Wednesday, October 20, 2021
11:43 AM (GMT +5)

Go Back   CSS Forums > Punjab Public Service Commission > PMS Optional Subjects > Social Work

Reply Share Thread: Submit Thread to Facebook Facebook     Submit Thread to Twitter Twitter     Submit Thread to Google+ Google+    
LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread
Old Saturday, July 23, 2011
sidogar's Avatar
Senior Member
Join Date: Aug 2010
Location: Islamabad
Posts: 253
Thanks: 41
Thanked 90 Times in 70 Posts
sidogar is on a distinguished road
Thumbs up Culture


Sir Edward Taylor: “Culture is the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as member of Society”. Pakistan, China and USA have different cultures.

Horton and Hunt: “Culture is everything which is socially learned and shared by numbers of society.” It is social heritage. Culture is manmade environment.

Characteristics of Culture

Culture is actually shared.
Culture is transmitted.
Culture is ever changing
Culture is accumulative
Culture is pervasive

Kinds of Culture

The man made environment can be classified into two main categories in order to analyze the culture.

Material Culture
Material culture includes all the things that are having physical form. For instance, pen, table, radio set, book, automobile, tools, furniture, buildings, etc. are the some examples of material culture

Generally, the agrarian and the industrial societies are rich in respect of material culture due to greater use of science and technology in all walks of life as compared to the primitive societies. It is considered that material culture is close to civilization.

Non-Material Culture
It consists of ideas, customs, beliefs, traditions, value system, knowledge, philosophy etc. it does not have physical shape. These are very important in determining the human behaviour and have a strong hold on the individual. The non material part of culture is responsible for enriching the material part. Both parts are interrelated with each other.

Elements of Culture

There are various elements of culture. Generally, it is classified into the following six parts though there is no set rule to divide it into water tight compartments.

1. Trait: it is the smallest unit of culture and we cannot think to sub divide it. It is not easy to count the exact number of cultural traits in a given society.

Characteristics of Trait: it has four characteristics:
Form. The smallest part of culture has some physical or non physical form which can be seen or perceived by the people.
Use. Such a trait is useful for the individuals who are the participants of culture. They get some satisfaction from its use which may be physical or emotional irrespective of value judgment.
Function. It contributes to the integration of Cultural whole.
Meaning. It has a special meaning for the individuals of a particular culture. For example, people of Pakistan use “Huqa” for smoking purposes but Americans who visit our country may take Huqa to America with them on their return and use it for decorative purposes.
2. Complex: When two or more cultural traits are combined it can be called a complex.

3. Pattern: When two or more Complex is combined, they form a pattern. There is uniformity in the human behaviour due to the cultural patter.

4. Theme: The combination of two or more cultural patterns results in a theme. Themes do not come into existence unconsciously or just by chance but these are the result of organized and deliberate efforts of the individuals. The postulate like “All the human beings are equal” can be an example of theme in our culture.

5. Configuration: When two or more cultural themes are integrated, the product is called the cultural configuration. e.g caste, marriage systems etc. It is not essential that a social institution may wholly and solely share a single configuration. For example, caste system prevailing in indo Pakistan sub continent is the property of any particular social institution. It is shared by religious, economic, family and marriage institutions.

6. Ethos: Cultural ethos is the flavour or central point of a culture. It is the philosophy or ideology of entire culture, around which the entire society rests. The behaviour of individual in the given culture is directly or indirectly affected by its ethos.
For example, Pakistani culture is attributed as religious while Japan’s as co operative America’s as competitive, and Russia’s accommodative to describe briefly these cultures.

Geographical factors:
Climate and geographical factors play a pivotal role in cultural development. Early civilizations are example in this regard.

Non human and social organization:
Non humans have no particular system of social life. Human only create cultures and not the animals.

Language and symbolic communications:
Body language is also a form of commutation.

Animal Nature:
Animals do not have any culture only humans have culture.

Bhutta Sb.
Reply With Quote
The Following 4 Users Say Thank You to sidogar For This Useful Post:
Call for Change (Monday, July 02, 2012), mahwish siddique (Thursday, March 29, 2012), SANA Sgd (Saturday, May 19, 2012), shahzad123 (Monday, May 07, 2012)

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On

Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
English Grammar (Beginner`s Classes) Sureshlasi Grammar-Section 52 Wednesday, June 23, 2021 03:46 PM
Culture (Complete Understanding) Agha Zuhaib Sociology 0 Monday, June 27, 2011 01:04 AM
Need help in essay magnum Essays 5 Saturday, November 07, 2009 10:53 PM
check my essay(all members) aliraza171 Essay 13 Saturday, March 07, 2009 06:49 AM
Various definitions of Culture.... prieti Sociology 0 Sunday, March 25, 2007 12:36 AM

CSS Forum on Facebook Follow CSS Forum on Twitter

Disclaimer: All messages made available as part of this discussion group (including any bulletin boards and chat rooms) and any opinions, advice, statements or other information contained in any messages posted or transmitted by any third party are the responsibility of the author of that message and not of (unless is specifically identified as the author of the message). The fact that a particular message is posted on or transmitted using this web site does not mean that CSSForum has endorsed that message in any way or verified the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any message. We encourage visitors to the forum to report any objectionable message in site feedback. This forum is not monitored 24/7.

Sponsors: ArgusVision   vBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2021, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.