Each District)
4. Assistant Collector Of The First Grade (In Charge of Each Tashil)
5. The Assistant Collector Of The Second Grade[/B]
[B]1. The Commissioner[/B]
• Punjab and Sind - Executive Division Officer (EDO) Revenue,
• Balochistan - Revenue Tribunal
• KPK- District Officer (Revenue and Estate)
The commissioner exercises control over all the revenue officers and courts in his division and is himself subject to the general superintendence and control of the Financial Commissioner, who, under the Revenue Member of Government, is the head of the revenue administration.
[B]2.The Collector/ Deputy Commissioner[/B]
• Punjab and Sindh – District officer Revenue
Performs large number of functions at district level , has been entrusted in following capacities As:
1. Collector of Govenment property
2. Promoter of the the stability and improvements of landed property
3. Custodian of Government property
4. Judge between landlord and tenants
5. Recorder of Agricultural statistics
6. Guardian and registrar of the rights in the soil enjoyed by private persons
7. District Magistrate
[B]3. Assistant Collector of the First Grade
• Punjab and KPK – Tahsildar
• Sind– Mukhtiarkar
The duties of Tahsildar in his tahsil are almost manifold as those of the Deputy Commissiner within his distric t, but he is not expected to hear any civil suits, and invested with the power of Magistrate Second Class
[B]4.The Assistant Collector of the Second Grade/Tashilder[/B]
1-Tashilder can enjoy the power of Assistant Collector of First Grade
2- Naib- Tashildar cannot be invested With the Power of Assistant Collector Of First Grade
Village Officers Includes:
3. Service Centre Officials
5. Kotars or Tapedars,
9. Headmen (Lambardars).
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