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Originally Posted by shakeel ghori View Post
Q:1-Define Psychology and write in brief about various schools of thought in psychology? (Marsks 20)

What is Psychology?
Psychology is the science of the mind and behaviour. The word "psychology" comes from the Greek word psyche meaning "breath, spirit, soul", and the Greek word logia meaning the study of something. In the old ages the sum of this whole word was known as 'study of soul'. For the sake of better understanding of what does mean by psychology few of the definitions by various researchers have been given below:

Psychology is the scientific study of people, the mind and behaviour. It is both a thriving academic discipline and a vital professional practice. (The British Psychological Society)

The scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes. (American Psychological Association)

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. (Wikipedia)

The constant theme across these definitions is that psychology is fundamentally concerned with understanding Behavior (colclusion).

However, according to the modern psychologists the simplicity of the definition that attribute psychology with behaviour is somewhat deceiving and conceals the broad scope of subject. Most of the psychologists are of the view the definition of psychology should not be confined to the study of behaviour in its simple way. Rather, they argue that the field should be receptive to a variety of viewpoints and approaches. Consequently, the phrase behaviour and metal processes in the defintion of psychology must be understood to mean many things: It encompasses not just what people do but also their perceptions, emotions, thoughts, reasoning processes, memories and even the biological processes maintaining body functions.

Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Psychologists of diverse stripes also consider the unconscious mind as well as help to change and improve the lives of people and the world in which they live. They use scientific methods to answers that are far more valid and legitimate than those resulting from speculation.

school of thoughts of psychology..
The phrase 'school of thought' means for a particular idea or set of ideas held by a specific group; doctrine. Any idea that a group strongly believes in, be it through practising this idea in their everyday life or through fighting for its adoption, can be considered a school of thought. There are several school of thoughts for the purpose of studying psychology. Each of them views this subject from different perspective and makes its own effort to define a particular phenomenon related to human behaviour. Sometimes it appears that each of them has its unique position and importance, for no single school of thought is able to define controversies and complexities concerned with defining human behaviour. The combination of two, or sometime, more work appropriately. An attempt of defining different school of thoughts have been made below:

The early school of thoughts.
Structuralism was the first school of psychology, and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Major structuralist thinkers include Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener. The focus of structuralism was on reducing mental processes down into their most basic elements. Structuralists used techniques such as introspection to analyze the inner processes of the human mind.

The perspective that replaced structualism is known as functionalism. Rather than focusing on the mind's structure, functionalism concentrated on what the mind does and how behaviour functions.Major functionalist thinkers included william james, John Dewey and Harvey Carr.

Gestalt Psychology
Gestalt psychology is a school of psychology based upon the idea that we experience things as unified wholes. This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria during the late 19th century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism. Instead of breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest elements, the gestalt psychologists believed that you must look at the whole of experience. According to the gestalt thinkers, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

One thing is noteworthy that all the psychologist irrespective of their doctrines share a common goal: that is to explain and understand behaviour using scientific methods rather than philosophical abstractions. In the view of this fact and due to complex nature of human behaviour the psychology is an ever developing field. The modern perspectives/ school of thoughts of psychology have their roots in the ancient periods but they are however different from them in their approach and other respects. The modern school of thoughts are following:

Modern school of thoughts

1--The neuroscience perspective.
Biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience is the study of the biological substrates of behavior and mental processes. The neuroscience perspective considers how people and nonhumans function biologically: how individual nerve cells are joined together, how the inheritance of certain characteristics from parents and other ancestors influence behaviour, how functioning of the body affects hopes and fears, which behaviours are instinctual, and likewise.
Because every behaviour ultimately can be broken down into its biological components, the neuroscience perspective has broad appeal. Neuroscientists have made major contributions to the understanding and betterment of human life.

Behaviorism became a dominant school of thought during the 1950s. It was based upon the work of thinkers such as:

John B. Watson
Ivan Pavlov
B. F. Skinner
Behaviorism suggests that all behavior can be explained by environmental causes rather than by internal forces. Behaviorism is focused on observable behavior. Theories of learning including classical conditioning and operant conditioning were the focus of a great deal of research.

3--Psychoanalysis or psychodynamic
Psychoanalysis is a school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud. This school of thought emphasizes the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior. Supporters of the psychodyanmic perspective argue that behaviour is motivated by inner forces about which we have little awareness and are almost out of our control. Freud's school of thought was enormously influential, but also generated a great deal of controversy. This controversy existed not only in his time, but also in modern discussions of Freud's theories.

4--Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy and linguistics. Cognitive psychology began to emerge during the 1950s, partly as a response to behaviorism. This period of time is sometimes referred to as the "cognitive revolution" as a wealth of research on topics such as information processing, language, memory and perception began to emerge. Many psychologists who stick to the cognitive school of thought compare human thinking to the workings of a computer, which takes in information and transforms, stores, and retrieves it.

5--Humanistic perspective..

Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Humanistic psychology instead focused on individual free will, personal growth and the concept of self-actualization. While early schools of thought were largely centered on abnormal human behavior, humanistic psychology differed considerably in its emphasis on helping people achieve and fulfil their potential.
Major humanist thinkers include:
Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers.
Humanistic psychology remains quite popular today and has had a major influence on other areas of psychology including positive psychology. This particular branch of psychology is centered on helping people living happier, more fulfilling lives.

Final analysis..

As one considers the many topics and perspectives that make up Psychology, ranging from a narrow focus biochemical influences on behavior to a broad focus on social behaviors, one might find himself thinking that the discipline lacks cohesion. However, the field is more unified than the first glimpse might suggest. It does make a little difference what area a pscyhologist studying of and what perspective he is adhering to, the primary goal of each of them is to address the primary issues connected to human behavior. Psychologist are also agree on what the key issues of the field are. Although there are major arguments regarding how best to address and resolve the key issues, psychology is a unified science, because psychologists of all perspectives agree that the issues must be addressed if the field is going to get advanced.
well done shakeel. You have good grasp over your thoughts and every cloud has a silver lining, I am pretty sure that you will be allocated.

1-Introduction paragraph looks good. But the weightage of question is based on thoughts. It meant you had to elaborate them broadly. You did not give examples. For example In Behaviorism you had to examine your example in a case study. If a person's behavior get changed why it takes place, what is the causes and similarly other examples. In other words, you explain them like feeding frenzy.

2-Your last paragraph is also good. I appreciate it. But make an analysis of your own. what did you have observed? What is your your observation of such school of thought? try to attempt these factors thoroughly. So it is a weak point in this question.

3-Try to attempt each an every thing with your own analysis and examples of the present days. It would be scoring indeed.

4-Keep these points remembered and attempt them what I have suggested. Good Luck to your next attempt.

You have attained 16/20


Originally Posted by ssara View Post
Q:1-Define Psychology and write in brief about various schools of thought in psychology? (Marsks 20)

In our daily life we do a lot of works. For instance, children go to school, teachers teach the students. Businessmen do their business. Scientists do their exclusive experiments in labs. Solders serve them for the country and so on other diverse activities. These are the activities the people do with the help of their mind and soul either consciously or unconsciously. It is the study of Psychology which explains these activities in depth about the human behavior. Moreover, Besides the human beings, animals have their own psyche according to their experience and their heredity. However, in the current days, the discipline of Psychology has an outstanding importance. No less than 52 diverse branches of Psychology have been made and it is the most essential discipline for every one for getting it studied. In the simple words Psychology’s definition can be defined as under:-

The word Psychology is derived from the Greek word ‘Psche’ that means ‘soul’ or ‘mind’ and ‘ology’ means ‘study’.

Therefore we can certainly say that it is the scientific study of human behavior and his mental processes.

School of Thought in Psychology
There are some school of thoughts who have tried their best to explain the mind and behavior according to their logic and experiments. Among them, the major school of thoughts are given bellow:-


Wundt’s approach, which focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other kinds of mental states and activities. This school of thought have elaborated the mind and behavior of the human being on the basis of structuralism. It is based on idea which conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying elements. It was the German Psychologist who laid down the foundation of Psychology in 1879. Moreover he explained the psychology as a practical experience of an individual and his ideas. However, the main strategy of this school of thought was to use the structuralism to discover the units of mind in order to elaborate it further. Consequently, this school of thought had to be criticized owing to its methodology.

It is an early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does-the functions of mental activity and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments. It is the approach that how mind and soul function according to an individual. According to this school of thought, more than enough work was done by them for the sake of behavior’s dimensions in an environment. Because an environment affects and influence the individual. When an individual get connected with a certain environment, the result comes a specific.

Functionalists used introspection along with the use of survey and other experimental techniques to study functions of mind. Resultantly, some school of thoughts criticized it because of functionalists had not explained the functions of consciousness and the relationship of mind and physically. Moreover, it was not a scientific method. That was why this method had been failed.

This school of thought was concerned with the work of Watson. He did not accept that the mind as the subject of psychology and instead that psychology would be restricted to the study of behavior. According to doctrine of Behaviorism, the subject matter of psychology was behavior to the certain aspects. As according to them this disciple is the science of behavior, that is not the science of mind. Moreover, it can be defined without the study of mental events or internal psychological processes. Consequently, after the analyzing of this limited approach of the school of thought it also was criticized.

Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud (1916-1917). Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining “insight”. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious. Psychoanalysis is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders.

To the conclude various schools of thought raised their thoughts in the history of Psychology. No doubt some overlap the certain thoughts and some don’t. Every school of thought has an own view and their experiences and experiments. However, it can be noticed after the studies of these thoughts that all have their own trends of thoughts.

Dear memebrs you are requested to check my little effort in this question. If you find any mistake or error could point out. It would be highly appreciated. And give me marks what I deserve…



Excellent answer sara. Your theme of starting is good.


1-Try to attempt to the point.

2-Do not make complexity in your thoughts

3-Your assumption is well in due course.

4-Make it simple and as I have suggested shakeel to attempt it with examples. Yes you can take example from every day life.

You have attained 15/20


Q.1: Define psychology and write in brief about various schools of thought in psychology?

The word psychology is derived from a Greek word 'psyche' which means "soul" or "mind", "ology" means "study".

Schools of Thought in Psychology
A number of schools of thought tried to explain human mind and behavior. The following are some of the major schools of thought in psychology:

Structuralism is an approach to psychology which is based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements. Wilhelm Wundt, a German psychologist, in 1879, laid the foundation of scientific psychology, when he opened first experimental laboratory in Leipzig, Germany. He defined psychology as a study of conscious experience of normal adult human mind. Structuralism grew up around the ideas of Wilhelm Wundt and one of his students, Edward B. Titchener. The goal of the structuralists was to find the units, or elements, which make up the mind. They thought that as in natural sciences, a first step in the study of mind should be a description of the basic units of sensation, image and emotion, which compose it. The main method used by the structuralists to discover these basic units of mind was introspection. Subjects were trained to report as objectively as possible what they experienced in connection with a certain stimulus, disregarding the meanings they come to associate with that stimulus. According to Wundt, psychologists can know about the structure of mind only through the objective reports of trained subjects made to their reaction. Wundt was only interested in conscious experience.
This school of thought had been criticized for its method of study. Questions were raised by psychologists on the scientific status of introspection as a method of study. Some of them were of the view that consciousness cannot be analyzed in terms of mental units or elements.

Functionalism is an approach to psychology which emphasizes the functions of the mind and behaviour in adapting to the environment. John Dewey, James R. Angell and Harvey Carr, who were considered the founders of functionalism during 19th century, proposed that psychology should study what mind and behaviour do. They were interested in the fact that mind and behaviour are adaptive. Instead of limiting themselves to the description and analysis of mind, the functionalists performed experiments on the ways in which learning, memory, problem solving and motivation help people and animals to adapt to their environments. These psychologists studied the functions of mind. Functionalists used introspection along with the use of survey and other experimental techniques to study functions of mind. This school of thought was criticised as functionalists do not explain the functions of consciousness and the relationship of mind and body. It was criticised due to the use of introspection as it is not a scientific method.

This school of psychology originated with the work of John B. Watson (1879-1958). Watson rejected mind as the subject of psychology and insisted that psychology should be restricted to the study of behaviour. According to doctrine of Behaviourism, the subject matter of psychology is 'behaviour'. Psychology is the science of behaviour, it is not the science of mind. Behaviour can be defined and explained without making ultimate reference to mental events or to internal psychological processes. The sources of behaviour are external (in the environment), not internal (in the mind, in head). This school of thought is criticised as behaviourism is one dimensional approach to behaviour. Behaviourists did not account for other types of learning, learning that occurs without the use of enforcement or punishment. It does not take into account the consciousness and mental processes.

This school of thought emphasises unconscious thought conflict between biological instincts and society and early life experiences. Psychoanalysis was founded in Vienna, Austria, by a neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1938). Freud developed a theory of behaviour and mind according to which much of what we do and think results from our urges, or drives, which seek expression in behaviour and thought. Basic idea TOT this school revolves around the role of unconscious as determinant of human behaviour. Freud believed that personality consists of three elements Id, Ego and Super Ego and human mind consists of consciousness, preconscious and unconscious. He further believed that psychosexual stages play an important

role in personality development. He gave concepts of Eros, that is life instinct and Thanatos.that is death instinct.
According to critics,
· Freud over emphasised on the role of sex.
· Role of consciousness was underestimated,
· This school of thought racks in scientific approach toward human behaviour.

This school of thought was developed by a group of psychologists headed by Abraham Maslow. It emphasises on a person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose and one's positive qualities. Humanistic psychologists stress that people have the ability to control their lives and not be manipulated by the environment. They believed that, rather than being driven by unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses have the ability to live by higher human values, such as altruism and free will.
The founding father of humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslow, proposed it as a third force, after psychoanalysis and behaviourism. Maslow stressed on higher human motives, self-development, knowledge, understanding and aesthette.s. Other major theorists, associated with this school are Carl Rogers, Erich Fromm and Rollo May. This school of thought has also been criticised due to its subjective approach toward human nature as many of its concepts cannot be measured or studied scientifically.

Gestalt Psychology
A school of thought based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is much greater than the sum of its constituent elements. This school of psychology was founded in Germany in about 1912 by Max Wertheimer and his colleagues Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler.
The German word 'Gestalt' means 'form' or 'configuration', and the Gestalt psychologists maintained that the mind should be thought as resulting from the whole pattern of sensory activity and the relationships and organisations within this pattern. According to the Gestalt psychologists, the mind is best understood in terms of the ways elements are organised. They worked and emphasised on perception and illusion, and their basic contention was that any aspect of human life cannot be understood separately. It is only in totality, we can be able to analyse things properly. This approach was criticised as Gestalt psychologists over emphasised on the role perception and neglected unconscious aspects of mind.

Numerous schools of thought emerged throughout the history of psychology. Many of them dominated the field at certain points in history. Schools of thought of psychology represent the major theoretical perspectives in the science of psychology. Each of them has its own pluses and minuses. However, it is important to note that most of the psychologists do not associate themselves with a particular school rather they tend to take what seems best from each school of psychology.
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