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GEOLOGY

PAPER - I

Total Marks: 100

Physical Geology: Earth as a member of the solar system; its origin, age, composition and internal structure. Geomorphic processes

Structural Geology: Physical properties of rocks and rock behavior in different tectonic environments; deformation by fracturing and folding; interpretation of linear and planar elements.

Paleontology: Paleontological principles and techniques and their application to the evolution of life, the ecological structure of ancient biological communities, and the history of the earth.

Stratigraphy and Sedimentology: Principles of stratigraphy; Stratigraphic record and nomenclature, Geological time scale, Stratigraphy of Salt Range. Origin, transportation and deposition of sediments; biostratigraphic dating and correlation; Sedimentary processes and environments.

Mineralogy/ Petrology: Crystal chemistry; crystal growth and mineral genesis, physicochemical principles governing crystal structures. Mineralogical, chemical, textural, and structural properties of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary
rocks; their origin and relations to evolution of the Earth crust and mantle including rocks of both the continents and ocean basins.

Geochemistry: chemical processes involved in the development of the earth and distribution of the elements in the earth’s crust, atmosphere and ocean. Physical chemistry of soils including soil mineralogy (formation, relative stability, ion exchange properties) and surface chemistry. Principles of thermodynamics. Application of thermo chemistry to high and low temperature processes.


Paper II

Total Marks: 100

Earth Resources: Fossil fuels, Nuclear mineral resources, Renewable energy resources, hydropower and geothermal energy, Water cycle, Surface water, Ground water, construction materials including those for concrete and aggregate, sand gravels, cement making and building stones; Fundamentals of Matellogeny and plate tectonics with reference to Pakistan. Uranium and strategic metals.

Engineering Geology: Fundamentals of Engineering Geology. Soil and rock properties. Landslides classification for slopes in rock and soil, Excavation principles in rock and soil. Stability of slopes – analysis. Site investigation and instrumentation. Dam sites of Pakistan (elementary analysis).

Remote Sensing and GIS: Introduction to the filed of remote sensing. Earth satellite systems for remote sensing. Applications in geological mapping, mineral prospecting, structural geology, geohydrology, engineering geology and geomorphology. Principles of geographic information system (GIS) including an overview of data structure, data types, methods of data analysis and cartographic modeling.

Climate and Climate Change: Scientific bases of the climate change phenomenon, climates of the past and theories of climate change. Impacts of a changing climate in different regions of the world, and mitigation strategies. Earth as a planet, its origin and composition. Rock forming major minerals. Fundamental description and classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Processes of Geomorphology both internal and external. Peneplain concept. Valley formation and Drainage patterns. Glacial landforms. Fossils, fossilization, modes of fossil preservation, geological signification of fossils. Geological timescale. Principles of stratigraphy, stratigraphic code and nomenclature, stratigraphy of Salt Range. Study of major structures i.e. Folds, Faults, Joints, Cleavage and linear structure. Fundamental concepts of Engineering Geology and Geohydrology Introduction to the concept of Environmental Geology and Global Climate Change. Fossils Fuels, hydropower, Geothermal Energy, Nuclear minerals, Renewable energy.


RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Albarade, F., (2003), Geochemistry: An Introduction, Cambridge Press.
2. Barnes, J.W. and Lisle, R.J. (2004), Basic Geological Mapping, John Wiley & Sons.
3. Bell, F.G., (2004), Engineering Geology and Construction, Spon Press, N.Y.
4. Bender, F.K. and Raza H.A.(1995), Geology of Pakistan, Gebruder Borntraeger.
5. Best, M.G. (2003) Igneous and metamorphic Petrology, Blackwell Science
6. Davis, G.H. and Reynolds, S.J. (1996), Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions, John Wiley & Sons.
7. Demers, M.N. (2005) Fundamentals of Geographic Information System, John Wiley & Sons.
8. Dobrin, M.B. and Savit, Ch.H. (1988), Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting, McGraw Hill.
9. Emery , D. and Myers, K.J. (1996), Sequence Stratigraphy, Oxford, Blackwell.
10. Hudak, P.F. (2005), Principles of Hydrogeology, 3rd Ed. CRC Press
11. Kazmi, A.H. and Abbas, S.G. (2001), Metallogeny and Mineral Deposits of Pakistan, Orient Petroleum Inc.
12. Kazmi, A.H. and Jan, M.Q. (1997) Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan, Graphic Publishers.
13. Keary, P and Vine, F.J. (1996) Global Tectonics, Blackwell.
14. Montgomery, C.W., (2005) Environmental Geology, McGraw Hill.
15. North, F.K. (1985) Petroleum Geology, Allen & Unwin.
16. Plummer, (2005), Physical Geology, Mcgeay and Carlson.
17. Raup, D.M. and Stanley, S.M. (1985), Principles of Paleontology, W.H. Freeman & Co.
18. Sam Boggs (1987), Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.
19. Shah. S.I. (1977) Stratigraphy of Pakistan, Geological Survey of Pakistan.
20. Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., (2007) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basics, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPPCC).
21. Thomas M.L, and Ralph, W.K. (2003) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John Wiley & Sons.
22. Willam H.B. (1990) Principles of Mineralogy, Oxford University Press.
23. Yeung, Lo.C.P. and Lal, A.K. (2003) Concepts and Techniques of Geographic Information System, Prentice Hall.
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GEOGRAPHY
PAPER- I

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

Total Marks: 100

Course Outline:


1. The Universe:-

The solar system and the Earth. Earth’s Origin, shape and size, rotation and revolution, distribution of land and water. Geological time scale.

2. Lithosphere:-

Composition and internal structure of the Earth, Rocks-origin, formation and types ( igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic), plate tectonics, mountain building geomorphic processes internal and external, earthquakes, volcanic activity, weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition, cycle of erosion; landforms produced by surface water, ground water, wind and glaciers.

3. Elements of weather and climate:-

Insolation, global radiation and heat balance, atmospheric temperature, compositon and structure of atmosphere, atomosheric pressure and winds air masses and fronts (classification, distribution and associated weather), cyclones, tornadoes, thunderstorms and weather disturbances. Hydrological cycle. Atmospheric moisture and precipitation. Climatic classification: Koppen’s classification with special reference to the following types: Af, Am, Bsh, Csa and Dfc. Atmospheric pollution global warming.

4 Hydrosphere:-

Configuration of ocean floor, ocean deposits. Composition, temperature and salinity of ocean water, movements of the ocean water, waves, currents and tides.

5 Biosphere:-

Origin and evolution of life on Earth (with reference to Geological time scale). Formation and types of soils. Eco-Systems and world major Biomes.

6. Study of Maps

Topographical Maps, Aerial Photographs and introduction to Remote Sensing, Weather maps of Pakistan. Map projection general principles, classification of network by simple graphic methods of the following projections. Cylindrical, Simple, Equal Area and MerCator’s (with table) Conical with one and two standard parallel’s and Bonne’s projections.Zenithal, Gnomonic Stereographic and orthographic (Polar Cases).

7. Scales: types and their use:-

8. Methods of representation of relief:-


Drawing of composite contour maps with the help of given data and information preparation of distribution maps with the help of symbols line-bar-shade dot and circle. Simple quantitative techniques and their use in geography. Study of frequency
distribution average’s (mean median and mode), Mean deviation, standard deviation and correlation. Index numbers and time series.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Strahler, A.N. (2004) “Modern Physical Geography” New York: John Wiley.
2. Gabbler, R.E, Sager, R.J and Wise, D.L (1997) “Essentials of Physical Geography” Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, New York.
3. Scott, R.C. (1996) “ Introduction to physical geography” West Publishing Co., New York.
4. Miller, G.T. (1996) “Living in the Environment, Principles, Connections and solutions”, Ninth Edition, Wadsworth.
5. Thurman, H.V. & Mexrill (1996) “ Essentials of Oceanography” Manson, London.
6. Diwan A.P. & D.K. Arora (1995) “ Origin of the Ocean” Anmol Publisher, Delhi.
7. Mcuveen (1992) “Fundamentals of Weather and Climate” Prentice Hall New Hrsey.
8. Kendrew (1961): “Climate of the continents” Longman, London. New York.
9. Thorn-bury, W.D. (1969) “Principles of Geomorphology” John Willy & Sons, New York.
10.Christopherson, R.W. (2000) “Geo-Systems” USA, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
11. Monkhouse, F.J. (1996) “Principles of Physical Geography” London Hodder & Stoughton.
12. De Blij, H.J. and Muller, P.O. (1996) “Principles of Physical Geography of the Global Environment” USA, John Wiley and Sons Inc.
13.Taylor, J. (1993) “ Integral Physical Geography” London Longman.
14.Small, R.J. (1989) “Geomorphology and Hydrology” London, Longman.
15.Thompson, R.D. et. Al (1986) “Process in Physical Geography” London, Longman.
16.Miller, E.W. (1985) “ Physical Geography” Columbus, Charles E. Merrill.
17.King, CAM (1980) “Physical Geography” Oxford, Basil Blackwell.
18.Srahlar, A.N. , Strahlar, A.H. (2004) “Physical Environment New York” John Wiley.
19. Christopherson, R.W. (2000) “Geo-Systems” USA, Prentice –Hall, Inc.
20.Well & Well and N. (1998) “Atmosphere and Oceans” London, Longman.
21.Taylor, J. (1993) “Integral Physical Geography” London, Longman.
22.Mcliveen, J.F.R. (1991) “Fundamentals of Weather and Climate London” Chapman & Hall.
23.Thompson, R.D. et. Al (1986) “Process in Physical Geography” London, Longman.
24.Miller, E.W. (1985) “Physical Geography” Columbus, Charles E. Merrill.
25.King CAM (1980) “ Physical Geography” Oxford, Basil Blackwell.

*********************************************



HUMAN, ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

PAPER-II

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY


Total Marks: 100

Course Outline:-


Man and his habitat: Concepts of Environmentalism and Possibilism, population growth, dynamics, (fertility, mortality, & migration), world society and culture, races, languages and religions, natural resources. World population, distribution, density and growth. Population structure, population change (Natural increase & migration) Migration factors (pull and push) types of migration Settlements: types of settlement, urbanization, rural urban characteristics urban hierarchy, Urban function and problems of urban places the Central Place theory.

BOOKS:

1. Rowntree, L. et. Al(2004) “Globalization and Diversity: Geography of a Changing World” New York; Prentice Hall.
2. Neuwirth, R. (2004) “Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World”, London Routledge.
3. Harper, H.L. (2003) “Environment and Society: Human Perspectives on Environmental Issues” (3rd Edition) New York; Prentice Hall.
4. Knox, P.L. & S.A. Marston (2003) “Places and Regions in Global Context: Human Geography” (3rd Edition) New York; Prentice Hall.
5. Becker, A.& Secker (2002) “ Human Geography: Culture, Society and Space” (7th Edition) New York; John Wiley and Sons.
6. DeBlij, H.J. (2002) “ Human Geography: Culture, Society, and Space” (7th Edition) New York; John Wiley and Sons.
7. Lewis, C.P. Mitchell-Fox & C. Dyer (2001) “ Village, Hamlet and Field: Changing Medieval Settlements in Central England” London; Windgather Press.
8. Hagget, P. (1997) “Geography: A Modern Synthesis” London. Harper International.


ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

Course Outline:-

Introduction: Definition, scope, approaches to study and relationship with other disciplines.

Economic activities: Classification and general distribution.

Production and consumption: producer and consumer, decision making, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary.

Historical Evolution of World Economics Systems: Medieval feudal economics, industrial revolution, economic benefits from colonialism. Modern world system.

Various types of agriculture and their distribution, subsistence, primitive, gathering, hunting, herding, cultivation, intensive farming, gathering commercial grain farming, fishing, dairying, mixed farming and plantation farming.

Agriculture conditions of agriculture, the physical constraints on agriculture.

Land factor in agriculture, world agricultural system, problems and policies in agriculture.

The role of selected commodities e.g., wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, etc.

Forest resources: world distribution, environmental and economic.

Mineral resources, distribution of important minerals, metalliferous minerals, the non-metalliferous minerals, economic factors in mining.

Power resources, form of power, solid fuels, oil & natural gas, non-exhaustible sources of energy.

Manufacturing: light and heavy industries, locational factors and locational theories, locational analysis of selected industries, iron and steel, textile (cotton, jute, woolen, synthetic) petro-chemical, world industrial regions.

Trade and service function, tertiary activities, distribution of services service industries.

Transport and trade: significance and characteristics of transport system, network, modes of transport, specialization and international trade.

Multilateral and bilateral trade, free trade areas and common markets, balance of trade, factors of trade, world pattern of trade.

BOOKS:-

1. Alexander, J.W., (1963) “Economic Geography” Prentice Hall New Jersey.
2. Alexanderson, G. (1947) “Geography of Manufacturing” Englewood Cliffs.
3. Alnwick, H. (1981) “Geography of Commodities” Harrp London.
4. Boesch, H. (1964) “A Geography of World Economy” Princeton: D. Van Nostrand.
5. Carlson A. S, (1956) “Economic Geography of Industrial Materials” Reinhold publishing Corporation New York.
6. Fryer, D.W. (1965) “World Economic Development” McGraw Hill New York.
7. Harthorn, T.A. and Alexander, J.W.(1988) “Economic Geography” Today. New Delhi. TTDD.
8. Hartshorne T.A. & Alexander J.W. (1988) “Economic Geography” Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New York.
9. Highsmith R.M. (1963) “Geography of Commodity Production” Philadelphia, Lippincott.
10.Hodder, B.W. & Dogar Lee (1974) “Economic Geography” Methuen London.
11. Jones. C.F. & Darken, (1965) “Economic Geography” Macmillan New York.
12.Khan F.K. (1997) “An introduction to Economic Geography” Sir, Syed Academy, Karachi.
13.London, C.E. (1939) “ Industrial Geography” John Murray (publishers) Ltd.
14. Norman P. (1981) “Success in Economic Geography” John Murray (publishers) Ltd.
15.Thoman, Conklin & Yeats (1988) “The Geography of Economic Activity” McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, Inc.
16.Miller E.W. (1962) “A Geography of Manufacturing” Prentice Hall International Inc. London. 28.
17.U.N.O. Statistical Year Books. Latest Editions.29.
18. Luckas. M.R. (1991) “Economic Activity’ Longman group UK Limited. Williams. T.R. (1991)
19.Economic Geography: Longman group, New York stamp, L.D. & S Carter 31.
20.Gilmour (1960) “A Handbook of Commercial Geography” Longman London.32.
21.Howard G. Roepke (1967) “Readings in Economic Geography” John Eiley and Sons, New York. 33.
22.Rogen W.E. & N.A. Bengtson (1964) “Fundamentals of Economic Geography” Prentice Hall. 34.
23.Tomes, R.S. & R.J. Hagget (1980) “Models in Geography” Harper and Row Publishers London.


REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

Course Outline:

Scope, Status and the significance of the regional approach and concept in Geography SAARC Countries with special reference to Pakistan, Environmental setting: physical and climatic. Natural and cultural resources: Vegetation and agriculture, population, hydrology and irrigation, mineral and power resumes, industries (major industries e.g. Iron & Steel textile, cement, chemical, sugar) trade and communication.

BOOKS:-

1. Deblij, H.J.D. & Muller, Peter O-2003 “ Geography: Realms, Regions and Concepts” John Wiley and Sons.
2. Knox, P.I. & SA, Marston-2003 “Places and Regional in Global Context: Human Geography” Prentice and Hall.
3. Debliji, H.J.D2005 “Concepts and Regions in Geography” John Wiley.
4. James, Preston, E, 1974 “One World Divided” John Wiley and Sons.
5. James and Jones, 1965 “American Geography” Inventory and Prospects Association of American Geographers USA.
6. Davidson, A.P. Munir Ahmad (2003) “Privatization and Crisis of Agricultural Extension: The Case of Pakistan (King’s Soas Studies in Development Geography)”. Ashgate Publishing.
7. Abdul Hameed (1972) “Historical and Descriptive geography of Water development in West Pakistan: A case study of the Middle Indus Basin” San Francisco State College.
8. Jonson B.L.C. (1969) “South Asia: Selective Studies of the essential geography of India” Pakistan and Ceylon. Heinemann Educational.
9. Ahmad, K.S. (1964) “Geography of Pakistan” Oxford University Press.
10. Tayyeb, A. (1996) “A Political Geography of Pakistan” Oxford University Press.
11. Spate, O.H.K., (1984) “India and Pakistan” Munshiram Moharlal Publications Pvt. Ltd.
12. Khan F.K. (1991) “Geography of Pakistan” Oxford University Press, Karachi.
13. Burkey, J.S.(1991) “Pakistan the continuing search for nationhood” Western Press, Oxford, UK.
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POLITICAL SCIENCE

PAPER: I POLITICAL SCIENCE: BASIC PRINCIPLES

(Marks: 100)

PART: A Political Theory

This part of the course relates to the traits of political thought as presented historically by the Western and Muslim philosophers.

1. Western Political Thought: Plato; Aristotle; Machiavelli; Hobbes; Locke; Rousseau; Marxism; Leninism; Maoism

2. Muslim Political Thought: AI-Farabi; AI-Mawardi; AI-Ghazali; Tusi; Ibn-e-Khaldoon; Allama Iqbal

PART: B State and Individual

The Institution of State and its attributes for human welfare have been highlighted here.

3. Welfare State Perceptions: Western and Islamic

4. Basic Concepts: Sovereignty; Constitutionalism; Power Distribution; Law; Liberty; Equality; Rights and Duties

5. Modes of Participation: Demands; Decisions; Public Opinion;Political Parties; Pressure Groups; Representation

6. Institutions and Leadership:
i) Legislature; Executive; Judiciary
ii) Competing Elites: Political; Military; Bureaucratic

7. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Democracy; Dictatorship; Unitary; Federation; Confederation; Parliamentary; Presidential; Authoritarian

*****************************************


PAPER - II


COMPARATIVE POLITICS

Total Marks: 100

Taking contemporary state as a dynamic phenomenon, having its own system structures and assigned functions, a comparative analysis of some outstanding developed and developing state systems is made here. The emphasis is equally on Pakistan as an emerging political system of the world.

PART: A Political Systems

8. Concept of Political System:

i) Easton on Behaviorism
ii) Almond on Functionalism

9. Developed Political Systems:

Main constitutional features of USA, UK, France and former USSR

10. Developing Political Systems:

Main constitutional features of Turkey, India and China.


PART: B Pakistan

11. Pakistan as a Nation-State: Rise of Muslim Nationalism in South Asia under the dynamic leaderships of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

12. Political System of Pakistan: Comparative and critical analysis of the Constitutions of 1956, 1962 and 1973 (with amendments)


RECOMMENED BOOKS

Paper: I POLITICAL SCIENCE: BASIC PRINCIPLES

Part: A Political Theory

1. M.M. Sharif, History of Muslim Philosophy
2. Rosenthal, Political Thought in Medieval Islam
3. Haroon Khan Sherwani, Muslim Political Thought and Administration
4. George H. Sabine, History of Political Thought
5. Judd Harmon, Political Thought: From Plato to Present

Part: B Individual and State

6. Rodee and Anderson, Introduction to Political Science
7. Mazharul Haq, Theory and Practice in Political Science
8. Rosenthal, Modern Islamic State
9. Samuel Beer and Adam Ullam, Patterns of Government
10. V.O. Key, Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups
11. Earnest Barker, Reflections on Government

Paper: II COMPARATIVE POLITICS

Part: A Political Systems: Developed and Developing

12. Almond and Powell, Comparative Politics
13. Almond and Coleman, Politics of Developing Areas
14. Roy C. Macridis, Comparative Politics
15. Macridis and Wards, Modern Political Systems (Asia)
16. J. M. Coleman, Political Institutions in Europe
17. P. G. Cocker, Contemporary British Politics and Govt.
18. Thomas Patterson, The American Democracy

Part: B Pakistan

19. Keith Callard, Pakistan: A Political Study
20. Khalid Bin Sayeed, Pakistan: The Formative Phase
21. Khalid Bin Sayeed, Politics in Pakistan
22. Lawrence Ziring, Pakistan in the Twentieth Century
23. G. W. Chaudhry, Constitutional Development in Pakistan
24. Pakistan Historical Society, History of Pakistan
25. Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Speeches and Writings of M.A. Jinnah
26. M. Saeed Sheikh, Allama Iqbal: The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
27. Mushtaq Ahmad, Government and Politics in Pakistan
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Total Marks: 100

History: Various Concepts of perceiving History.
Modern: Connotation of the terminology.
World: How the idea of world is perceived. Implications of world history.

1. TOWARDS GLOBALIZATION

Old Regimes and Archaic Globalization: Peasants and Lords, Dynamics of New Politics, Archaic and Early Modern Globalization.

2. TRANSFORMATION FROM OLD REGIMES TO MODERNITY

The Last Great Domestication and Industrious Revolutions, New Patterns of Afro-Asian Material Culture, Production and Trade, Trade Finance and Innovation: European Competitive advantages, the development of Asian and African Publics.

3. CONVERGING REVOLUTIONS
Anatomy of the World Crisis (1720-1820), Sapping the legitimacy of the State: From France to China Ideological origin of the modern left and the modern state, Nationalities VS States and Empires. The Third Revolution: Polite and Commercial Peoples Worldwide.

4. MODERN WORLD IN GENESIS

World revolutions (1815-1865), Emigration, New World Order: 1815-1865, Wars of Legitimacy in Asia, Economic and Ideological Roots of Asian Revolutions, Hunger and Rebellion in Europe (1848-1851), American Civil War as a Global Event.

5. INDUSTRIALIZAION AND THE NEW CITY HISTORIANS

Industrialization, and Cities The Progress of Industrialization Poverty and the Absence of Industry, Cites as Centers of Production, Consumption, and Politics The Urban Impact of the Global Crisis, 1780-1820. Race and Class in the New Cities,
Working-Class Politics, Worldwide Urban Cultures and their Critics.

6. NATION, EMPIRE, AND ETHNICITY, C. 1860-1900

Theories of Nationalism, When was Nationalism Born? Perpetuating Nationalisms: Memories, National Associations, and Print, From Community to Nation: The Eurasian Empires Where we Stand with Nationalism, Peoples without States: Persecution or Assimilation? Imperialism and its History: The Late Nineteenth Century Dimensions of the “New Imperialism”. A World of Nation-States? The Persistence of Archaic Globalization From Globalization to Internationalism in Practice.

7. MYTHS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF THE MODERN STATE DIMENSIONS OF THE MODERN STATE

The State and the Historians, Problems of Defining the State, The Modern State Takes Root: Geographical Dimensions Claims to Justice and Symbols of Power, The State’s Resources, The State’s Obligations to Society Tools of the State, State, Economy, and Nation.

8. THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF LIBERALISM, RATIONALISM, SOCIALISM, AND SCIENCE

Contextualizing Intellectual History, The Corruption of the Righteous Republic: A Classic Theme. Righteous Republics Worldwide, The Advent of Liberalism and the Market: Western Exceptionalism? Liberalism and Land Reform: Radical Theory and Conservative Practice, Free Trade or National Political Economy? Representing the Peoples Secularism and Positivism: Transnational Affinites The Reception of Socialism and its Local Resonances. Science in Global Context. Professionalization at World
Level.

9. SOCIAL AND INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENTS

Revolutionary Ideas, Philosophical and social trends.

10. Clash of Civilizations

11. Neo-Conservation


RECOMMENDED TEXTS AND LITERATURE REVIEWS

1. Dorinda Outram, The Body and the French Revolution
2. Frenc Feher, French revolution and the Birth of Modernity
3. H Kissinger, Diplomacy
4. J M Thompson, Napoleon Bonaparte: His Rise and Fall
5. E J Hobsbawn, The Age of revolution, 1789-1848
6. E J Hobsbawn, Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality
7. P Pilbeam, The 1830 Revolution in France
8. Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers
9. Owen Chadwick, The Secularization of European Mind in the Nineteenth Century (1976)
10. Peter Burke, Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe (1978)
11. Marc Bloch, Feudal Society
12. M W Beresford, New Towns of the Middle Ages (1988)
13. Rosalind B and Christopher Brooke, Popular Religion in the Middle Ages (1984)
14. Carlo Ginzburg, The Cheese and The Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller (1982)
15. Lauro Martines, Power and Imagination; City-States in Renaissance Italy (1988)
16. Karl Marx, Das Capital
17. Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science, 1300-1800 (1965)
18. A R Hall, The Revolution in Science, 1500-1750: The Formation of the Modern Scientific Attitude (1983)
19. Londa Schiebinger, The Mind Has no Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science (1990)
20. Barbara Taylor, Eve and the New Jerusalem: Socialism and Feminism in the Nineteenth Century (1983)
21. Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization
22. Asa Briggs, Victorian People (1954)
23. Gertrude Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution (1968)
24. Raymond Betts, The False Dawn: European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century (1975)
25. Timothy Mitchell, Colonizing Egypt (1988)
26. Edward Said, Orientalism (1979)
27. WD Smith, European Imperialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.

****************************************


HISTORY OF SOUTH ASIA
From Pre-historic to 18th Century AD


Total Marks: 100

Part – I

1. Approaches to Ancient & Medieval India
2. Indus Valley Civilization
3 The Vedas & The Vedic Age
4. Foreign Invasions and Dynasties: The Aryans, Conquests of Alexander, The Mauryans, 321-185 BC, The Age of the Guptas and After, Indo-European interaction
5. Buddhism
6. Ashoka, Kanishka and the Gandhara Art
7. Emergence and Development of Caste System
8. Economy (Trade, Commerce, Industry)
9. LAW AND ADMINISTRATION: Code of law, values and tradition. Sharia, Akhlaq as law system of governance.
10. Sources of the Mughal Rule in India
11. BHAKTI MOVEMENT: Salient features of Bhakti movement, main proponents/saints, Bhatkti literature and revolt against religious orthodoxy and central government/power.
12. DEVELOPMENT OF ARTS AND SCIENCES IN THE SUBCONTINENT: Sanskrit, Persian, Urdu, and Prakrit (local languages) literature with particular reference to humanist, political, regional and religious aspects. Relationship of power and language in medieval India.
13. Development of the Fine Arts under the Mughals.


HISTORY OF SOUTH ASIA
(From 18-21 Centuries)

Part-II

1. Concepts of Colonialism & Imperialism
2. Extracting land Revenue, Empire and Colonial Economy.
3. 1857 War of Independence or Mutiny, Social and Religious Reforms.
4. British Social life in India, Changing British attitudes to Indian religion and society, Architecture of the Raj. Dynamics of Anglo-Indian Society.
5. Sir Syed's efforts for re-interpreting religion and modernizing the Muslim Society and resistance of Ulema. Use of modem technologies by various religious revivalist/orthodox movements (e.g., Deobandi Movement) and displacement of Sufi tradition.
6. Colonial project of assigning identities and Emergence of Nationalism in India: Dividing India in religious, communal/sectarian, regional, gender and racial/tribal lines.
7. Legacies of British Raj. Military and Bureaucracy, Political and Constitutional Development (1947-2006), Dynamics of Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism in Pakistan with reference to M Ayub Khan, M Yahya, Ziaul Haq, and Pervaiz Musharrafs regimes.
8. Nature of democracy in Pakistan: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Liaquat Ali Khan, ZA Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto, Nawaz Sharif, Shaukat Aziz.
9. Religion and Polity contraction in the Society/State building in Pakistan.
10. Problems of federal politics, Ethnic and sub-national ideologies, use of language as culture and ideology.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

1. Aziz Ahmad, An Intellectual History of Islam in India
2. ----------------, Studies n Islamic Culture in the Indian Environment
3. SM Ikram, Muslim Rule in India
4. Daniel W Browne, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought
5. Muzaffar Alam, The Languages of Political Islam in India (c. 1200-1800)
6. Jamal Malik and Helmut Reifeld (ed), Religious Pluralism in South Asia and Europe
7. Richard M Eaton, Essays on Islam and Indian History (Delhi: OUP, 2001)
8. Richard M Eaton (ed), India's Islamic Traditions (Delhi: OUP, 2003)
9. Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam (Chicago, University of Chicago Press,1988)
10. SAA Rizvi, A History of Sufism in India, 02 Volts (Delhi, 1978)
11. Francis Robinson, Islam and Muslim History in South Asia (Delhi, 2000)
12. Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1975)
13. Eugenia Vanina, Ideas and Society in India
14. Romila Thaper, Early History of India
15. Irfan Habeeb, Agrarian System of Mughal India
16. Sekhar Bandyopadhyay, From Plessey to Partition
17. Chaudheri Mohammad Ali, The Emergence of Pakistan
18. Khalid bin Saeed, Pakistan: The Formative Phase
19. Mushtaq Ahmed, Government and Politics in Pakistan
20. Pandev Nayak, Pakistan Society and Politics
21. Ayesha Jalal, Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: A Comparative and Historical Perspective
22. Ayesha Jalal, The State of Martial Rule: the Origins of Pakistan's Political Economy of Defence
23. Ayesha Jalal, Self and Sovereignty
24. Farhat Mahmud, Pak-US Relations
25. Stephen Cohen, The Pakistan Army
26. Ralph Braibanti, Research on the Bureaucracy of Pakistan: A Critique of Sources, Conditions, and Issues
27. Omar Noman, The Political Economy of Pakistan, 1947-1985
28. Lawrence Ziring, Pakistan in the 20th Century
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LAW
PART- I


Total Marks: 100

50-Marks
i) Civil Procedure Code 1908.
ii) Limitation Act 1908, Registration Act, 1908

50-Marks
iii) Qanoon-e-Shahadat Order 1984


PART- II

Total Marks: 100

i) Pakistan Penal Code 1860 - 40 Marks
ii) Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 - 40 Marks
iii) West Pakistan Land Revenue Act, 1967. - 20 Marks

1. RECOMMENDED BOOK OF CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE

i) The Code of Civil Procedure (Aamer Raza)
ii) Code of Civil Procedure (PLD Publishers) (Bare Act)

2. RECOMMENDED BOOK OF LIMITATION ACT

i) The Limitation Act by Shaukat Mahmood

3. RECOMMENDED BOOK OF OANOON-E-SHAHADAT ORDER 1984

i) Qanoon-e-Shahadat Order 1984 (PLD Publishers)

4. RECOMMENDED BOOK OF PAKISTAN PENAL CODE

i) Pakistan Penal Code by Shaukat Mahmood

5. RECOMMENDED BOOK OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE

i) Criminal Procedure Code by M. Mahmood
ii) Bare Act of Criminal Procedure Code

6. RECOMMENDED BOOK OF LAND REVENUE ACT

i) Land Revenue Act by M. Mahmood or Land Revenue Act by M. Mokal
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Media: Functions, Contents and History

Total Marks: 100

1. News: Definition, Structure, Language, Reporting and Sub-Editing
2. Feature, Column and Editorial: Difference of objectives, structure, style and content.
3. Organizational Structures of national newspapers and news agencies
4. Ethics of Journalism and Freedom of the Press
5. Press Laws in Pakistan and Government Media Relationship
6. Role of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Muhammad Ali Johar, Hasrat Mohani and Hameed Nizami in Urdu Press of the Sub-Continent
7. Role of Radio, Television, print media and internet in Pakistan
8. Social and Developmental Responsibilities of Pakistani Media
9. Importance of Radio TV Documentary and Live Programmes
10. Difference between the news of print media and electronic media


Paper-II

Communication, Advertising and Public Relations


Total Marks: 100


I. Process of Communication: source-message-channel- Receiver-Noise and Redundancy
2. Barriers to Communication
3. Principles of Effective Communication
4. Development Communication and Development Journalism
5. Difference between Mass Communication, Development Communication, Development Journalism and Development Support Communication
6. Two step flow of communication and Opinion Leaders
7. Public Relations: Definition and Scope- Tools of Public Relations- Public Relations in Pakistan- Difference between PR, Propaganda. Advertising and Publicity.
8. Advertising: Definition-Merits and Demerits- Advertising business in Pakistan-Departments of an Advertising Agency.
9. Importance of research in Advertising and Public Relations
10. Advertising as the lifeblood of media

Recommended Books
  1. Hijazi and Naqqash: Mass Communication Theory and Practice, Lahore, 2005
  2. Lorenz: News Reporting and Writing. New York. 2005
  3. Vilanilam: Advertising Basics: London,. 2004
  4. Treadwell: Public Relations Writing. New York. 2005
  5. Teeble ed.: Print Journalism. New York. 2005
  6. Schwartz: Associated Press Reporting Handbook. New York. 2002
  7. Hijazi and Iftikhar: Mass Communication: Skills, uses and Issues: Lahore.2006
  8. Shafiq: Journalism and Communication Lahore. 2006
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PHILOSOPHY

Paper – I


Total Marks: 100

Western Philosophy

1. Introduction: Nature and Value of Philosophy

2. Greek Philosophers:
a) Plato: Metaphysics, Theory of Knowledge, Theory of State
b) Aristotle: Metaphysics, Theory of Knowledge and Logic

3. Modern Philosophers:
a) Descartes: Doubt as a key to certainty, Dualism
b) Spinoza: Doctorine of substance, Ethics
c) Locke: Representative Realism
d) Berkeley: Subjective Idealism
e) Hume: Skepticism
f) Kant: Transcendental Idealism
g) Hegel: Dialectical Method, Absolute Idealism
h) Nietzsche: Superman, Will to Power

4. Contemporary Philosophical Movements:
a) Existentialism: Jean Paul Sartre
b) Logical Positivism: Criterion of Verifiability, Refutation of Metaphysics
c) Neo-Pragmatism: Richard Rorty: Objectivity, Relativism and Truth

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
  1. Brooke Noel Moore & Kenneth Bruder [2002] Philosophy: The Power of Ideas, 5th Edition, McGraw Hill, London.
  2. Bertrand Russell [2003] History of Western Philosophy, Routledge, London & New York.
  3. Roger Scruton [2002] A Short History of Modern Philosophy, Routledge.
  4. Frederick Copleston [1993] History of Philosophy, Reprint edition, Image.
  5. Frank Thilly [1993] A History of Philosophy, Sabharwal Book Whole.
  6. Jean-Paul Sartre [1977] Existentialism & Humanism, M.S.G. House
  7. A.J. Ayer [1978] Logical Positivism, Greenwood Press


Paper – II

Total Marks: 100

Muslim Philosophy

1. Genesis and Development of Theological and Philosophical Thought in Islam

2. Muslim Theology
:
a) Mutazilites: Five Principles, Naturalistic Ethics
b) Asharites: Divine Attibutes, Createdness / Uncreatedness of the Quran, Human Freedom

3. Sufisim:
a) Origin of Sufisim and its Characteristics
b) Metaphysics: Wahdat al Wajud and Wahdat al Shuhud

4. Muslim Philosophers:
a) Ibn Sina: Concept of Being, Doctrine of Emanation, Psychology
b) Al Ghazali: Method, Refutation of Philosophers
c) Ibn Rushd: Reconciliation between Philosophy and Religion, Theory of Knowledge
d) Ibn Khaldun: Concept of History, Refutation of Metaphysics

5. Modern Reconstructionists of Islamic Thought:
a) Shah Waliullah: Metaphysics, Social Philosophy
b) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan: God, Man and Universe, Concept of Religion and Ethics
c) Allama Muhammad Iqbal: Epistemology, Doctrine of Ego, Concept of Ijtehad

6. Contemporary Debates:
a) Religious Modernism
b) Religious Fundamentalism
c) Islamization of Knowledge


RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
  1. Seyyed Hossein Nasr & Oliver Leaman [1996] History of Islamic Philosophy, Vol. I & II, Routledge, London & New York.
  2. Majid Fakhari [2004] A History of Islamic Philosophy, 3rd Edition, Columbia University Press, New York.
  3. M. M. Sharif [1996] A History of Muslim Philosophy Vol. I & II, Royal Book Company, Karachi.
  4. Abdul Khaliq [2000] Problems of Muslim Theology, Victory Book Bank, Lahore.
  5. Abdul Khaliq [1966] Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: On Nature, Man and God, Bazm-e-Iqbal, Lahore.
  6. J. M. S. Baldjon [1986] Religion and Thought of Shah Waliullah Dihlawi, Leidan: E.J. Brill.
  7. Mansoor Moaddel & Kamran Talattof [2002] Modernist and Fundamentalistd Debates in Islam, Palgrave Macmillan.
  8. Ismail Raji – al Faruqi [1988] Islamization of Knowledge: Problems, Principles and Prospective, International Institute of Islamic Thought, Herndon, Virginia, U.S.A.
  9. Mustansir Mir [2006] Iqbal, Iqbal Academy, Pakistan.
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PSYCHOLOGY

PAPER- I

Total Marks : 100

I. Introduction to Psychology
  • Definition, Evolution and Scope of Psychology
  • Schools of Psychology: Behaviorism, Psychoanalysis, Humanistic/Existential,
  • Cognitive and Biological School Recent
  • Trends and Specialties in Psychology

II. Sensation and Perception
  • Sensory Processes
  • Theories of Vision and Hearing
  • Theories of Taste Smell and Position
  • Senses of Touch Position and Balance
  • Nature of Perceptual Organization
  • Perception of Distance, Movement, Space, Depth, Color
  • Perceptual Constancy
  • Perception and Optical Illusions
  • Extrasensory Perception
  • Perceptual Development

III. Learning, Memory and Intelligence

  • Learning
  1. Different Types of Learning:
  2. Classical Conditioning
  3. Operant Conditioning
  4. Observational Learning
  • Memory
  1. Short Term and Long Term memory
  2. Information Processing Theory
  3. Encoding, Storage and Retrieval
  4. Forgetting
  • Intelligence
  1. Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation and Giftedness
  2. Theories of Intelligence
  3. Intelligence and Psychological Testing

IV. Biological Foundations of Behavior
  • Components of Nervous System
  • Structure and Functions of the Brain
  • Brain and Behavior
  • Endocrine System
  • Genetic Influences on Behavior
  • Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity

V. Child Development
  • Introduction to Child Development
  • Historical and Modern Views
  • Domains of Development
  • Theories of Child Development
  • Biological Development
  • Cognitive Development
  • Psychological Development

VI. Motivation
  • Nature of Motives
  • Needs, Drives and Motivations
  • Concept of Homeostasis
  • Types of Motivation
  • Theories of Motivation
  • Role of Culture in Motives

VII. Emotions
  • Nature and Types of Emotions
  • Theories of Emotions
  • Biological and Psychological Changes in Emotions
  • Role of Endocrine Glands
  • Situational Influences and Cultural Practices
  • Frustration and Conflict

SUGGESTED READINGS
  1. Psychology; Themes and Variations 5th Ed.,Wayne Weiten
  2. Psychology 5th Ed., Benjamin b. Lahey
  3. Psychology & Life 17th Ed., Richard J. Gerrig,& Philip G. Zimbardo
  4. Introduction to Psychology 6th Ed., john W. Santrock
  5. Psychology & Life 7th Ed., Floyd l. Ruch
  6. Life-span Development 9th Ed., John W. Santrock
  7. Understanding Psychology 6th Ed., R. S. Feldman
  8. Psychology 6th Ed., David G. Myers
  9. Abnormal Psychology 4th Ed., Barlow & Durand
  10. Social Psychology 7th Ed., David G. Myers
  11. Principles of Human Neuropsychology, G. Dennis Rains
  12. An introduction to the History of psychology, Hergenhahn

PAPER-II
Total Marks: 100

I. Health, Stress and Coping
  • Health Impairing Behaviors: Smoking, Alcoholism, Poor Nutritional Habits, Lack of Exercise, Behavioral Aids.
  • Stress and its Impact on Health
  • Major Types of Stress
  • Physiological & Psychological Reactions to Stress

II. Personality Theories and Assessment
  • Definition of Personality
  • Theories of Personality Development
  • Psychoanalytical Theory
  • Social Learning Theory
  • Humanistic Theory
  • Traits Theory and Situations
  • Human Diversity
  • Personality Assessment

III. Psychological Disorders and their treatment
  • Abnormal Behavior; Myths, Realities and Controversies
  • Criteria of Abnormal Behavior
  • The Classification of Disorders
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
  • Anxiety Disorders, Mood Disorders and Personality Disorders
  • Treatment and Intervention
  • Stages of Psychotherapy
  • Goals of Psychotherapy
  • Family & Group Therapies

IV. Social Processes, Society and Culture
  • Social Roles and Rules
  • Social Norms and Conformity
  • The Process of Socialization and Attitude Development
  • Situational Effects on Social Behavior
  • Social Cognition and Relationships

V. Behavior and Group Dynamics
  • Leaders, Groups and Decision Making
  • Aggression, Altruism and Pro-social Behavior
  • Situational Influences and Cultural Constraints
  • Prejudice and Stereotypes
  • The Psychology of Conflict and Peace

VI. Research Methods in Psychology
  • Scientific Research in Psychology
  • Types of Research:
  • Experimental Studies: Placebo Effect and Use of Placebos in Experiments
  • Correlational Studies
  • Descriptive Studies
  • Case Studies
  • Surveys

VII. Ethical issues in Psychology
  • Confidentiality
  • Informed Consent
  • Relationships with Vulnerable Individuals
  • A General Concern for Ethical Practice

SUGGESTED READINGS
  1. Clinical Psychology, E.G. Plante
  2. Introducing Psychology 4th Ed., Rex Knight
  3. Psychology & Life 17th Ed., Richard J. Gerrig,& Philip G. Zimbardo
  4. Introduction to Psychology 6th Ed., john W. Santrock
  5. Psychology & Life 7th Ed., Floyd l. Ruch
  6. Psychology; Themes and Variations 5th Ed.,Wayne Weiten
  7. Understanding Psychology 6th Ed., R. S. Feldman
  8. Psychology 6th Ed., David G. Myers
  9. Abnormal Psychology 4th Ed., Barlow & Durand
  10. Social Psychology 7th Ed., David G. Myers
  11. Advanced Social Psychology, Abraham Tesser
  12. Health psychology 4th Ed., Shelly Tylor
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SOCIOLOGY

PAPER – I


PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY

Total Marks: 100

1. INTRODUCTION

i. Definition of Sociology
ii. Culture and Society
iii. Socialization, Norms, Values, Status and Roles
iv. Sociological Perspectives
a. Structuralism
b. Interpretive theories
c. Modernism And Postmodernism

2. FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS

i. Sociological perspectives on the family
  • The functionalist perspective
  • The traditional Marxist perspective
  • Marxist feminist and radical feminist perspective on the family
ii. Family ideology
iii. Politics, Social Policy and the family
iv. Is the family a declining social institution?

3. SEX AND GENDER
i. Sex: A Biological Distinction
ii. Gender: A Cultural Distinction
  • Gender in global perspective
  • Patriarchy and sexism
iii. Gender Socialization
  • Gender and the family
  • Gender and the peer group
  • Gender and schooling
  • Gender and the mass media
iv. Gender Stratification
  • Working men and women
  • Housework: women’s “second shift”
  • Gender, income and wealth
  • Gender and education
  • Gender and politics
  • Gender and the Military
  • Are women a minority?
  • Minority women
  • Violence against women
v. Theoretical analysis of gender
  • Structural-Functional Analysis
  • Social-conflict analysis
vi. Feminism
  • Basic feminist ideas
  • Variations within feminism
  • Opposition to feminism
4. Health

i. What is meant by ‘health’, ‘illness’ and ‘disease’?
ii. Disability
iii. The medical and social models of health
  • The medical (biomedical) model of health
  • The social model of health
iv. Becoming a health statistic
v. Medicine and social control; the sick role
  • Features of the sick role
vi. The power of the medical profession
  • Protecting the patient
  • Criticisms of the medical professions
  • The erosion of medical power?
vii. Marxist approaches to health and medicine
viii. How society influences health
  • Improvements in health in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
ix. The new ‘disease burden’
  • What are the causes of these new diseases?
x. Inequalities in health
  • Social class inequalities in health
  • Gender differences in health
xi. Inequalities in health
  • Funding
  • Geography
  • Social Class
  • Disability
xii. Mental illness
  • What is mental illness?
  • Care in the community
  • The biomedical approach to mental illness
  • The social construction of mental illness
5. THE MASS MEDIA

1) The power of the media
2) Ownership of the mass media
3) The mass media and ideology
4) Do the owners of the media control their content?
  • The manipulative or instrumentalist approach
  • The dominant ideology or hegemonic approach
  • The pluralist approach
5) Violence and the media
6) What affects the content of the media? Bias in the media
  • The owners
  • Making a profit
  • Organizational constraints
  • Agenda-setting
  • Gate-keeping
  • Norm-setting
7) The presentation and social construction of the news
  • Inaccurate and false reporting
  • News values and ‘newsworthiness’
  • The assumptions and activities of journalists
8) The media, crime and deviance
9) Media Representation and Stereotyping
  • Media representations of age
  • Media representations of social class
  • Media representations of ethnicity
  • Media representations of gender
  • Media representations of disability
10) The mass media and mass culture
  • ‘Mass culture’
  • ‘High culture’
  • A Marxist view of mass culture
  • Criticism of the idea of a ‘mass culture’
6. EDUCATION

1. The Function of Schooling
  • Socialization
  • Culture Innovation
  • Social Integration
  • Social Placement
  • Latent Functions of Schooling
2. Schooling and social Inequality
  • Social control
  • Standardized testing
  • School tracking
  • Inequality among schools
  • Access to higher education
  • Credentialism
  • Privilege and personal merit
7. COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

1. Localized Collectives: Crowds
  • Mobs and riots
  • Crowds, mobs and social change
  • Explaining crowd behavior
2. Dispersed collectives: mass behavior
  • Rumor and gossip
  • Public opinion and propaganda
  • Panic and mass hysteria
  • Fashions and fads
3. Social Movement
  • Types of social movements
  • Explaining social movements
  • Gender and social movements
  • Stages and social movements
  • Social movements and social change
  • Social engineering
8. ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY

1. Ecology: The study of the natural environment
  • The role of sociology
  • The global dimension
  • The historical dimension
  • Population increase
  • Cultural patterns: growth and limits
2. Environmental Issues
  • Solid waste: the disposable society
  • Preserving clean water
  • Cleaning the air
  • Acid rain
  • The rain forests
3. Society and the environment: theoretical analysis
  • Structural-functional analysis
  • Cultural ecology
  • Social-conflict analysis
  • Alternative dispute resolution
  • Environmental racism
9. RELIGION IN MODERN SOCIETY

a. Sociological theories and ideas
  • Sociological study of religion
  • Theories of religion
b. Real world religions
  • Totemism and animism
  • Judasim, Christianity and Islam
  • The religions of the Far East
  • Religious organizations
c. Secularization and religious revival

10.POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

1. Power and Authority
i. Traditional authority
ii. Regional-legal authority
iii. Charismatic authority

2. Politics in global perspective
i. Monarchy
ii. Democracy
iii. Authoritarianism
iv. Totalitarianism
v. A Global political system?

3. Theoretical analysis of power in society
i. The pluralist model: the people rule
ii. The Power-elite model: a few people rule
iii. The Marxist model: bias in the system itself

4. Power beyond the rules
i. Revolution
ii. Terrorism

5. War And Peace
i. The causes of war
ii. The costs and causes of militarism
iii. Nuclear weapons
iv. The pursuit of peace

11.POPULATION AND URBANIZATION

1. Demography: the study of population
i. Fertility
ii. Mortality
iii. Migration
iv. Population growth
v. Population composition

2. History and Theory of Population Growth
i. Malthusian theory
ii. Demographic transition theory
iii. Global population today: a brief survey


PAPER-II
APPLIED SOCIOLOGY
Total Marks: 100

1. SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS

1) Influences on the choice of research method
  • Positivism and research methods
  • Interpretive research methods
  • Other influences on the choice of research methods
2) Key issues in social research
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Ethics
3) Primary and Secondary data
4) Qualitative secondary sources
  • The advantage and uses of qualitative secondary sources
  • The disadvantages and limitations of qualitative secondary sources
  • Content analysis
5) Qualitative secondary sources
  • The advantages and uses of official statistics
  • The problems and limitations of official statistics
6) The experimental (laboratory) methods of research
  • Problems of using the experimental method in sociology
  • Field experiments
7) The Comparative methods
8) Surveys and sampling methods
  • Who uses the survey method?
  • Representativeness and sampling
  • The stages of a survey
  • Problems of the social survey
9) Questionnaires
  • The nature and use of questionnaires
  • Questionnaire design: principle and problems
  • Types of questionnaires
  • The validity of questionnaire research
10) Interviews
  • Structure of formal interviews
  • Unstructured or informal interviews
  • General problems of interviews
  • Concluding remarks on interviews
11) Participant observation
  • The theoretical context of participant observation
  • The stages of participant observation and related problems
  • The strengths and weakness as of participant observation
  • Internal and external consistency in participant observation
12) Non-participant observation
13) Longitudinal studies
14) Case studies and life histories
15) Methodological pluralism and triangulation
16) Doing your own research
  • Hypothesis or aim
  • Context and concepts
  • Main research methods and reasons for their use
  • Potential problems
17) An example of coursework proposal

2. GLOBALIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE

1. Globalization
  • Factors contributing to globalization
  • The globalization debate
  • The impact of globalization
  • Global Interdependence
2. What is Social Change?
  • Globalization: Essential Features
  • Causes and consequences of social change
  • Factors contributing to globalization
  • The globalization debate
  • The impact of globalization

3. Innovations

i. International tourism
  • Changes in the ways people relate to information
  • The cultural base and the rate of change
  • Cultural lag
  • Revolutionary ideas
ii. Conflict
  • The cold war origin of the internet
iii. The pursuit of profit
  • World system theory
  • Responses to economic stagnation
3. GLOBAL INEQUALITY

1. Global economic inequality
  • High-income countries
  • Middle-income countries
  • Low-income countries
  • Is global economic inequality increasing?
2. Life in rich and poor countries
  • Health
  • Hunger, malnutrition and famine
  • Education and Literacy
3. Can poor countries become rich?
  • Theories of development
  • Evaluating theories of development
  • The role of international organizations and global inequality
  • Global economic inequality in a changing world
4. World population growth
  • Population analysis: demography
  • Dynamics of population change
  • Malthusianism
  • The demographic transition
  • Prospects of change

4. CRIME AND DEVIANCE

1. Basic concepts

2. Explaining crime and deviance: sociological theories
  • Functionalist Theories
  • Integrationist theory
  • Conflict theories: ‘the new criminology’
  • Control theories
  • Theoretical conclusions
3. Patterns of crime in Pakistan
  • Crime and crime statistics
4. Victims and perpetrators of crime
  • Gender and crime
  • Youth and crime
  • White-collar crime
  • Organized crime
  • Cyber crime
5. Prisons: is it the answer to crime?

6. Conclusion: deviance and social order


List of Readings
  1. Browne, Ken. (2006). Introducing Sociology for AS Level. 2nd Edition. Polity Press
  2. Cohen, Stephen Philip. (2005). The Idea of Pakistan. Vanguard Books (pvt.) Ltd.
  3. Ferrante, Joan. (2003). Sociology: A Global Perspective. 5th Edition. Thomson Wadswarth, Australia.
  4. Giddens, Anthony. (2006). Sociology. 5th Edition. Polity Press.
  5. Haqqani, Husain. (2005). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Vanguard Books (pvt.) Ltd.
  6. Macionis, John J. Sociology. 7th Edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey
  7. Raza, Rafi. (2001) Pakistan in Perspective: 1947-1997. 1st Edition. Oxford University Press
  8. Talha, Naureen. (2000). Economic Factors in the Making of Pakistan (1921-1947). Oxford University Press
  9. Chakravarti, Ashok. (2005). Aid, Institutions and Development: New Approaches to Growth. Governance and Poverty. Oxford university Press, New Delhi, India.
  10. Webster, Andrew. (1990). Introduction to Sociology of Development. Macmillan Education Ltd.
  11. Craig, Baxter. (2001). Pakistan 2000. Oxford University Press.
  12. Ahmad, Akbar S. (1986). Pakistan Society: Islam, Ethnicity and Leadership in South Asia. Oxford University Press, New York.
  13. Merton, Robert K. (1961). Contemporary Social Problems. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
  14. Neuman, W. Lawrence. (2000). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Allyn and Bacon.
  15. Hamilton, Malcolm. (20000. The Sociology of Religion. 2nd Edition. Routledge, New York
  16. Chaudhry, M. Iqbal. (1980) Pakistan Society: A Sociological Perspective. Aziz Publishers.
  17. Riterz, George. (1992). Sociological Theory. McGraw Hill.
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SOCIAL WORK

Paper-I

Total Marks: 100

1. Introduction To Social Welfare

a) Definition and Scope
b) Historical Perspective of Social Welfare in Pakistan

2. Pakistani Society

a) Definition and description of the term “Society”
b) Characteristics of Pakistani Society
c) Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities

3. Culture

a) Definition and description of the term “Culture” and its importance
b) Characteristics of Pakistani Culture
c) Influence of allied cultures on Pakistani Culture
d) Social norms-definition and stages (i.e. folkways, more and laws)
e) Socialization-definition and description and factors of socialization (i.e. Family, Neighborhood, Peer group, Religious Institute. Educational Institutions, Mass media and Communication.

4. Social Institutions

a) Definition and description of “Social Institutions”
b) Types of Social Institutions: Primary, Secondary
c) Functions of the following:
  • Family Institution - Religious Institution
  • Political Institution - Economic Institution
  • Educational Institution - Recreational Institution
d) Importance of social institutions.

5. Social Change

a) Definition and area of “Social Change”
b) Process and effects of social change on Society
c) Factors which promote and hinder social change

6. Social Problems of Pakistan

a) Major and explanation of social problems
b) General causes of social problems
c) Major social problems of Pakistan (An orientation)
  • Drug addition - Illiteracy
  • Over population - Beggary
  • Juvenile delinquency - Environment
  • Crime - Violence
  • Child labor
  • Child abuse and neglect
  • Bonded labor
  • Poverty
  • Unemployment

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
  1. W.A. Friedlander, Introduction to Social Welfare. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, U.S.A.
  2. A.S. Livingston, Social Work in Pakistan, Lahore, West Pakistan Social welfare Council.
  3. Arthur C. Fink, The field of Social work, new Your, Hold, Rinehart, 6th Ed. 1974.
  4. Skidmore Thackeray, Introduction to Social Work, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1964.
  5. Elizabeth A. Ferguson, Social Work, an Introduction. New York, Lippinco H. 1969.
  6. Ogburn Nimkoff, Hand Book of Sociology, London Rout ledge and Kegan Paim.
  7. Sociology and Social Change, Amanda Coffey, open University Press, Celftic Court 22 Ball moor Buckingham MK 18 IXW.
  8. Paul. B. Horton, The Sociology of Social Problems, New York Prentice Hall.
  9. Prof. Abdul Hameed Taga, 1999, Sociology & Problems, Abdul Hameed & Sons, Publisher, Lahore.
  10. M. Khalid, Social Work methods and Practical, Kifayat Academy Karachi, 1995.

Paper – II

Total Marks: 100

1. Nature and Philosophy of Social Work
  • Definition and philosophical base of social work
  • Objectives of social work practice
  • Basic principles of social work
  • Professional and voluntary social work

2. Islam and Social Work
  • Islamic concept of social welfare and professional social work.
  • Worth and dignity of individual.
  • Rights and responsibilities of individuals in Islamic Society.
  • Social relationship in Islam i.e. Family, Neighborhood, Mosque.

3. Methods of Social Work

PRIMARY METHODS

i. Social Casework
  • Definition and description of social case work
  • Elements/Components of social case work (person, problem, place, professional person and process)
  • Principles of social case work
  • Phases/steps in social case work
  • Fields of application of social case work practice
  • Role of Professional worker in case work practice
ii. Social Group work
  • Definition and description of social group
  • Types of social groups (primary and secondary, formal and informal groups)
  • Stages of group development
  • Definition of social group work and its philosophy
  • Objectives of social group work
  • Components of social group work (group, agency, and group worker)
  • Principles of social group work
  • Fields of application of group work practice
  • Role of professional worker in-group work practice
iii. Community Development
  • Definition and description of community
  • Definition of community organization and development
  • Objectives of Community Development
  • Phases/steps in community development (study of monitoring and evaluation)
  • Principles of community development
  • Role of professional worker in community

SECONDARY METHODS

i) Social Research
  • Definition and description of social research
  • Phases/steps in social research
  • Tools of data collection (questionnaire, interviewing schedule, Interview guide and observation)
ii) Social Action, Policy and Administration
  • Definition and description of social welfare administration
  • Importance of social welfare administration in social work
iii) Social Action
  • Definition and description of social action
  • Importance of social action in social welfare
4. Fields/Area of Social Work
  • School social work
  • Medical social work
  • Community development
  • Child welfare
  • Youth welfare
  • Women welfare
  • Welfare of the Physically disabled
  • Welfare of the mental retarded
  • Welfare of the socially dis-advantaged
  • Welfare of the Juvenile Delinquents and Adult Criminals
5. Role of Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies in Socio-Economic Development
  • Definition and description of social welfare agency
  • Types of social welfare agencies (government, semi-government, voluntary/NGOs)
  • Role of the voluntary social welfare agencies, socio-economic development

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
  1. Friendlander M. Der. Concepts and Methods of social work, Prentice-Hall, N.W. Jersey.
  2. Hamilton, Gordon, Principles of Case, Recording, New York Columbian University Press.
  3. Perelman, Halen, Social Case Work, A Problem solving process, Chicago TheUniversity of the Chicago Press.
  4. Richmond, Mary, E. Social Diagnosis, New York, Russell Foundation
  5. Douglas Tom, Group Work Practice, Cambridge, Tailstock publication, 1976
  6. Arthur Dunham, 1958, Community Welfare Organization Principles & Techniques Practices. Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, p-14
  7. Arthur Dunham, 160. Community Development, p.p. 178-186 in social Work Year Book, Edited by Russell H. Kurtz, New York, national Association of Social Workers.
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