#11




Total Marks: 100 Natural resources (land, water, biological and climatic) of Pakistan and their impact on crop production. Climatic factors and their relationship with crop growth processes like photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration. Agroecological zones of Pakistan and their features. Dry farming. Organic farming for agricultural environmental pollution management. Use of biofertilizers, biopesticides and natural products. Biological N2 fixation and factors affecting biological N2 fixation. Sourcesink relationships in crop plants. Weedcrop interference; competition and allelopathic interactions. Role of Agri. Extension in current and future agriculture in Pakistan. Methods and steps to evaluate extension activities. Global overview of Agri. extension. Types, principles, strategies and significance of audiovisual aids in Agri. Extension. Importance, potential and principles of Agroforestry. Various agroforestry systems. Forest products and utilization features of range management in Pakistan. Major wildlife species found in Pakistan, their morphological features, behaviour and habitats. National forest policy and other land use policies. Biodiversity, its conservation, threats and losses, Impact of environmental changes on biodiversity. Role of Indus Basin Irrigation System in the development of agriculture in Pakistan. Current and future scope of farm mechanization in Pakistan. Food processing and preservation. Food industries of Pakistan and their role in the national economy. WTO implications to food business. Food analysis, contamination of foods business. Food analysis, contamination of foods and its control measures. Processing and uses of dairy products. Basic nutrition requirements of human body and their relationship with nutrition related diseases. Indicators and issues of agriculture sector in Pakistan and their role in national economy. Land tenure systems and land reforms in Pakistan. Principles, objectives and functions of WTO. Role of IT in agriculture. SUGGESTED READINGS
PAPERll Total Marks: 100 Concept of genetics. Role of genetics in crop improvement. Chemical composition of hereditary material. Molecular basis of genetic code. Basic control system in gene expression. Variationbasis of plant breeding, its creation and exploitation. Breeding strategies. Breeding methods of self, cross and asexually propagated crops. Process of variety development. Concept of modern breeding; doubled haploid breeding, markerassisted breeding, mutation breeding, heteroploid breeding, hybrid breeding and transgenic breeding. Various techniques of developing transgenic plants and scope of transgenic plants in plant breeding. Impact of cultivation of transgenic crops on biodiversity. Role of agribiotechnology in crop improvement. Breeding cultivars for marginal lands. Role of edible oilseeds in agriculture and economy of Pakistan. Development of low erucic acid and glucosinolate (double low) varieties in rapeseed and mustard crops. Resistance breeding. Hostplant genetic resistance. Genetic and physiological mechanisms of stress tolerance in crop plants. Major insect pests of important agricultural crops. Principles and methods of insect control. Entomological industries; Apiculture, Sericulture and Lacculture. Types of agricultural pollution and its management. Mode of action, hazards and safety measures of insecticides. IPM and economics of pest management. Causes, nature of losses and economic importance of plant diseases, and principles of their control. Economic importance, transmission and control of plant viruses. Various methods to control and manage plant diseases. Methods of screening of crop germplasm for the sources of disease resistance. Physiological requirements and problems in mushroom cultivation. nutritional value of mushroom and remedial measures of mushroom poisoning. Classification, propagation, management practices and post harvest handling of Horticultural crops. Role of tissue culture in agriculture. Cultivation, production, chemical and pharmacological properties of medicinal plants. Propagation methods, management practices and marketing of fruit and ornamental plants nurseries. Soil formation and Soil profile. Types of soil, salt affected and waterlogged soils, and their reclamation and management. Factors affecting crop growth and growth expression models. Sources and significance of organic matter in agriculture. Soil fertility problems in Pakistani soils. Integrated plant nutritional system. Kinds and levels of soil survey, and application of GIS and remote sensing in soil survey. Types, control and management of soil erosion. SUGGESTED READINGS
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#12




Total Marks: 100 Anatomy and Physiology General terms used in Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomy and Physiology of different systems such as Digestive System, Cardiovascular System, Respiratory System, urogeneral system, Endocrine Glands, Nervous System, Sense Organs. Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of different systems of various domestic animals. Pharmacology and Toxicology Terminology Drug development and drug regulation. Sources of drugs and drugs classification. Physiochemical properties of drugs, Disposition and bioavailability of drugs. Structure activity and dose response relationship, Drug Resistance, Drug safety, adverse effects, tissue residue and public health. Pharmacology of drugs affecting various systems, Chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic drugs. Terms used in toxicology, Forensic toxicology, Sources of poisoning and poisonous plants. Specific and non specific antidote therapy. Parasitology Effects of parasites on their host and their economic significance. Immunity and resistance of parasites. Mode of action of antiparasitic drugs. Parasitic zoonoses examples, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Pathogenesis and control of various parasites such as Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Toxoplasma, Babesia, Theileria, Coccidia, Etc). Helminthes (Ascariasis, strongylosis, haemonchus, oestertagia, fasciolosis, schistosoma, Ectoparasites (mange, mite, ticks, flies). Microbiology General Microbiology, Diversity of Microbes, Prokaryotes Vs Eukaryotes. Physochemical requirements of microbes. Microbial preservation and microbial genetics. Immunity natural and acquired. Antigen antibody essential features. Macrophage, B and T lymphocytes Immunoglobulin, regulation of immune response. Theories of antibody formation. Vaccines production, vaccination, autoimmunity., autoimmune diseases. Bacteriology and mycology classification, general characters disease association and diagnosis. Virology properties of viruses and classification, Bacterophages, Physiochemical characteristics, isolation, identification, immunity and disease association, Important viral diseases, rabies, rinderpest, Foot and mouth disease, PRR, BVD, BSE, ND, Avian Influenza, etc. Pathology Common terms, cell injuries and cell death. Disturbance of circulation, inflammation, repair and healing of wounds and fractures. Neoplasia its cause and classification. Pathology of different organs. Meat inspection. Characteristics of good quality meat, differentiation of meat of different animals. Objectives of meat inspection Antemortem and postmortem examination. Specific and non specific lesions. Disposal of condemned meat. Laws governing meat inspection in Pakistan. Collection preservation and dispatch of laboratory specimens. Hematological examination and its significance. Bone marrow evaluation, urine and faecal examination, liver and kidney function test. Plasma protein profile, electrolyte and acid base balance. Exfoliative cytology. Reproduction Regulation of hormones, Physiology of estrous cycle. Fertilization, Implantation, gestation and parturition, male reproductive system. Biotechnology and recent trends. Artificial insemination technique, estrus synchronization, embryo transfer, Genetic engineering, nuclear transfer and cloning. Disease of reproduction, cervicovaginal prolapse, post partum complications, uterine infections, infertility problems, Genetic and acquired abnormalities of testis accessory sex glands and infertility problems in males. Veterinary Medicine General Terms (Fever, Toxemia, Septicemia, Anaphylaxis, Shock, etc.) Diseases of different systems: G.I.T. (Acidosis, Tympany, Enteritis, equine colic) Liver (hepatitis, jaundice, cholilithiasis) Respiratory system (rhinitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, hydrothorax, epistaxis, pleurisy). Nervous Systems (encephalitis, meningitis) Urinary System (Nephritis, Urolithiasis, Pyelonephritis, Cystitis) Others (arthritis, Ostemyelitis, Dermatitis, Seborrhea, Photosensatization, Tumors, Cysts, Keratoconjuctivitis, Cataract, Glaucoma, Otitis), Infectious and NonInfectious diseases of domestic animals. Surgery Fluid replacement therapy and blood transfusion. Management of accidents shock and emergency cases. Small/Large Animal Surgery. General Surgical considerations. Fluid therapy in surgical patients, tissue regeneration, wound healing. Scope of radiology in Veterinary Practice Xray machine and its working. Nature and production Xray exposure factors. Radiation hazards and protection Xray film and its type. Processing of Films. Basic principles to study radiograph. Qualities of good radiograph. Shoeing and its evaluation. Blemishes and vices in animals. Soundness examination, colours and marking in equines. Veterinary Eipdemiology Principles of epidemiology and its relation to public health. Determinants of disease, Vital Statistics, Incidence, Prevalence, Patterns and disease ecology. Surveillance and monitoring, data collection and interpretation. Analytical epidemiology, Cohort or prospective study, casecontrol or retrospective study. Experimental epidemiology, clinical trials, field trial or community trials. Epidemic investigation. Control and eradication of transboundary and other infectious diseases. Diseases transmissible to human beings through milk and other diary products, Meat, Poultry and other foods. Urine and feaces of animals. Environment and residues. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures for the prevention of disease during export and import livestock products. Role of veterinary public health in producing safe human food according to WTO standards. Personal hygiene and public sanitation. Active and passive surveillance. Writing a research report. RECOMMENDED BOOKS
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PAPERII Total Marks: 100 Animal Nutrition Basic terms used in Animal Nutrition. Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in monogastric and ruminants. Biochemical pathways that influence nutrient metabolism. Metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids as nutrients, energy metabolism, classification, functions and deficiency symptoms of minerals and vitamins factors affecting nutritive value of feeds. Techniques for estimating nutritive value of feed stuffs. Factors effecting the nutritive value of feeds. Measures of food energy; gross energy, metabilisable energy, net energy. Determination of digestibility, digestion coefficient. Calculation of TDN. Nutritive ratio. Role of probiotic in animal nutrition. Feeding of urea to ruminants. Technology for urea. Molasses mineral blocks. Procedure for block making. Feed raw materials handling, storage, grinding, mixing, processing and storage of finished feed. Quality control in feed processing. Feed stuff laws and regulations. Poultry Development of poultry industry in Pakistan; present status and future potential of poultry industry; important classes, breeds and varieties of poultry and their characteristics; objectives of poultry breeding for meat and egg production; qualitative and quantitative traits and their heritability estimates, systems of breeding and their significance; pure breed vs present day hybrid used for meat and egg production; the role of selection in genetic improvements. Brooding, rearing and laying house equipments; raising of broilers; rearing of layer chicks; shifting and housing of pullets; cage vs floor management; layer and breeder management; causes of poor performance of layer and breeder flocks and development of managemental strategies for its improvement; factors affecting pullet development; basic principles for site selection; poultry house construction and design; requirements of housing from biological engineering, economic and hygienic point of view. Livestock Management Routine practices at dairy and sheep/goat farms. Management of animals at different stages. Housing, Feeding and production management. Management during inclement weather. Management of range livestock. Judging of animals. Breeding practices. Sanitation procedure. Planning for year round feed and fodder supply and preservation. Manure handling and disposal hygienic milk production practices. Maintaining farm records and evaluation. Financial and labor management. Transportation and marketing of animals and their production. Animal Breeding and Genetics Genetic and phenotypic correlation. Emerging techniques. Traits of economic importance in farm animals. Use of computer for data handling and analysis. Breeding systems; random mating, inbreeding, line breeding and out breeding; selection of superior animals, principles, basis, kinds and methods; traits of economic importance in cattle, buffalo sheep, goats and poultry; animal genetic resources, their conservation and preservation; emerging breeding technologies; national breeding policy, constraints and future breeding plans. RECOMMENDED BOOKS
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#13




Marks : 100 1. Algae: Origin, evolution, distribution and classification with reference to range, structure, lifehistory, ecology and economic importance of Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta. 2. Fungi: Structure of plant body; development of ascus, basidium and conidium; reproduction; classification; phylogeny, physiology and economic importance of the main groups of fungi. Diseases of economically important plants and their control. 3. Bryophytes: Evolution of gametophytes and sporophytes, structure, reproduction, classification and economic importance of various members of Liverworts, Mosses and Hornworts. 4. Pteridophytes: Introduction, characteristic features, alternation of generation and evolutionary tendencies of various divisions: Psilophyta, Lycophyta, Sphenophyta and Pterophyta. Evolution of seed. 5. Gymnosperms: General characters, life history and evolutionary tendencies of Cycadophyta, Coniferophyta and Ginkgophyta. Structure of seed. 6. Angiosperms: a. Taxonomy: Introduction to systematic botany; historical background of classification systems, Post evolutionary era and recent developments in classification systems. Plant Nomenclature, Rules of Nomenclature, International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Concept of taxa, Plant collection and Preparation of herbarium; Botanic Gardens. Modern trends in taxonomy, Biosystematics, Chemotaxonomy and Numerical taxonomy. b. Anatomy: Cell wall; Tissues and Tissue systems: Meristematic tissue; Epidermal tissue system; Fundamental or ground tissue system; Mechanical tissue system; Xylem and Phloem as Vascular tissue, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma; Primary and secondary growth; Cambium, Periderm. Anatomy of leaf, stem and root. Abnormal/Anomalous secondary growth, Ecological anatomy. c. Embryology: Introduction; alternation of generation; the flower and its parts; stamen or microsporophyll; carpel or megasporophyll; male gametophyte or microgametophyte, pollination and fertilization; endosperm; embryo and its development (embryogenesis); seed and fruit formation; apomixis; polyembryony. RECOMMENDED BOOKS
PAPERII Total Marks: 100 1. Plant Physiology: Plant water relations, osmotic quantities, absorptions, transpiration, role of essential mineral elements, their uptake and distribution. Growth and development, Plant hormones, Photoperiodism, Vernalization, Dormancy and seed germination. Biochemistry of Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats with reference to plants. Enzymes. Plant pigments. Photophosphorylation; Path of carbon in photosynthesis; Oxidative phosphorylation (respiration), Nitrogen and Fat metabolism. 2. Ecology: Influence of climatic, edaphic and biotic factors on plant growth. Sampling techniques. Major formations in relation to climatic zones. Concepts of ecosystems and their productivity, Ecological energetics, pyramids, food chains and trophic levels. Salinity and Waterlogging in Pakistan: Causes and reclamation of salinity, soil erosion, methods of control and conservation. Pollution and conservation of natural resources. Vegetation of Pakistan. 3. Cytology: Detailed study of ultrastructure of cell and its components; Chromosomes, Mitosis and meiosis, significance, Cancer and apoptosis. 4. Genetics: a. Mendelian Genetics: Linkage, Crossing over, Sexlinked inheritance, Mutation, Polyploidy. b. Biochemical Genetics: Biochemical nature of hereditary material, fine structure of genes: Transduction and Transformation. c. Molecular Genetics: Replication, Transcription, Genetic codes and Translation. 5. Evolution: Theories of Evolution, Lamarckism, Darwinism, NeoDarwinism. HardyWeinberg’s Law, Gene frequency, Adaptive mtations. RECOMMENDED BOOKS
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#14




Total Marks: 100 Invertebrate and Chordate Zoology Section – A Invertebrate: Introduction General organizations (Structure, function, mode of life, Reproduction, life cycles, adaptation, distribution and Economic Importance) of the Following groups with special reference to the Topic mentioned in each group: Protozoa: Animal – like Protists: Origin and Phylogenetic relationship of protozoa, parasitism, Locomotion, Nutrition, Reproduction, Economic Importance and Harmful Protozoa. Porifera: Mullticellular and Tissue level of organization: origin and Evolutionary perspeetive, Evolutions of canal system, skeleton and Reproductive System in Porifera. Coelenterata: Boy wall and Nematocysts, Polymorphism, Coral and Coral reefs, Economic Importance of Coral reefs. Platyhelmenthes: The Triploblastic Acoelomate Body plan: Evolutionary perspective, Parasitic adaptation, life cycle of Fasciola Hepatica (liver fluke) Nematoda The Pseudocoelomate Body Plan: (Aschelminthes): Evolutionary Perspective, General characteristic, Economic Importance. Parasitic Nematodes of man. Ammelida: The Metameric Body Form: Evolutionary relationship with other animals, Metamerism and Tagmatization, Phylogenctic Consideration. Mollusca: Origin of Coelome, Diversity in Gastropods, Bivalve and Cepholopods, Torsion, shell in Mollusca, modification of foot in Mollusca Arthropoda: Ebolutionary Perspeetive, Metamarphosis, Ecdysis, Appendages feeding, Respiration, Social insect, Economic Importance of Insects, Larvae in various Classes of Arthropoda. Echinodermata: Skeletion, Water vascular System, Larval farms and their evolutionary significance, Phylogenetic Consideration. Section – B Chordata: Origin and basic plan of chordate, basic plane of vertebvrate body, Earliest known vertebrate, Primitive jawed vertebrate, Evolution of jaw in vertebrate, Swimblader in Fishes, Excretion and Osmoregulation. Amphibian: First terrestrial vertebrates: Evolutionary perspective, Excretion and Osmoregulation, Reproduction and development. Reptile: The First Amniotes Evoluion of Reptile, Rise and Fall of Reptile, Extinction of Dinosaurs, Exeretion and Osmoragulation, Poisonous apparatus and biting mechanism of poisonous snake. Aves: Birds, Feathers, Flight and Endothermy: Phylogenetic Relationship and evolution of Birds, Evolution of flight in Aves, Aerial adaptation and Migration of Birds. Mammalia: Specialized teeth, Endothermy: Origin of mammals, Evolutionary perspectives, Diversity among mammals, adaptation in External Structure and Locomotion, vertebrate Excretion, osmoregulation, Reproduction and development, Dentition in vertebrae, Comparative account of Evolution of Heart, gridles Skull, development, nervous system, Stomach in the vertebrate and urinogenital ducts in vertebrates; BOOKS RECOMMENDED (LATEST EDITION)
PAPER II Total Marks: 100 General Zoology SECTIONA Cell Biology: Generalized Structure of Prokayotic and Eukaryotic Cell, Morphology, chemical composition and Functions of cellular organelles, Enzymes Catalysis, Regulation & Inhibition, Metabolic Pathways,Glycolysis, Kreb cycle and Electrons Transport chain. Nucleic acid, Mechanism of Protein synthesis, Transcription and Translation, Mitosis, Meiosis. SECTION B General Physiology: Excretion and Homeostasis, osmoregulation, vertebrate nephrone as osmoregulatory organ, Thermoregulation in Animals, Movements and Muscle, ultra structure of Muscle fibril, mechanism of contraction, Physiological anatomy of digestive Tract, Potential and movement in Gastrointestinal Tract, Respiration, Respiratory Mechanism, Respiratory Pigments, Transport of O2 and Co2; cardiovascular Mechanism, electrical activity of Heart, Blood Pressure, Coordination in animals, Nervous coordination and chemical coordination, Nervous system, nerve Impulses, Harmones and their Biological action. Mechanism of Active membrane Potential and Resting membrane Potential, synopsis. SECTION C Genetics: Mendelian Principles, Multiple alleles, Interaction of genes, Linkage and crossing over, maping of genes, Sexdetermination and Sexlinkage, Mutations, gene concept, Chromosomal aberrations, DNA as a genetic material, genetic Code, DNA Recombinant Technology, Application of genetic Engineering, Transgenic animals. Section D Evolution: Theories of origin of Life, Biochemical origin of life, Lamarckism, Darwinism and NeoDarwinism, Hardy Weinberg Principle, Mutation Pressure, Selection Pressure, Genetic drift species concept, Mechanism of evolution, modern concept of Natural Selection, Adaptive radiation. SECTION – E Ecology: Concept of Ecosystem. Biogeochemical cycle, Animal adaptation to major Habitats, Energy flow in the Ecosystem, Food chain, Food web, Productivity of Ecosystem Environmental Pollution, Water Pollution and Lamo Pollution. BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Edition):
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#15




Total Marks: 100 Candidates will be asked to attempt three questions from Section A and two questions from section B. Section A Limits, Continuity, Differentiability and its Applications, General theorems (Rolle's Theorem, Mean value theorem), Asymptotes, Applications of Maxima and Minima. Definite and Indefinite integrals and their Application, Quadrature, Rectification, Numerical methods of Integration (Trapezoidal and Simpson rule), Multiple integrals and their Applications. Areas and Volumes, Centre of Mass, ReimannStijles Integral, Ordinary Differential Equations (O.D.Eqs) and their Applications in Rectilinear motion and Growth/Decay problems. 2nd Order Differential Equations with Applications (Spring Mass and Simple Harmonic Oscillator Problems). Section B Sequences and Series, Convergence tests, Power Series, Radius and Interval of Convergence. Complex Analysis, Function of Complex Variable, Demoivre's Theorem and its Application. Analytic Function, Singularities, Cauchy theorem, Cauchy Integral formula. Conic Sections in Cartesian coordinates, Plane Polar Coordinates and their use to represent the straight line and Conic section. Vector equation for plane and space curves. Tangents and Normals and Binormals, Curvature and torsion, Serre Frenet's Formula. Recommended Books:
Paper II Total Marks: 100 Section A Groups: Definition and examples of Groups, Order of a Group, Order of an element of a Group, Abelian and nonAbelian Groups and Cyclic groups. Lagrange theorem and applications, Normal subgroups, Characteristic Subgroups of a group, Normalizer in a group, Centralizer in a group. Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism, Isomorphism theorems of groups, Automorphisms Rings, Fields and Vector Spaces: Examples of Rings, Subrings, Integral domains, Fields, Vector spaces, Linear independence/ dependence, Basis and dimension of finitely generated spaces, Examples of Field extension and finite fields, Examples of finite and infinite dimensional vector spaces. Section B Metric Spaces and Topological Spaces: Definition and Examples of Metric spaces and topological spaces, Closed and Open Spheres, Interior, Exterior and Frontier of a Set, Sequences in Metric Spaces, Convergence of Sequences. Definition and examples of Normed Spaces. Inner product spaces, GramSchmidt Process of Orthonormalization Matrices and Linear Algebra: Linear transformations, Matrices and their algebra, Reduction of matrices to Echelon and Reduced Echelon form. Solution of a system of homogenous and NonHomogenous equations, Numerical methods of solving equations (GaussSiedal method, Jaccobi method) Properties of Determinants, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors and the Diagonalization of the Symmetric Matrices. Recommended Books:
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#16




Total Marks: 100 SECTIONA 1. Introduction to Computing Number Systems, Binary numbers, Boolean logic, History Computer system, basic machine organization, Von Neumann Architecture, Algorithm definition, design, and implementation, Programming paradigms and Languages, Graphical programming, Overview of Software Engineering and Information Technology, Operating system, Compiler, Computer networks and Internet, Computer graphics, Al, Social and legal issues. 2. Programming Solving Techniques Algorithms and problem solving, development of basic Algorithms, analyzing problem, designing solution, testing designed solution, fundamental programming constructs, translation of algorithms to programmes, data types, control structures, functions, arrays, records, files, testing programmes. REFERENCE MATERIAL:
SECTIONB 1. Computer Communications & Networks Analogue and digital Transmission, Noise, Media, Encoding, Asynchronous and Synchronous transmission, Protocol design issues, Network System architecture (OSI, TCP/IP), Error control, Flow Control, Data Link Protocols (HDLC,PPP). Local Area Networks and MAC Layer protocols (Ethernet, Token ring), Multiplexing, Switching and IP Networks, Internetworking, Routing, Bridging, Transport layer protocols TCP/IP, UDP. Network security issues, Programming exercises or projects involving implementation of protocols at different layers. 2. Digital Logic & Computer Architecture Logic design of Digital Systems, Fundamental and advanced concepts of Logic Designs, Boolean Algebra & functions, Designing and implementation of combinational and Sequential logic, minimization techniques, number representation and basic binary arithmetic Logic families and digital integrated circuits, use of CAD tools for logic designs. Topics of Computer Architecture. REFERENCE MATERIAL:
SECTIONC 1. Data Structures & Algorithms Basic database concepts; Entity Relationship modeling, Relational data model and algebra, Structured Query Language, RDBMS, Database design, functional dependencies and normal forms, Transaction processing and optimization concepts, concurrency control and recovery techniques, Database recovery techniques, Database security and authorization, Small Group Project implementing a database, Physical database design. Storage and file structure, indexed files, hashed files, signature files, btrees, files with dense index, file with variable length records, database efficiency and tuning. 2. Operating Systems History and Goals, Evolution of multiuser systems, Process and CPU management, Multithreding, Kernel and User Modes, Protection, Problems of cooperative processes, Synchronization, Deadlocks, Memory management and virtual memory, Relocation, External Fragmentation, Paging and Demand Paging, Secondary storage, Security and Protection, File systems, I/O systems, Introduction to distributed operating systems. Scheduling, dispatch and Introduction to concurrency. REFERENCE MATERIAL:
PAPER II SECTION A Total Marks:100 1. Theory of Automata and Formal Languages. Finite State Models: Language definitions preliminaries, Regular expressions/Regular languages, Finite automatas (FAs), Transition graphs (TGs),NF As, kleene's theorem, Transducers (automata with output), Pumping lemma and non regular language Grammars and PDA: Context free grammars, Derivations, derivation trees and ambiguity, Simplifying CFLs , Normal form grammars and parsing, Pushdown Automata, Pumping lemma and noncontext free languages, Decidability, Chomsky's hierarchy of grammars, Turing Machines Theory: Turing machines, Post machine, Variations on 1M, 1M encoding, Universal Turing Machine, Context sensitive Grammars, Defining Computers by TMs. REFERENCE MATERIAL:
2 Compiler Theory & Design Compiler techniques and methodology. Organization of compilers. Lexical and syntax analysis. Parsing techniques. Object code generation and optimization, detection and recovery from errors. Comparison between compilers and interpreters. REFERENCE MATERIAL:
3. Numerical Methods Mathematical Preliminaries, Solution of Equations in one variable, Interpolation and Polynomial Approximation, Numerical Differentiation and Integration, Initial Value Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations, Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems, Iterative Techniques in Matrix Algebra, Solution of nonlinear equations, Approximation Theory, Eigenvalues and Eigenvector computation REFERENCE MATERIAL:
SECTION B I. Data Base Systems Basic database concepts, Entity Relationship modelling, Relational data model and algebra, Structured Query language, RDBMS; Database design, functional dependencies and normal forms, Transaction processing and optimization concepts, concurrency control and recovery techniques, Database recovery techniques, Database security and authorization. Small Group Project implementing a database. Physical database design: Storage and file structure, indexed files, hashed files, signature files, btrees, files with dense index, files with variable length records, database efficiency and tuning Data Warehousing and Data Mining, Emerging Database Technologies and Applications. REFERENCE MATERIAL:
Software Engineering, Process Models, Software verification and validation. Techniques are introduced to evaluate software correctness, efficiency, performance and reliability, integration of these techniques into a verification and validation plan. Technical reviews, software testing, programme verification, prototyping, and requirement tracing. Attitude of industry toward reliability and performance. REFERENCE MATERIAL:
SECTION C 1. Artificial Intelligence Introduction to Common Lisp. AI classical systems: General Problem Solver, rules, simple search, meansends analysis. ElIZA, pattern matching, rule based translators, OPS5. Knowledge Representation: Natural language, rules, productions, predicate logic, semantic networks, frames, objects, scripts. Searching, Depth first search, breadth first search, best first search, hill climbing, minmax search. Symbolic Mathematics: student solving algebra problems, translating English equations, solving algebraic equations, simplification rules, rewrite rules, metarules, Macsyma, PRESS, ATLAS. Logic Programming: Resolution, unification, hornclause logic, Prolog, Prolog programming. Sample case studies of shells and Knowledge Based Systems. A brief appreciation of state of the art computational techniques like neural networks, genetic algorithm, fuzzy sets. REFERENCE MATERIAL:
2. Computer Graphics Graphics hardware, Fundamental algorithms, Applications of graphics. Interactive graphics programming graph plotting, windows and clipping, and segmentation. Programming raster display systems, panning and zooming. Raster algorithms and software ScanConverting lines, characters and circles. Region filling and clipping. Two and three dimensional imaging geometry and transformations. Curve and surface design, rendering, shading, colour and animation. REFERENCE MATERIAL:
FURTHER SUGGESTED READINGS 1. Computers: Tools for an Information Age, 8th Ed. H I Capron, Adison Wesley, 2003. Paul Wilton. 2. Computer Concepts, 3rd Ed, ITP 1998; J.J.Parsond & D. Oja 3. Siberschatz. Galvin & Gagne, Operating System Concepts, 6th Ed. 2002. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0471417432. 4. Tanenbaum. A.S., Modern Operating Systems, 2nd. Ed, 2001. 5. Deitel & Deitel, C++, How to Program, 4th Ed. Prentice Hall. 6. Tocci & Widmer, Digital Systems, Principles and Applications, 8th Ed.. Published by Pearson Education. 7. John F. Wakerly, Digital Designs, Principles & Practices, 3rd. Ed. Published by Prenice Hall. 8. M. Morris Mano, Digital Logic & Computer Design, Prentice Hall, 1979, ISBN 0132145103. 9. Jim Keogh, C++, Programmers Notebook, 2nd Ed. 10. Sipser, Introduction to the Theory of Computation, 2nd Ed. Thomson Course Technology, 2006. 11. Ian Sommerville, Software Engineering, 6th Ed. Adison Wesley,2001 12. M. A. Weiss, Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C. Pearson Education 2nd Ed. 1997. 13. Elmasri & Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, 4th Ed. 14. Expert Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence by Efrain Turban 15. Artificial Intelligence by Rich & Knight. 16. Artificial Intelligence by George F. Luger. 17. Donald Hearn and M. Pauline Baker. Computer Graphics and Open GL, 3rd Ed. 18. Foley, Van Dam, Feiner, and Hughes, Computer Graphics Principle & Practices. 19. Mathematical Structures for Computer Science, Freeman & Company; G.L.Gersting. 20. Java Script; The Definitive Guide, 2nd Ed, O. Reilly, 1997. D. Flanagan. 21. The HTML, Sourcebook, Wiley 1996. I.S. Graham. 22. Computer Science; An Overview 6th Ed. Addison Wesley, 1998. J.G. Brookshear. 23. Java; An Object First Approach, Addison Wesley, 1996. F. Culwin. 24. Web Page Scripting Techniques, Hayden Books,1996. J. Bloomberg, J. Kawski. J & P. Treffers. 25. Kenneth H. Rosen, Discrete Mathematics and its Application, 5th Ed. 2003, McGrawHill. 26. T .H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, and C.D. Stein, Introduction of Algorithms, MIT Press. 2nd Ed. 2001. 27. Assembly language programming of IBM PC by Ytha Yu and Charles Marut. McGraw Hill, 1992. 28. Saeed Bhatti & Naeem Bhatti, a first course in Numerical Analysis, 4th Ed. 2003. 29. David A Patterson, John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, 3rd Ed. 30. Hennessy, J.I. & Patterson .D.A., Computer Architecture; A quantitative Approach, 2nd Ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 1996. 31. Introduction to Digital Systems by Ercegovac, Lang & Moreno, Wiley, 1999. 32. Introduction to Wireless Systems by P.M. Shankar, John Wiley & Sons,2002. 33. Advanced Digital Designs with the Verling HDL by Michael D. Ciletti. Prentice Hall, 2003.
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#17




Total Marks: 100 Descriptive Statistics: (15%) Nature and scope of Statistics. Organizing and classification of data. Population and sample. Variables, Measurement scales. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. Description of data by frequency tables and graphs. Stem and leaf plot and Box and whisker plot. Arithmetic Mean, Geometric Mean, Harmonic Mean, Mode, Median, Quartiles. Properties of Mean with proofs. Relative Merits and Demerits of various averages. Weighted Arithmetic Mean. Empirical Relation between Mean, Median and Mode. Absolute and Relative Measures of dispersion: Range, SemiInter Quartile Range, Mean Deviation, Variance, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation, Coefficient of Mean Deviation, Coefficient of quartile Deviation. Properties of Variance and Standard Deviation with proofs. Standardized Variables. Moments, Moments Ratios, Sheppard’s Correction, Skewness and Kurtosis. Chebechev’s theorem and its application. Concepts of Probability: (05%) Operation in sets. Cartesian product set. Random experiment. Sample space and events. Rules of counting. Introduction to probability and axioms of probability, emphasising to concepts, facts, interpretation and illustrating examples. Basic laws of probability. Conditional and marginal probabilities. Independence of events. Baye’s theorem and its application. Random Variable: (15%) Discrete random variable. Probability function, probability distribution function. Mathematical expectation and its properties. Joint distribution of two discrete random variables. Marginal and conditional distributions. Mean, variance, moments, covariance and correlation of two discrete random variables. Moment generating function and its properties. Continuous random variable. Probability distribution of a continuous random variable. Probability density function and probability distribution function. Joint distribution of two continuous random variables. Marginal and conditional distributions. Mathematical expectation and its properties. Moment generating function. Covariance and correlation of two random variables. Mean, Median, Mode, Geometric mean, Harmonic mean, Mean deviation, variance and moments of simple continuous functions. Discrete Probability Distributions: (15%) Uniform Bernoulli, Binomial, Multinomial, Hypergeometric, Poisson, Negative Binomial and Geometric distributions with their derivations, applications and fitting to statistical data. Poisson approximation to the binomial distribution. Continuous Probability Distributions: (15%) Uniform, Exponential and Normal distributions. Their properties, applications and fitting to statistical data. Normal approximation to the Binomial and Poisson distributions. Bivariate Normal Distribution (10%): Derivation, conditional density function, conditional expectation and moment generating function μ20, μ02 and μ11. Method of Least Squares: (15%) Scatter diagram, Principle of least square. Deduction and solution of normal equations of general linear model. Curve fitting. Equations of approximating curves by the method of least squares up to third degree polynomials. Fitting of exponential of the type (1)y=aebx (2) y = abx (3) y = axb . Graphic representation of the curves. Interpolation and Extrapolation graphically. Criteria for fitting a suitable curve. Regression and Correlation Analysis: (10%) Logic of regression and correlation, scatter diagram. Regression models. Simple linear regression, least square estimates and their properties. Properties of Least Square regression line, standard error of estimate, coefficient of determination. Multiple linear regression with two regressors, coefficient of multiple determination. Partial and multiple correlation up to three variables. Linear correlation . Correlation coefficient and its properties. Correlation of bivariate frequency distribution. Partial and multiple correlation for three variables. Rank correlation. Tied ranks. PAPER– B Total Marks: 100 Sampling and Sampling Distributions: (15%) Advantages of sampling. Probability and nonprobability sampling. Sampling and nonsampling errors. Sampling designs of simple random, stratified, systematic, and cluster sampling. Judgment and quota sampling. Random numbers and their use in sampling. Calculation of sample mean, proportion and variance of simple and stratified random samples. Sampling distribution of a statistic and its standard error. Distributions of sample mean / proportion and difference between two sample means / proportions with properties. Central limit theorem with illustrations. Sampling distribution of sample variance and ratio of two sample variances. Concept of t, χ2 and F – distributions. Estimation: (10%) Estimate and estimator. Point estimation by moments and maximum likelihood methods. Properties of point estimators: unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency and sufficiency. Interval estimator and its interpretation. Interval estimation of the mean / proportion, difference between two means / proportions, of populations with known and unknown variances. Determination of sample size. Interval estimation of population variance and ratio of two population variances. Interval estimates of regression parameters, mean and individual prediction. Hypothesis Testing: (15%) Null and alternative hypotheses. Simple and composite hypotheses. Two types of errors, level of significance, pvalue and power of the test. Acceptance and rejection regions, one sided and two sided tests. Testing of hypothesis for mean / proportion, difference between two means / proportions. Testing of hypothesis (based on small samples and unknown population variance) for the mean, difference between two means for paired and independent observations. Testing of hypothesis about the variances and equality of two variances. Testing of hypothesis about regression and simple correlation; partial and multiple correlation. Tests of hypothesis about regression parameters, mean and individual prediction. Pearson’s test for goodness of fit. Contingency tables and tests for independence and homogeneity. Coefficient of mean square contingency and its maximum value. Yates correction for continuity. ChiSquare test for the multinomial probabilities. NonParametric Tests: (5%) Sign test, Run test. MannWhitney Utest, Wilcoxon Signed Rand test, Wilcoxon Rank sum test and KruskalWallies Test. Analysis of Variance and Experimental Designs: (15%) Definition, importance and assumptions of Analysis of Variance. Partitioning of sum of squares and degrees of freedom in one and twoway classification. Testing the equality of means for one and twoway classification. Multiple comparison tests: Least significant difference test, Duncan’s and NewmanKeuls Multiple range tests. Principles of experimental design. Completely randomised, randomised complete block and Latif square designs. Description, layout, statistical analysis, advantages, disadvantages, relative efficiency and applications of these designs. Time Series: (10%) Decomposition of Time Series. Measurement of Trend, Seasonal (Additive and multiplicative models), and Cyclical variations. Seasonal indices. Deseasonalisation of data. Index Numbers: (10%) Simple and composite indices. Problems in construction of index numbers. Laspayre, Paasche, MarshallEdgworth, Fisher ideal, Walsh and Palgraves indices. Shifting of base. Quantity index numbers. Theoretical tests for index numbers. Consumer Price index. Construction and uses of index numbers in Pakistan. Sensitive Price Indicator. Official Statistics: (10%) Introduction, working of statistical organizations in Pakistan, main sources of Statistical Data in Pakistan, Documents produced by Statistical Organizations in Pakistan. Census, registration system of deaths and births in Pakistan. Applications of statistics in social, economic and political problems. Public health crimes, Law, social innovations, economic development and sociopolitical inequality. Vital Statistics: (10%) Vital events. Uses and shortcomings of vital statistics. Sources of demographic data. Gender and child woman ratio. Vital Index, Crude, specific and standardised death / birth rates. General and specific fertility rate. Gross and net reproduction rates. BOOKS RECOMMENDED:
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#18




Total Marks: 100 1 Applied Physics: Classical mechanics: Density, Dimension, Gravity, Motion, Position, Velocity, Acceleration, Mass, Momentum, Force, Energy, Angular momentum, Torque, Conservation law, Wave, Work, Power. Quantum mechanics: Matrix Mechanics, Planck’s constant, Quanta, Quantization, Quantum harmonic oscillator, Quantum number, Spin, Wavefunction, Wave mechanics, Waveparticle duality, Zeropoint energy, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Theory of relativity: General principle of relativity, Gravity, Inertial frame of reference, Invariance, Length contraction, Principle of Relativity, Reference frame, Rest energy, Rest mass, Speed of light, Stressenergy tensor, Time dilation. Optical Physics: Aberrations, Diffraction, Dispersion, Optical Resolution, Polarization, Ray (optics), Reflection, Refraction, Scattering, Wave, Lenses, Mirrors, Optical instruments, Prisms Particle Physics: Fundamental force (gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, strong), Elementary particle, Spin, Antimatter, Quantum gravity, Vacuum energy Solid State Physics: Amorphous solid, Crystal Structure, Free electron model, Energy band gap, conduction band, electron hole, excitation, valence band, Superconductivity, crystal optics. RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
2. Applied Chemistry: ElectroChemistry: Electrolysis, Electrolytic conductance, Migration of ions, Galvanic Cells, reversible and Irreversible cells, Standard electrode potentials, Buffer solutions. Solutions: Ideal and non–ideal solutions, Roult’s and Henry’s Laws, Solubility curves, Heat of solutions. Liquids and their properties: Vapor pressure, vapor pressure and boiling point, surface tension, viscosity, Refractive index and its measurement, Polarimetery, Intermolecular and intermolecular forces amongst liquid molecules. Solid State: Crystalline structure, different properties of crystals, Xrays and crystal structures, production of Xrays, Heat capacities of solids. Gases: Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, Gas constant, Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure, Graham’s Law of Diffusion, Kinetic theory of Bases, Heat Capacity of Gases. 3. Applied Electricity & Electronics: Electricity & Magnetism; Electrical potential, Resistance, Laws of resistance, Conductance, Conductivity, Impedance, Ohm law, Resistance in series and in parallel, practical resistors, work, power, Energy, Joule’s law of electric field intensity, Gauss’s Theorem, Capacitor, Capacitance, Capacitors in parallel and series. Force on a conductor in a magnetic field, electrical and magnetic circuits, leakage flux, Relation between magnetism and electricity, Induced emf, induced current and directions, Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic inductions, Lenz’s law, dynamically induced emf, Self inductance, mutual inductance and inductance in series/parallel, magnetic hysteresis, Energy stored in magnetic field, Generation of alternating currents and voltages. Electrical Machines:
Electronics: Ntype material, Ptype material, diodes, junctions, PN junction, forward bias, reverse bias. Transistors: types, calculations of voltages and currents in simple transistor circuits. Amplifier & Oscillators: Working and classification of amplifiers, Class A and Class B Amplifiers, Feedback Amplifiers, Types of Feedback, RC Oscillators. Integrated circuits: OP Amps, timers, flip flop, converters, filters. Telecommunications: EM theory, antennas, antenna gain, free space loss, fading. Modulations (AM, FM, PM, PWM, Delta, FSK, ASK, PSK), Error correction, Demodulation, Detectors, Transmitter, Receivers. DSP and Controls; filters, stability, Ztransform, Nyquist criteria, S domain, transfer functions. Introduction to Computing; History and evolution of computers, central processing unit, data storage, input/out put devices, multimedia, operating systems, programming languages, networking, the internet, system analyses and design, management information system, electronic commerce, security and privacy issues, ethical issues and the computing profession, Power Systems: power network analysis, Polyphase circuits, Transients, Transmission Lines, Losses. RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
4. Mechanical Engineering Fundamentals Mechanics and Strength of Materials: Concept of Stress and Strain, bending, torsion, geometric properties of areas, principal stresses, Tensile testing, Stress Strain curve, Difference between Engineering and True stress & Strain, Shear Stress & Strain, Concept of elastic and plastic deformation, Yield & ultimate Tensile strengths, Elongation, Toughness and Resilience, Ductility and Malleability, Hardness Testing, Brinell and Rock well Hardness test, bending moment, Fluid Mechanics; Properties and basics of fluid mechanics, loss of head, power transformation by fluids, pumps, turbines. Fluid static’s, Fluid dynamics, Types of flow: Turbulent and Laminar, Reynold’s number. Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer. (Basics of thermodynamics, properties of fluids and steam, steam turbines, power plants. First and second Laws of Thermodynamics, Enthalpy, Entropy, Heat Capacity, Carnot cycle, Gibbs free energy, Equilibrium, PV – diagrams, Refrigeration and Air conditioning, principle and models of heat transfer, Evaporators, Condensers, Heat engines, Engines (2 and 4 strokes ). Manufacturing: Different manufacturing processes like Casting, Forging, Machining, Rolling, Extrusion, Wiredrawing, welding, Turning(lathe), Milling, Shaping, Gear cutting, Drilling, Fitting. RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
5. Materials Engineering: Introduction to Materials; Types of Materials. Structure of an atom, Metallic bonding, Crystal Structures and geometry, Metallic Materials: Mechanical properties of Metals and alloys, Ferrous and nonferrous metals & alloys, Applications of Different metals and alloys in industry Polymeric and Ceramic Materials: Polymerization, General purpose and Engineering thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, Rubbers. Traditional and engineering ceramics, Processing of ceramics, Electrical properties of ceramics, Mechanical properties of ceramics, Thermal properties of ceramics, Glasses. RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
6. Civil Engineering Fundamentals: Structures; stress, strain, shearing force and bending moment concepts, beams, columns, footing. Simply supported and Cantilever beams, Pulleys and gears. Transportation Engineering: Introduction, highway administration, scheme preparation, traffic appraisal, environmental appraisal, highway geometry, drainage, lighting, signing, communications and safety, roads and traffic in urban areas, highway maintenance, low cost roads in developing countries. Environmental Engineering: Environmental impacts on water resources projects, transportation engineering projects, waste water treatment and management, water supply and distribution. Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering: Properties of fluid mechanics, pressure measuring devices, flow measuring devices, losses in pipelines, open channels, barrages and dams. RECOMMENDED BOOK:
****************************************** ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE OF ENGINEERING PAPER II Paper II will comprise EIGHT questions including One Compulsory MCQ type question containing 20 parts of one mark each (1/2 marks will be deducted for eachwrong answer). Candidates will be required to attempt total FIVE questions including the compulsory question. Each question will carry 20 marks. 1. Engineering Economics: cost analysis, purchasing power parity, supply and demand, macro economics, monopoly and oligopoly. 2. Costing, Accounting and Budgeting: Net p resent value, Net future value, cash flows, auditing, income statement, balance sheet, taxation, financial risk management, cost analysis. 3. Testability and Test Planning: Black box testing, White box testing, test plans, test executions, regression testing, destructible and non destructible testing, test reports. 4. Project Management: time lines, milestones, resources allocation, dependency, Gant Charts, 5. inventory Management: FIFO models, LIFI models, Identification Schemes, Inventory management systems. 6. Quality Management Systems: QA modles. Deming, Juran Crosby, Quality circles, management responsibility, quality planning, purchasing, design process and design validation, quality audit, corrective and preventive measures. 7. Time analysis and Manufacturing Management: Managerial issues, manufacturing systems, process optimization, mathematical modeling, time management, resource allocation, raw material, production analysis. 8. Problem analysis and Decision tree: decision support system, decision tree, design of experiments. 9. Production and operation management 10. Management tools RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
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#19




Total Marks: 100 Mechanics Vectors Dots, Cross and triple products, Gradient, divergence and applications. Curl of a vector field; Gauss's Theorem; Stokes theorem Newtonian laws of motion; motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields; Motion in a circle, Law of conservation of energy; Conservation of linear and angular momentum; Dynamics of rigid body; spin and precession; gyroscope; Gravitation; planetary motion including satellite work energy theorem. Special theory of relativity. Mischelson  Morley experiment, Einstein's postulates; Lorentz transformation; time dilation, length contraction; equivalence of mass and energy. Fluid Mechanics Surface tension; Viscosity; elasticity; fluid motion and Bernoulli's theorem. Waves and Oscillation Free oscillation with one and two degrees of freedom; free and forced oscillations, Lissagous figure, Coupled oscillations, Travelling waves and transmission of energy; Phase and Group velocity; Standing waves Longitudinal waves. Reflection, Refraction, Interference, Diffraction and Polarization of waves; interferometer and Newton's rings; Diffraction Gratings and their resolving power; Spectrometers. Electromagnetic wave equation; Normal and anamolous dispersion; Coherence, lasers and its application. Heat and Thermodynamics Perfect gas and Vander Waals equation; Three Laws of Thermodynamics; Entropy, entropy of an ideal gas; Helmbroltz function, Gibbs function; Maxwell's equations; Enthalpy, Thermal properties of Simple system; Production and measurement of low temperatures; Kinetic theory of gases; Maxwellian distribution of molecular velocities; Brownian motion; Transport phenomena. Classical MaxwellBoltzmann Statistics and its applications, Quantum BoseEinstein and FermiDirac Statistics. Paper – ll Total Marks 100 Electricity and Magnetism Electric field due to point charges, Gauss' law Electric potential and Poisson and Laplace's equation Dielectric medium and Polarization; Capacitance; Moving charges and magnetic field Ampere's law; Vector potential; Magnetic properties of matter; Transient current; Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction; Alternating current and LRO circuit. Maxwell's equations; poynting theorem and poynting Vector. Electronics Thermionic emission; Space charge; Diode. Triode Tetrode; Pentode and their static and dynamic characteristics; Amplitude modulation and demodulation or detection; Various basic circuits for rectification, amplification modulation and detection connected with radio receivers and transmission; n and p type semiconductors; Biased function; Transistors; Common base, common emitter and common collector configurations OP Amplifier; characteristics, modes of operation, applications number systems: decimal, octal and Hexadecimal; Binary code, Binary arithmetic, BCD code, and parity logic gates Boolean identities; De Morgan's theorems: logic simplification; Combinational logic circuits: decoders, parity generator and checker circuits, flip flops:RS, JK and Dtype. Atomic Physics Bohr theory and quantum numbers including electron spin; Pauli's exclusion principle; Spectra of simple systems with one or two valence electrons. Photo electric effect Compton scattering; pair production; Lande's g factor and Zeeman effect; Waves and particles and De Broglie's Hypothesis; Schrodinger wave equation and its application to one dimensional harmonic oscillator. Heisenberg's uncertainly principle. Nuclear Physics Structure of Nuclei; Radioactivity , , and decay. Methods of detection, Mass Spectrometer. Accelerators. Phenomenon of fission; reactor and nuclear power, nuclear fusion and its application; Nuclear models; Elementary particles and their properties. SUGGESTED READINGS
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IKRAMTIPU (Friday, March 13, 2020), tayyaba nasir (Thursday, June 23, 2016) 
#20




Total Marks: 100 (A). Physical Chemistry. 1. Quantum Theory & Atomic Structure Quantum theory. The Schrodinger Wave Equation, particle in one dimensional box and its application for Hydrogen atom. Quantum Numbers. Chemical Bonding. Elgen Values and Elgen functions. Degeneracy. Tunnel Effect. 2. Chemical Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamic and Enthalpy changes. Entropy and second Law of Thermodynamics. Standard Free Energy and Chemical equilibrium. Concept of Residual Entropy. 3. Electrochemistry Conductance and its measurement. Activity and Activity coefficients. Measurement of Activity coefficient of strong electrolytes. DebyHuckel Theory and its applications for strong electrolytes. Electrodes, Electrode Potential and its measurement. Corrosion and its prevention. 4. Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity, detection and its measurement, Kinetics of Radioactive decay, Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Artificial Radioactivity, uses of Radioactive isotopes and Nuclear Reactors. (B). Inorganic Chemistry 1. Modern Theory of Chemical Bonding Modern Theories of Chemical bonding. Valance Bond theory, hybridization of orbital, molecular Orbital theory, comparison of valence Bond and Molecular orbital theories, shapes of inorganic molecules, application of VSEPR concept. 2. Chemistry dBlock Elements General Characteristics of dBlock elements, Chemistry of First Transition Series, Transition metal complexes, structure of coordinate complex compounds, Postulates and applications of Werner’s Chelates, Nomenclature and Isomerism in coordinate compounds. 3. Inorganic Chemical Industries Sulphuric acid, Chemical Fertilizers, cements, Ceramics, Soda Ash and Caustic Soda. 4. Environmental Chemistry Concept of Environmental chemistry, Environmental Pollution, green House Effect, Air Pollution, Water Pollution and Chemical Toxicology. PAPERII TOTAL MARKS: 100 (A) Organic Chemistry 1. Structure and Reactivity Inductive effect, delocalized chemical bond, resonance effect, tautomerism, hyperconjugation, steric effect and hydrogen bonding. 2. UV and IR Spectroscopy Principle of UVVisible and IRSpectroscopy, terms involved in spectroscopy. max, bathochromic shift, hypsochromic shift, finger print region, overtones and applications in functional group identification of organic compounds. 3. Chemistry of Carbonyl Group Preparation and properties of Aldehydes and ketones. Acid and base catalyzed Aldol condensation reactions and nucleophilic additions to carbonyl group. 4. Chemistry of Armatic Compounds Mechanism and applications of Electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, Arenium ion mechanism, orientation and reactivity. Aromaticity and condensed simple aromatics systems. 5. Sterochemistry Steroisomerism, conformational analysis of cycloalkanes, chirality and optical activity, recemization, epimerization and geometrical isomerism. (B) Selected Topics in Applied Chemistry 1. Biomolecules Introduction, classification, structure and metabolism of carbohydrates. Primary, Secondary & Tertiary structure of Proteins. Lipids and their classification. 2. Chromatography Principle and types of chromatography. Thin layer and columnChromatography with their applications. 3. Material Chemistry Introduction and applications of Polymers, Semiconductors, composites and liquid crystals. 4. Chemicals in Service of Mankind Detergents, Pesticides, Dyes, Cosmetics and Pigments. RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. Physical Chemistry by Ira N. Levane, 5th Edition 2. Inorganic Chemistry by James E. Huheey and Richard I. Kelter, 4th Edition. 3. Physical Chemistry by Moore, Walter S, 5th Edition. 4. Mechanism and Structure of Organic Chemistry by Gould, Edward. 5. Essential of Physical Chemistry by G.D.Tuli, Arun Bahl. 6. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry by Cotton F.A & Wilkinson Groffrey, 3rd Edition 7. Chemistry (Organic & Inorganic) by A.M.H. Shaikh 8. Advanced Chemistry by Philip Matthews. 9. organic Chemistry by Morrison, Robert,Thornton and Boyd. R.N., 2nd Edition 10. Text Book of Inorganic Chemistry for B.Sc. by M. Zafar Iqbal (Revised & Enlarged Edition) 11. Selected topics in Inorganic Chemistry by G.D. Tuli. 12. Physical Chemistry by Gordon M.Barrow, 5th Edition.
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