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Old Sunday, October 27, 2013
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Default Curriculum Development process in Pakistan

Introduction


Education plays a vital role in nation building.

Federal Ministry of Education is responsible for the national cohesion, integration and preservation of the ideological foundation of the states.

Responsibilities

Federal Ministry of Education is responsible in making of:

Curriculum
Syllabus
Planning
Policy
Education standards

National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks (NBTC)

Also known as curriculum wing.

Supervise curriculum and textbooks.

Approves and maintain curriculum standards from the primary to the higher secondary levels


Provincial curriculum Centre

Every province has a provincial curriculum centre

To ensure provincial collaboration.

Involve in all activities falling within the purview of the federation.

Each Province has its own Provincial Textbook Board (PTTB)

PTTBs are responsible for:
Preparing
Publishing
Stocking
Distributing
Marketing school textbooks

Curriculum Design and Development Process

Curriculum Design and Development

Evolution of curriculum objectives.
Development of scheme of studies.
Development of syllabus of each subject.
Development of textbook, instructional material.
Approval of textual material.
Teacher training.


Developing Objectives

Objectives are derived from

Recommendation of the National Education Policy
National Level Seminars
Forums of research studies
Inter Board Committee of Chairmen

NBCT prepares the draft of objectives.

Circulated in provincial institutions responsible for curriculum development.

Objectives are finalized.

Translated to the specific teaching objectives

Factors considered in finalizing the objectives

Be precise
Assist in the selection of teaching strategy
Produce a designated behavior pattern
Enables teachers to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of learning.

The studies scheme

It is based on three key factors:

The national education policy
Market demand
Global issues


Task work in this area is undertaken with the participation of:

Provincial government
Research organizations and experts
Feedback of the IBCC

Development of syllabi

It is based on objectives and scheme of study.

Subject specific syllabi is prepared in consultation with:
Subject expert
Psychologist
Serving teacher

Syllabi must satisfy the following conditions:

Based on the needs of learner.

Take into account the existing knowledge and the environmental experience of the learner.

The development level of the learner is considered in the cognitive, effectiveness and psycho-motor domain.

Content should be focused on attaining the objectives.

Textbook Development

Provincial Text Book Boards (PTBB) are responsible for the development of the text-books according to the approved syllabi.

How textbook is developed?

Establish a list of text book writers.

Invitation are sent to the writers to submit the material within the syllabus parameter.

Selection is made on the basis of relevance of material.

The selected material is transformed into a textbook.

Review the Approval

National review committee comprises on five or six members:

At least one expert form the syllabus Formulation Committee.
Two subject experts.
Two school teachers


Textbooks review parameter

The books truly reflects the curriculum.

It meets the objectives stated in the curriculum.

Book does not contain any material repugnant to Islamic and Pakistani ideology.

In case of approval, textbook is sent for publishing and distribution.

In case of objection, complaints are relayed with revision recommendations.

Teacher Training

Teacher training for curriculum implementation is the responsibility of the provincial government.

It is now stressed that each textbook must have a teacher's guide.


In some cases assistance in the training of the masters trainers is provided to provincial government.


Curriculum Development Pitfalls

There are several obstacles affecting the quality and effectiveness of curriculum development process in Pakistan.

Lack of subject area expert.

Textbook often do not reflect the curriculum

Lack of follow-up of actual curriculum implementation in classroom practice.

Curriculum often different from the official curriculum documentation


Curriculum Development at Higher Education Level


Introduction

In 1973’s constitution, Government placed education on the concurrent list.

Federal Government took the responsibility to determine the curriculum text boards, policy, planning and standards of education

Higher Education Commission

In December, 1976 Federal Government appointed University Grant commission (now HEC ) as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work at bachelor level and onwards

It also look after the degrees, certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges, universities and other institutions of HEC.

Procedure to Review/ Revise Curriculum

In 45th meeting of Vice-Chancellor’s Committee it’s recommended that the UGC should review the curriculum of a particular discipline after every three years.

HEC adopted a procedure to review/ revise curriculum

In ensure the quality of the updated curricula.

Steps Involved In Curriculum Review/Revision Process


PHASE-I Curricula under consideration.

PHASE – II Circulation of the draft curriculum


PHASE-I

Step – I
Constitution of National Curriculum Revision Committee (NCRC) in the subject.

The Vice-Chancellors of all public and private sector universities, R&D organizations, Directorate of colleges and industries in relation to the subject under consideration, are requested to nominate their representatives, for appointment of National Curriculum Review Committee (NCRC).

Step –II
Assessment/Analysis of the existing Curriculum

The existing curricula is circulated amongst the members of NCRC to discuss it with their colleagues and bring collective proposals for review and revision of existing curricula in relation to
objectives (of teaching the subject).
Scheme of studies
Course-content
Weight age
Reading materials
Teaching strategies
Methods of evaluation.

In this way participation of maximum number of subject experts is ensured


Step – III
NCRC meeting-I:
Draft preparation.
The first meeting of the NCRC is organized at the HEC Headquarter Islamabad or one of its Regional Centers at Peshawar, Lahore and Karachi.

Other universities at different places may also be chosen to serve the purpose.

The meeting draft of the revised curricula, after detail discussion and deliberation on the proposals prepared by the NCRC members.


PHASE – II
Circulation Of The Draft Curriculum


Step – IV
Appraisal of the first draft.

The first draft prepared is circulated among the universities, institutions and organization and is viewed for its further improvement.

The view/recommendations collected on the draft curriculum were deliberated upon to design and finalize the curriculum of specific subject of study in a final meeting.

Step – V
NCRC meeting-II:
Finalization of draft

The second meeting of the NCRC is held to finalize the draft of the revised curriculum in the light of comments/suggestions/recommendations received from the college and university teachers and institutions all over the country.

The meeting would again take 3 days to finalize a curriculum.

The draft so finalized support expertise of all faculty members of the subject under consideration, who are directly or indirectly involved in this process.


Step VI
Approval of the revised curricula by the Vice-Chancellors’ Committee:

The final draft curriculum is submitted to the Vice-Chancellors’ Committee for approval.


Implementation

The curricula designed is printed and sent to universities/institutions for its adoption/implementation after the approval of the Competent Authority.
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