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Default Good governance defined

GOVERNANCE

The concept of "governance" is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put "governance" means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national governance and local governance.
Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision

The Worldwide Governance Indicators project of the World Bank defines governance as
The traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This considers the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies and the respect of citizens and the state of the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them.

The World Bank defines governance as
the exercise of political authority and the use of institutional resources to manage society's problems and affair
An alternate definition sees governance as
the use of institutions, structures of authority and even collaboration to allocate resources and coordinate or control activity in society or the economy

Or
Simply
Development of the people
I.e. Development of human resource I.e. health and education
Development for the people
I.e. economic progress of the country raising GNP, Savings and controlling inflation creating employment
Development by the people
Seeking a social structure where every member of the community can progress and can yearn for the improving of his social status with facing bias and bigotry from the society

According to the UNDP's Regional Project on Local Governance for Latin America:
Governance has been defined as the rules of the political system to solve conflicts between actors and adopt decision (legality). It has also been used to describe the "proper functioning of institutions and their acceptance by the public" (legitimacy). And it has been used to invoke the efficacy of government and the achievement of consensus by democratic means (participation

In general terms, governance occurs in three broad ways:
1. Through networks involving public-private partnerships (PPP) or with the collaboration of community organisations
2. Through the use of market mechanisms whereby market principles of competition serve to allocate resources while operating under government regulation
3. Through top-down methods that primarily involve governments and the state bureaucracy

country level governance assessment tools that operate at the micro or sub-national level and use information gathered from a country’s own citizens, business people and public sector workers to diagnose governance vulnerabilities and suggest concrete approaches for fighting corruption


All actors other than government and the military are grouped together as part of the "civil society." In some countries in addition to the civil society, organized crime syndicates also influence decision-making, particularly in urban areas and at the national level.
Similarly formal government structures are one means by which decisions are arrived at and implemented. At the national level, informal decision-making structures, such as "kitchen cabinets" or informal advisors may exist. In urban areas, organized crime syndicates such as the "land Mafia" may influence decision-making. In some rural areas locally powerful families may make or influence decision-making. Such, informal decision-making is often the result of corrupt practices or leads to corrupt practices


GOOD GOVERNANCE
Good governance has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society.
1 - Participation
Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. It is important to point out that representative democracy does not necessarily mean that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society would be taken into consideration in decision making. Participation needs to be informed and organized. This means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand.
2- Rule of law
Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It also requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.
3- Transparency
Transparency means that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media.
4- Responsiveness
Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.
5- Consensus oriented
There are several actors and as many view points in a given society. Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community.
6- Equity and inclusiveness
A society’s well being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society. This requires all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well being.
7- Effectiveness and efficiency
Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.
8- Accountability
Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Who is accountable to whom varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law.
CONCLUSION
From the above discussion it should be clear that good governance is an ideal, which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality.
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Default Doctor Ishrat Hussain enumeration of seven pillars of good governance

1- First, is the Parliamentary committee particularly the Public Accounts Committee. Bipartisan committees chaired by respected and qualified MNAs or Senators and staffed by full-time professional and technical personnel should hold regular hearings, confirm the appointments of those heading these institutions, receive annual reports of performance, question the reported irregularities and recommend action against those found prima facie responsible for wrong doings. The recent work by the PAC shows that timely deliberation and follow-up are of essence if the Committee has to acquire the biting teeth.
All procurement contracts above a certain financial limit, all fiscal exemptions and concessions, modifications to the SROs should be placed before the PAC. The proceedings of these Committees should be open to public and the media. The temptation for the members of these committees to harass or intimidate the concerned officials or get involved in micro-management is very strong under the political culture of Pakistan. If this happens these committees will be more of a nuisance than an agent of good governance.
2- Second, is the State Bank of Pakistan. An independent and autonomous State Bank provides a guarantee against the excessive and irresponsible actions of the politicians and the bureaucrats in economic management. The federal and provincial governments will be guarded in their spending decisions if the State Bank refuses to honour their cheques beyond the given Ways and Means limits. At the same time the regulatory and supervision functions of the State Bank act as a safeguard against the possible malpractices in the award of credit and recovery of loans. It must be recognized that there has already been significant improvement in the working of the State Bank since it was granted autonomy.
3- Third, is the Auditor General of Pakistan. The constitutional protection given to the office of the AG has not been fully utilized in Pakistan to unearth and detect financial bungling rampant in the public sector agencies. The extended time lapse between the occurrence of the financial irregularity and the actual detection and reporting by the auditors, the lack of professional expertise and lack of prioritization among core and peripheral cases have muted the efficacy of this office. The AG should commission third party audits by professional firms of repute, use the broader 'value for money' concept and enlarge its scope of activities to cover all major public sector commercial and industrial enterprises.
4- Fourth, is the Pakistan Revenue Service. Tax collection in Pakistan has caused a lot of grief to the economic managers in pursuing a prudent fiscal policy. The renaming of the Central Board of Revenue will be purely cosmetic unless there is major reorientation and restructuring of the incentives, pay, recruitment, promotion, training, performance evaluation, procedures and processes. The new goal-oriented, result-based organization can generate higher tax yields if the basic compensation package and reward structure for the tax officials are such as to inhibit temptations for side deals with unscrupulous tax payers. At the same time there should be enough flexibility to penalize those who continue to indulge in these deals.
5- Fifth is the Federal/Provincial Public Service Commissions. Most of the current difficulties in governance have arisen due to the politicization of the higher services in the post-1973 period. There is a general recognition that the merit-based system of recruitment, appointments and promotions, despite many shortcomings had served the nation better than the present sifarish based and buy-the-post system. The responsibilities for all recruitment and promotions should be reverted to the Commissions without any exception but only men and women of proven integrity and impeccable credentials should be appointed as chairman and members of the Commission. There is no harm in appointing retired officials or judges but these appointments should not be a reward for loyalty to the party in power or for favours shown to the authorities. The Police Commissions should also be set up on the same lines.
6- Sixth, is the Federal/Provincial Ombudsman. The fanfare with which these offices were established under the Zia government died down fairly quickly. They are now perceived to be grinding the same millstone as the rest of the bureaucracy. In fact, they can become an effective instrument for quick, fair and judicious redress of the grievances of the common citizens against the arbitrary harassment of the overzealous or corrupt officials. There are very few people who are aware of the scope and mandate of this office and who have trust in the organization. A proactive educational role, a demonstration effect of its reach accompanied by selection of the right persons to the job can make it work.
7- Seventh is the Federal Election Commission. A powerful, independent and assertive FEC can play a preventive role by careful screening, scrutiny and investigation of the candidates for all tiers of elected offices and disqualifying those who are ill-reputed and of dubious character. They should forcefully enforce the criteria prescribed under the Constitution augmented by appropriate rules and regulations. This fundamental shift in the quality of our elected public officials would bring about a significant change in the overall structure of governance in the country.
Together, these seven pillars, if allowed to work effectively, will be able to plug in some of the conduits that lead to corrupt practices
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Default References

1. ^ see document on etymology prepared by the European Commission at http://ec.europa.eu/governance/docs/doc5_fr.pdf
2. ^ World Bank, Managing Development - The Governance Dimension, 1991, Washington D.C. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/externa.../PDF/34899.pdf
3. ^ A Decade of Measuring the Quality of Governance.
· Becht, Marco, Patrick Bolton, Ailsa Röell, "Corporate Governance and Control" (October 2002; updated August 2004). ECGI - Finance Working Paper No. 02/2002.
· Eells, R.S.F. (1960), The Meaning of Modern Business: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Large Corporate Enterprise (Columbia University Press, NY).
· Türke, Ralf-Eckhard: Governance - Systemic Foundation and Framework (Contributions to Management Science, Physica of Springer, September 2008).
Seven Pillars of Good Governance by DR. ISHRAT HUSAIN Article published in Dawn , When chairman of NGCR
http://www.unescap.org/pdd/prs/Proje...governance.asp
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Default World Bank report on Pakistan governance

Governance in Pakistan



The Government of Pakistan has an ambitious and comprehensive program of reforms to accelerate growth and poverty reduction.
Governance reforms, particularly in the areas of tax administration, procurement, financial management, and devolution of power to local governments are key features of the program.Weaknesses in tax policy and administration have long been identified as being among Pakistan’s most serious challenges. Collusion between taxpayers and tax officials has been pervasive and facilitated by the discretionary powers of tax officials, complex tax rules, and weak supervision of staff. In the past, tax administration was organized by geographical sub-zones known as ‘circles’, within which tax officials carried out a range of functions (e.g., inquiries, collections, audits/investigation) thus increasing the opportunities for unethical behavior. The Central Board of Revenue (CBR) is now being re-structured along functional lines, and dedicated medium and large taxpayer units conforming to international best practice have been established. The introduction of universal self-assessment in fiscal year 2003-04 for filing tax returns, and the introduction of risk-based systems in customs administration have reduced face-to-face contact between taxpayers and tax officials, thus reducing opportunities for corruption.
The Pakistan Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) was created in 2002, with the task of developing the procurement framework for the federal public sector, covering goods, works, and services. Specifically, the PPRA was given the powers to recommend to the Federal Government revisions in or formulation of new laws, rules and policies with respect to public procurement, and the making of regulations, codes of ethics and procedures for public procurement. In 2004, the PPRA drafted, and the government promulgated, new procurement rules, conforming to international best practice, that apply to all procurement of goods carried out by the federal government line departments, as well as those of state-owned enterprises and semi-autonomous organizations.The government’s reform program in public financial management is well underway. The technical reforms have centered on the Project for Improved Financial Reporting and Auditing (PIFRA I and II), under which a new chart of accounts and a computerized accounting system is being developed. The timeliness and quality of financial statements and audit reports has improved, although scope for further improvement, particularly in audit methodology, remains. Public Accounts Committees (PACs) at the Federal and Provincial levels have been formed and have been holding regular reviews of audit reports; however the capacity of PACs remains a significant issue.In the past five years, Pakistan has implemented a radical restructuring of government, devolving the main responsibility for the delivery of education, health, water and sanitation, roads and transport, and agriculture services to district, tehsil, and, to some extent, union governments. This functional devolution has been accompanied by remarkable political, fiscal and administrative changes. As is common in this process, political, fiscal, and administrative devolution have proceeded at different paces, which has resulted in an overlap of responsibilities between provincial and local governments. Administrative decentralization remains the most contentious area. While formally authority over recruitment and career management over junior local government staff has been transferred, both the local and provincial governments are de facto exercising authority over local staff, thereby resulting in dual accountabilities that undermine incentives for performance. While there are early signs that devolution is beginning to yield positive results, it is also clear that much remains to be done. Pakistan’s bureaucracy, although not large by international standards, suffers from structural weaknesses, that are fairly common in the region, and progress in civil service reforms has been quite limited. While a Civil Service Reform Unit (CSRU) has been created to catalyze and oversee the implementation of reforms, there has been little progress in civil service restructuring, and future reforms are likely to be, given the politically difficult issues involved, at best incremental. Wage decompression and pension reforms have been politically difficult to implement, and despite some good progress in the past five years, in particular the increased autonomy of the Federal and Provincial Public Service Commissions, ensuring merit-based recruitment into the bureaucracy continues to remain a challenge.
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Default Education profile of Pakistan by World bank

Education profile of Pakistan

The very scale of Pakistan’s education sector -- more than 150,000 public education institutions serving over 21 million students and a huge private sector that serves another 12 million – presents formidable challenges.
Expanding access and achieving gender parity
Literacy in Pakistan rose from 45 to 54 percent between 2002 and 2006, and net primary enrollment rates increased from 42 to 52 percent. But Pakistan’s participation rates remain the lowest in South Asia and there are wide male-female, inter-regional and rural-urban disparities:

- Only 22 percent of girls, compared to 47 percent boys, complete primary schooling

- Female literacy in rural Balochistan is only 32 percent compared to high urban male literacy rates (80 percent among urban male in Sindh)
Sustained efforts are needed to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goals in education -- full primary completion and gender parity in enrolments.
Reducing the high dropout rates
School dropout rates are high starting, especially, at the secondary level:
- Only 30 percent of Pakistan’s children receive secondary education
- Only 19 percent attend upper secondary schools
Expanding and modernizing vocational and tertiary education
Better access, teaching and research are needed at the tertiary level to equip graduates with the high-level skills needed to build a knowledge economy. Currently:
- Tertiary enrollment rates are less than 5 percent of the eligible age cohort (17-23).
- Less than 8 percent of the work force receives formal training.
Improving education quality and governance
These challenges call for improvements in governance and greater accountability on the part of education service providers. This requires:
- Continued government commitment to education and policy reforms.
- Capacity building in institutions delivering education services.


- Increased investment in education, which, currently at 2.3 percent of GDP, is the lowest in South Asia.


This is all the doing of wreteched Neo Cons haanh
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[QUOTE=Frankenstein of css]Education profile of Pakistan

- Only 30 percent of Pakistan’s children receive secondary education
- Only 19 percent attend upper secondary schools
dear can u plz explain either 30% of total 33 million or 30% of total previous 19%??
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[QUOTE=nasir latki]
Quote:
Originally Posted by Frankenstein of css
dear can u plz explain either 30% of total 33 million or 30% of total previous 19%??
YEAH it is very strange for me too
Bhai i just cut copy paste the relevent data from the official website of world bank.
You should ask for the explanation there.
However may be its related to Official secondary eduction and as there are myriad eductional system , may be 20 percent relates to it.
However the point was the dismal status of our education .
We shoul focus on improving the literacy rate of ours. In the last decade , even a country like VEITNAM has achieved nearly eighty percent literacy.
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ok sir i will try to get it clear by someway....
and i request you to please continue posting the PRODUCTIVE topics like "good governance" here...

thanking in advance
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