View Single Post
Old Thursday, March 27, 2008
Janeeta's Avatar
Janeeta Janeeta is offline
Join Date: Dec 2006
Location: Karachi
Posts: 96
Thanks: 26
Thanked 121 Times in 39 Posts
Janeeta is on a distinguished road
Default scheduling TEchniques

CPU Scheduler

Whenever the CPU becomes idle, it is the job of the CPU Scheduler ( a.k.a. the short-term scheduler ) to select another process from the ready queue to run next.

The storage structure for the ready queue and the algorithm used to select the next process are not necessarily a FIFO queue. There are several alternatives to choose from, as well as numerous adjustable parameters for each algorithm,

The assignment of physical processors to processes allows processors to accomplish work. The problem of determining when processors should be assigned and to which processes is called processor scheduling or CPU scheduling.

When more than one process is runable, the operating system must decide which one first. The part of the operating system concerned with this decision is called the scheduler, and algorithm it uses is called the scheduling algorithm.

Goals of Scheduling (objectives

Many objectives must be considered in the design of a scheduling discipline. In particular, a scheduler should consider fairness, efficiency, response time, turnaround time, throughput, etc., Some of these goals depends on the system one is using for example batch system, interactive system or real-time system, etc. but there are also some goals that are desirable in all systems.

General Goals

Fairness is important under all circumstances. A scheduler makes sure that each process gets its fair share of the CPU and no process can suffer indefinite postponement. Note that giving equivalent or equal time is not fair. Think of safety control and payroll at a nuclear plant.

Policy Enforcement
The scheduler has to make sure that system's policy is enforced. For example, if the local policy is safety then the safety control processes must be able to run whenever they want to, even if it means delay in payroll processes.

Scheduler should keep the system (or in particular CPU) busy cent percent of the time when possible. If the CPU and all the Input/Output devices can be kept running all the time, more work gets done per second than if some components are idle.

Response Time

A scheduler should minimize the response time for interactive user.

A scheduler should minimize the time batch users must wait for an output.

A scheduler should maximize the number of jobs processed per unit time.

A little thought will show that some of these goals are contradictory. It can be shown that any scheduling algorithm that favors some class of jobs hurts another class of jobs. The amount of CPU time available is finite, after all.

Preemptive Vs Nonpreemptive Scheduling

CPU scheduling decisions take place under one of four conditions

  • When a process switches from the running state to the waiting state, such as for an I/O request or invocation of the wait( ) system call.
  • When a process switches from the running state to the ready state, for example in response to an interrupt.
  • When a process switches from the waiting state to the ready state, say at completion of I/O or a return from wait( ).
  • When a process terminates.

  1. For conditions 1 and 4 there is no choice - A new process must be selected.
  2. For conditions 2 and 3 there is a choice - To either continue running the current process, or select a different one
  3. If scheduling takes place only under conditions 1 and 4, the system is said to be non-preemptive, or cooperative. Under these conditions, once a process starts running it keeps running, until it either voluntarily blocks or until it finishes. Otherwise the system is said to be preemptive.
  4. Windows used non-preemptive scheduling up to Windows 3.x, and started using pre-emptive scheduling with Win95. Macs used non-preemptive prior to OSX, and pre-emptive since then. Note that pre-emptive scheduling is only possible on hardware that supports a timer interrupt.
  5. Note that pre-emptive scheduling can cause problems when two processes share data, because one process may get interrupted in the middle of updating shared data structures. Chapter 6 will examine this issue in greater detail.
  6. Preemption can also be a problem if the kernel is busy implementing a system call ( e.g. updating critical kernel data structures ) when the preemption occurs. Most modern UNIXes deal with this problem by making the process wait until the system call has either completed or blocked before allowing the preemption Unfortunately this solution is problematic for real-time systems, as real-time response can no longer be guaranteed.
  7. Some critical sections of code protect themselves from concurrency problems by disabling interrupts before entering the critical section and re-enabling interrupts on exiting the section. Needless to say, this should only be done in rare situations, and only on very short pieces of code that will finish quickly, ( usually just a few machine instructions. )

First-Come First-Serve Scheduling, FCFS
FCFS is very simple - Just a FIFO queue, like customers waiting in line at the bank or the post office or at a copying machine.

Unfortunately, however, FCFS can yield some very long average wait times, particularly if the first process to get there takes a long time. For example, consider the following three processes:

Process Burst Time
P1 24
P2 3
P3 3

The average waiting time for the three processes is ( 0 + 24 + 27 ) / 3 = 17.0 ms

Shortest-Job-First Scheduling, SJF
The idea behind the SJF algorithm is to pick the quickest fastest little job that needs to be done, get it out of the way first, and then pick the next smallest fastest job to do next.

( Technically this algorithm picks a process based on the next shortest CPU burst, not the overall process time. )

Process Burst Time
P1 6
P2 8
P3 7
P4 3

In the case above the average wait time is ( 0 + 3 + 9 + 16 ) / 4 = 7.0 ms, ( as opposed to 10.25 ms for FCFS for the same processes. )

Priority Scheduling

Priority scheduling is a more general case of SJF, in which each job is assigned a priority and the job with the highest priority gets scheduled first. ( SJF uses the inverse of the next expected burst time as its priority - The smaller the expected burst, the higher the priority. )

Note that in practice, priorities are implemented using integers within a fixed range, but there is no agreed-upon convention as to whether "high" priorities use large numbers or small numbers. This book uses low number for high priorities, with 0 being the highest possible priority.

Process Burst Time Priority
P1 10 3
P2 1 1
P3 2 4
P4 1 5
P5 5 2

Priorities can be assigned either internally or externally. Internal priorities are assigned by the OS using criteria such as average burst time, ratio of CPU to I/O activity, system resource use, and other factors available to the kernel. External priorities are assigned by users, based on the importance of the job, fees paid, politics, etc.

Priority scheduling can be either preemptive or non-preemptive.

Priority scheduling can suffer from a major problem known as indefinite blocking, or starvation, in which a low-priority task can wait forever because there are always some other jobs around that have higher priority.

  • If this problem is allowed to occur, then processes will either run eventually when the system load lightens ( at say 20 a.m. ), or will eventually get lost when the system is shut down or crashes. ( There are rumors of jobs that have been stuck for years. )
  • One common solution to this problem is aging, in which priorities of jobs increase the longer they wait. Under this scheme a low-priority job will eventually get its priority raised high enough that it gets run.

Round Robin Scheduling
  • Round robin scheduling is similar to FCFS scheduling, except that CPU bursts are assigned with limits called time quantum.
  • When a process is given the CPU, a timer is set for whatever value has been set for a time quantum.
  1. If the process finishes its burst before the time quantum timer expires, then it is swapped out of the CPU just like the normal FCFS algorithm.
  2. If the timer goes off first, then the process is swapped out of the CPU and moved to the back end of the ready queue
  • The ready queue is maintained as a circular queue, so when all processes have had a turn, then the scheduler gives the first process another turn, and so on.
  • RR scheduling can give the effect of all processors sharing the CPU equally, although the average wait time can be longer than with other scheduling algorithms. In the following example the average wait time is 5.66 ms.

Process Burst Time
P1 24
P2 3
P3 3

Multilevel Queue Scheduling

When processes can be readily categorized, then multiple separate queues can be established, each implementing whatever scheduling algorithm is most appropriate for that type of job, and/or with different parametric adjustments.

Scheduling must also be done between queues, that is scheduling one queue to get time relative to other queues. Two common options are strict priority ( no job in a lower priority queue runs until all higher priority queues are empty ) and round-robin ( each queue gets a time slice in turn, possibly of different sizes. )

Note that under this algorithm jobs cannot switch from queue to queue - Once they are assigned a queue, that is their queue until they finish

Multilevel Feedback-Queue Scheduling

Multilevel feedback queue scheduling is similar to the ordinary multilevel queue scheduling described above, except jobs may be moved from one queue to another for a variety of reasons:
  • If the characteristics of a job change between CPU-intensive and I/O intensive, then it may be appropriate to switch a job from one queue to another.
  • Aging can also be incorporated, so that a job that has waited for a long time can get bumped up into a higher priority queue for a while

Multilevel feedback queue scheduling is the most flexible, because it can be tuned for any situation. But it is also the most complex to implement because of all the adjustable parameters. Some of the parameters which define one of these systems include:
  • The number of queues.
  • The scheduling algorithm for each queue.
  • The methods used to upgrade or demote processes from one queue to another. ( Which may be different. )
  • The method used to determine which queue a process enters initially
Reply With Quote