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Old Wednesday, April 20, 2011
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Default Topic Wise Notes of Social Work

We will work topic-topic in arrangement with the syllabus.

Lets start!!

1. Introduction To Social Welfare
a) Definition and Scope
b) Historical Perspective of Social Welfare in Pakistan



1. Introduction To Social Welfare
a) Definition and Scope


Definitions:

1. Organized public or private social services for assistance of disadvantaged groups...
2. The welfare of the society esp. for those segments who are underprivileged and disadvantaged because of the poverty, poor education, unemployment etc...
3. The well-being of the entire society. Social welfare is not the same as standard of living but is more concerned with the quality of life that includes factors such as the quality of the environment (air, soil, water), level of crime, extent of drug abuse, availability of essential social services, as well as religious and spiritual aspects of life.
4. social welfare or public charity, organized provision of educational, cultural, medical, and financial assistance to the needy.


For detailed definitions, functional definitions, narrow and broader definitions
Scope, perspective and other introductory policies of social welfare and social work


Read These Slides
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PAKISTANI CULTURE AND SOCIETY



* 1 Definition of Culture
* 2 Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture
* 3 Salient Features of Pakistani Culture
* 4 Conclusion

Definition of Culture

Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings, together with material objects used. Culture consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, codes, institution, tools, techniques, works of arts, ceremonies and so on.


E.B. Taylor defines culture as

the complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.


According to Allama Iqbal

Culture encompasses all the mental, spiritual and physical activities of a nation. It includes teh basic beliefs and faith, values and literature, art and architecture, music and mode of dress, manners and customs prevalent in a given society.


Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture

Pakistan is an ideological Islamic State. Its very existence is due to Islam, so the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life. All other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur, simplicity, firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas.


Salient Features of Pakistani Culture

The main characteristics of Pakistani culture are as follows:


1. Religious Uniformity

Pakistan came into existence to provide its people a system of life based on Islam. The people, in spite of some differences of languages, customs and traditions commonly follow one religion of Islam. This is the religion, which is practiced by all people of Pakistan.


2. Language

A number of languages are spoken in Pakistan. Some of them are Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto and Balochi. But Urdu is spoken and understand in all parts of Pakistan. Being the official language, it is the media of communication between all regions of Pakistan.


3. Literature and Poetry

Literature is an important aspect of our cultural life. Most of our poets reflect Islamic code and trend in their poetry. They gave the message of love and brotherhood. Similarity of thought amongst poets and writers of all regions is an important factor of our cultural life.


4. Dress and Diet

Dress is an important menifestation of culture. The regional dresses of Pakistan under go changes in the light of local traditions, economic condition, way of living and wealth in the region. But in all Provinces people generally wear Shalwar Kameez.


5. Mixed Culture

Pakistani culture is mixed culture although majority of people are Muslims by birth and faith. But there is great influence of Hindus and British culture on the present Pakistani society.


6. Male Dominated Society

In Pakistani culture, the male member of the family enjoys the key position. Family is headed by a male member and in most cases, he is the sole source of income for other members of the family.


7. Arts and Architecture

The iconoclasm of Islam has given a characteristic form and pattern in the use of elegant designs, based on geometric figures and floral forms borrowed from nature. The Shah Jahan Masjid, Shalimar Garden, Badshahi Masjid, Shahi Qila and many such graceful buildings are a living proof of the excellent Mughal architecture.


8. Handicrafts

Embroidery, leather works, glazed pottery, wood work, carpet making, metal crafts and ivory are the essential parts of our culture. Pakistani craftsmen are considered as the best in their craftsmenship. They are known for the high quality works which is very popular in foreign countries.


9. Recreational Activities - Sports

The recreational activities all over the Pakistan are common. The games like Cricket, Hockey, Football, Kabaddi etc are popular in every part of our country. These games reflect our cultural identity.


10. Education

Education contributes a great deal in developing national character. Educational system plays a vital role in the formation of Culture, Unity and Solidarity of a nation. It is therefore, important that the entire syllabus right from the lower to higher level should be placed in accordance with the ideology of Pakistan.


11. Religious Festivals

Festivals play an important part of our culture. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals. They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country.


12. Islamic Rituals and Religious Festivals


Islamic rituals and festivals play an important part of our culture. The rituals and festivals are observed with unusual enthusiasm. Obligatory prayers, fasts during the month of Ramadan and the payment of Zakat prescribed by Islam are being observed almost everywhere. Statistics reveal that Paksitanis attendance at Hajj is usually very high. The enthusiasm with which Pakistani families celebrate religious festivals is a inspirational spectacle. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals. They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country.


13. Ulema, Mushaikh and Sufi Poets


Ulema, Mushaikh and Sufi Poets occupy an honoured place in our cultural aspect of life. Sufis like Lal Shahbaz, Data Ganj Baksh, Shah Abdul latif, Sachal Sarmast, Hazrat Sultan Bahu and Waris Shah rendered meritorious services for the spread of Islam in the Sub Continent.


Conclusion

Culture which includes religion, literature art, architecture, dresses, music, manners and customs has its roots in the Islamic culture. Islam has described the rights and duties of every individual. Even in drinking, eating and dressing, we have to observe certain rules prescribed by Islam. So it may be said that Pakistani culture represents the true picture of Islamic culture.

Read more: Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture and Society Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture and Society
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2. Pakistani Society
a) Definition and description of the term “Society”
b) Characteristics of Pakistani Society
c) Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities


Definitions of Society:

"It is sum total of human relationships"

or

"Is an abstraction of a collection of relationships between individuals, usually including distinctive cultural, economic, or political properties and vary greatly in complexity and scope"

or

"A society or a human society is a group of people related to each other through persistent relations such as social status, roles and social networks."

or

"A large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations."

or

Robert E. Perk says "A level of Human organization based on communication and culture as regarded as superimposed or distinguished from power."


Description:

Our society, the world in which we live, consists of many social groups and individuals of different age range, class, race and religion. As individuals, we choose to live by the morals and principles that are handed down to us from the society in which we have been brought up in. We will choose to apply these in the social groups in which we live.

Characteristics of society:

Always changing
Felxible
Satisfies need of its members
large human group
established rule and law
own cultural identity
self-sufficient social system
common interests among members
interrelated or interdependent
own means to survive



Difference between Rural - Urban Communities
Some sociologists have used the concept of rural-urban continuum to stress the idea that there are no sharp breaking points to be found in the degree or quantity of rural urban differences. Robert Redfield has given the concept of rural -urban continuum on the basis of his study of Mexican peasants of Tepoztlain.The rapid process of urbanization through the establishment of industries, urban traits and facilities have decreased the differences between villages and cities.
There are some sociologists whose treat rural-urban as dichotomous categories have differentiated the two at various levels including occupational differences, environmental differences, differences in the sizes of communities, differences in the density of population, differences in social mobility and direction of migration, differences in social stratification and in the systems of social interaction.
A third view regarding rural and urban communities has been given by Pocock who believe that both village and city are elements of the same civilization and hence neither rural urban dichotomy, nor continuum is meaningful. M.S.A. Rao points out in the Indian context that although both village and town formed part of the same civilization characterized by institution of kinship and caste system in pre-British India, there were certain specific institutional forms and organizational ways distinguishing social and cultural life in towns form that in village. Thus, according to Rao, Rural Urban continuum makes more sense
Ghurye believes that urbanization is migration of people from village to city and the impact it has on the migrants and their families.
Maclver remarks that though the communities are normally divided into rural and urban the line of demarcation is not always clear between these two types of communities. There is no sharp demarcation to tell where the city ends and country begins. Every village possesses some elements of the city and every city carries some features of the village.
R.K Mukherjee prefers the continuum model by talking of the degree of urbanization as a useful conceptual tool for understanding rural-urban relations.
P.A Sorokin and Zimmerman in 'Principles of Rural-Urban sociology have stated that the factors distinguishing rural from urban communities include occupation, size and density of population as well as mobility, differentiation and stratification.




Slides on Difference between Rural and Urban Communities
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characteristics of Pakistani Society

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compu...s-customs.html
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SOCIAL CHANGE




SOCIAL CHANGE THEORIES

SOCIAL CHANGE THEORIES

CAUSES OF SOCIAL CHANGE


CAUSES OF SOCIAL CHANGE

PATTERNS OF SOCIAL CHANGE


PATTERNS OF SOCIAL CHANGE


SOCIAL MOVEMENT(THEORIES)


[url=http://stmarys.ca/~evanderveen/wvdv/social_change/social_movement_theories.htm]SOCIAL MOVEMENT THEORIES[/url

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SOCAIL PROBLEM AND THEORATICAL PERSPECTIVES


DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL PROBLEM

Asituation in a dynamic society believed to be a threat to or an infringement upon a social value and considered capable of amelioration by appropriate cllective action) WEAVER

OR

Adeviation affecting from the social ideals remediable by group efforts.)WALSH


THERORATICAL PERSPECTIVE


1:-FUNCTIONALISM

KEY CONCEPTS;-
*integration
*interdependence
*stability
*equilibrium

2:-CONFLICT THEORY

KEY CONCEPTS
*Interest
*Power
*dominance
*conflict
*coercion


3:-INTERACTIONISM

KEY CONCEPTS
*Consensus
*shared expectations
*socially created reality.
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ISLAM AND SOCIAL WORK


Q8. What is the concept of social service in Islam? Do we have to work for the Muslim community only or for the whole of humankind as was done by Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) ? Please clarify.

A8. In Islam, social service is of immense significance. Whatever services a person renders for the welfare of humankind, and through these deeds, hopes for the blessings of Allah will be regarded as righteous deeds. These deeds if done solely for seeking the pleasure of Allah (and not for recognition or show) will be considered Karze Hasana and will surely be rewarded by Allah.

Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an :

” Whoever comes (at Judgement) with a good deed will have better than it, and they, from the terror of that day, will be safe.” (Surah An-Naml, 27:89)

“He that does good shall have ten times as much to his credit ” (Surah Al An’am, 6:160)

“Then shall anyone who has done an atom’s weight of good see it!” (Surah Al-Zilzal, 99:7)

Allah repeatedly instructs as in the Glorious Qur’an to behave kindly, to give charity, to serve the poor, the orphans, and the needy. While the qur’an condemns hoarders and misers, it also prohibits ill-treating and threatening the poor and the needy.

In all these verses of the Qur’an, Allah has not instructed the Muslims to work only for the welfare of the Muslims. There is no such restraints. All these instructions are general in their scope and hence include both, the Muslims as well as the non-Muslims. The Prophet (pbuh) too has made it clear that striving of a Muslim for the welfare of any of the human beings or living creatures is an act of charity.

Narrated Anas bin Malik (RA) :

Allah’s Messenger said : “There is none amongst the Muslims who plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, but is regarded as a charitable gift for him.” (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadith No. 513)

In Islam, removing a harmful thing from way is also Sadaqa (charity). (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 4, Hadith No. 232)

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA):


Allah’s Apostle said, “While a man was on the way, he found a thorny branch of a tree on the way and removed it. Allah thanked him for that deed and forgave him.” (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadith No. 652)

Islam ordains us to treat all the living creatures well and with kindness.

Social service that is done by a Muslim for any human being, irrespective whether the beneficiary is a Muslim or a non-Muslim, and which gets this beneficiary closer to his Creator Allah and makes him/her understand Islam better, then the reward for the performer of such service will be further multiplied. First, for the social service and second, for getting the other person closer to his Creator. These acts of social service include Islaah if the recipient is a Muslim and Daw’ah if the recipient is a non-Muslim.

Narrated Urwa bin Az-Zubair (RA):

Hakim bin Hizam said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I used to do good deeds in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance, e.g., keeping good relations with my kith and kin, manumitting slaves (releasing and freeing slaves after paying for them) and giving alms. Shall I receive a reward for all that?” Allah’s Apostle replied, “You embraced Islam with all the good deeds which you did in the past.” (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadith No. 423 & Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, Hadith No. 223)

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA):

Allah’s Apostle said, “While a man was walking he felt thirsty and went down a well and drank water from it. On coming out of it, he saw a dog panting and eating mud because of excessive thirst. The man said, ‘This (dog) is suffering from the same problem as that of mine. So he (went down the well), filled his shoe with water, caught hold of it with his teeth and climbed up and watered the dog. Allah thanked him for his (good) deed and forgave him.” The people asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! Is there a reward for us in serving (the) animals?” He replied, “Yes, there is a reward for serving any animate.” (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadith No. 551)

Thus, social service in Islam carries great significance and it is to be done to all in general, regardless of the religion. And Allah knows best.

The system of Zakaat in Islam, however is a religious duty and obligation upon the Muslims and the beneficiaries of Zakaat are only Muslims.

The Qur’an provides details about needy Muslims that are entitled to Zakaat :

“Zakaat expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect (Zakaah) and for bringing hearts together (for Islam) and for freeing captives (or slaves) and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the (stranded) traveller – an obligation (imposed) by Allah. And Allah is knowing and wise.” (Surah Tauba, 9:60).

ANSWER written by

Sabith Khan (sabithisthebest@rediffmail.com)
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i need notes/outline on methods of social work (primary n secondary)

can anyone help on it??
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METHODS OF SOCIAL WORK

[B]PRIMARY METHOD[/B]

CASE WORK

Definitions of Social Case Work

Mary Richmond (1915)“Social Case Work may be defined as the Art of doing different things with differentpeople, co-operating with them to achieve some of their own & society‟s betterment.”

Mary Richmond (1917)Social case work is the art of bringing about better adjustments in the socialrelationship of individual men or women or children Mary Richmond (1922)Social case work means, „those processes whichdevelop personality throughadjustment consciously affected, individual by individual, between men and theirsocial environment

‟Jarrett (1919)Social case work is “the art of bringing an individual who is in a condition of socialdisorder into the bestpossible relation with all parts of his environment‟.



EXPLAINATION


Social Case Work:Social Case Work, a primary method of social work, isconcerned with the adjustment and development of individualtowards more satisfying human relations. Better family life,improved schools, better housing, more hospitals and medicalcare facilities, protected economic conditions and betterrelations between religious groups help the individual in hisadjustment and development. But his adjustment anddevelopment depend on the use of these resources by him.Sometimes due to certain factors, internal or external, he failsto avail existing facilities. In such situations, socialcaseworker helps him. Thus, social casework is one to onerelationship, which works in helping the individual for hisadjustment and development.Every individual reacts differently to his social, economic andphysical environments and as such problems of oneindividual are different from those of another. The practice of casework is a humanistic attempt for helping people whohave difficulty in coping with the problems of daily living. Itis one of the directmethods of social work which uses the case-by-case approach for dealing withindividuals or families as regards their problems of socialfunctioning. Case work, aims at individualized servicesin the field of social work in order to help the client to adjust with the enviroments.

Objectives of Social Case Work

To make good rapport with the common people
 To find-out, understand & solve the internal problems of an individual
 To strengthen ones ego power
 To prevent problem
 To develop internal resources

Nature & Characteristics of Case Work


 Relationship arise out of shared & emotionally charged situation
 Relationship contains elements of acceptance, expectation, support & stimulation
 Client & case worker are interdependent
 Case work relationship may have several therapeutic values
 Improvement of condition
 More adjustment within the society
 Development of personality
 Capacity building
 Relationship needs outside help
 Case worker too has relationship reactions and part of and part of one
‟sprofessional skillsin their management.

Components/elements of case work:

 Purpose & concern for the client system

A purpose to find-out internal problems & try to solve it and a concern to make goodrapport, feel ones feelings and aims at individualized service
 Expectation at three level

-Expectation of the case worker from the client, how the case worker feels about theclients ability & what extend client support anybody-Expectation of the client from the Case worker-Positive result in the period of interaction

 Accuracy of Empathy and clear communication-

Think positively in others point of view- What extent you are sympathetic- Ability to perceive & communicate accurately & feel- Case worker should be sensitive to express feelings towards client by voice, posture andgood communication
 Non Possessive warmth

Give respect, acceptance,liking, caring and concernfor the client in a non-dominating way.
 Genuineness andacceptance


Case worker mist bepractical in nature. He must person of geniousess being real ,honest in approach and never go beyond his/her limits.


 Authority

Case worker must have a capacity to handle any situation, being resourceful and helpfulHaving knowledge, attitude, experience and a position to identify and solve internalproblem of client.



Principles and Techniques of Casework

The foundation of the practice of casework is a conceptualframework consisting of certain values or philosophicalassumptions. The most basic value is that of the worth anddignity of every human being. The next is thecommitment to the goal of human betterment, in terms of both material and emotional wellbeing. Then, there is thevalue related to the development of human potential to thehighest level possible. Since each individual is consideredto be important, there is the corollary of the need for everyperson to participate fully in the direction of his own life.These value orientations are the result of philosophicthought over years of human existence and are to bedifferentiated from scientific theories which can be tested andproved. Nevertheless, belief in these values is a necessarypre-requisite in order that casework may be effective. There is another set of commitmentsemerging from these philosophical assumptions and the idea of individualised help. Theyare concepts of acceptance, non-condemning attitudes, confidentiality and controlledemotional involvement. Though these concepts originally developed from the valuesmentioned earlier, they were reinforced later by the experience of social workers with theresult that they subsequently became casework principles or rules of action. Closely linkedwith these values and principles is the postulate that human behaviour can change. Humanhistory indicates that sages, philosophers, priests and teachers, since times immemorial,had tried to explain human behaviour and to change it. They were only partiallysuccessful. It will be presumptuous to think that by application of behavioural sciencesone can change human behaviour easily. One has to be rather modest as regards one'sexpectations Human dignityHuman PotentialHuman participationAcceptanceNon condemning attitudeConfidentialityControlled emotionsHuman Behaviour can changebe a person of genuineness being real, honest in their approach and never go beyondher/his limit. Authority Case worker must have a capacity to handle any situation, being resourceful and helpfulHaving knowledge, attitude, experience and a position to identify and solve internalproblem of client.


SOURCE
from the syllabus of S.RENGASAMY MADURAL INSTITUTE OF SOCAIL SCIENCES.
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Maza deti han zindagi ki thokerin unko,jinhen NAAM-E-KHUDA le kar sanbhal janey ki adat ho.
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Old Monday, May 09, 2011
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Brother i bought Jahangir's Book for Social Work's preparation. Is this a handy book for this paper ?
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