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Default 8th century

8th century

700s - [Astronomy, technology] Brass astrolabe developed by Muhammad al-Fazari.

700s - [Ceramics, pottery] from the eighth to eighteenth centuries, the use of glazed ceramics was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery. Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century.

700s - [Ceramics, glass, industry, and pottery] the first industrial factory complex for Islamic pottery and glass production is built in Ar-Raqqah, Syria. Extensive experimentation is carried out at the complex, which is two kilometres in length, and a variety of innovative high-purity glass are developed there. Two other similar complexes are also built, and nearly three hundred new chemical recipes for glass are produced at all three sites.

702 - 765 - [chemistry] Ja'far al-Sadiq, refuted Aristotle's theory of the four classical elements and theorized that each one is made up of different chemical elements: "I wonder how a man like Aristotle could say that in the world there are only four elements - Earth, Water, Fire, and Air. The Earth is not an element. It contains many elements. Each metal, which is in the earth, is an element." Al-Sadiq also developed a particle theory, which he described as follows: "The universe was born out of a tiny particle, which had two opposite poles. That particle produced an atom. In this way matter came into being. Then the matter diversified. This diversification was caused by the density or rarity of the atoms." Al-Sadiq also wrote a theory on the opacity and transparency of materials. He stated that materials which are solid and absorbent are opaque, and materials which are solid and repellent are more or less transparent. He also stated that opaque materials absorb heat.

715 - 800 - [ceramics, pottery] Lustreware is invented in Iraq by the Arabian chemist, Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), during the Abbasid caliphate.

715 - 815 - [chemistry] Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan), a Muslim chemist, is "considered by many to be the father of chemistry", for introducing the experimental scientific method for chemistry, as well as laboratory apparatus such as the alembic, still and retort, and chemical processes such as pure distillation, liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. He also invented more than twenty types of laboratory apparatus His collection of works (known as the Jabirian corpus) include The elaboration of the Grand Elixir, The chest of wisdom in which he introduces nitric acid, Kitab al-Istitmam (later translated to Latin as Summa Perfectionis), and many others.

715 - 815 - [alchemy] Geber, also a Muslim alchemist, introduces theories on the transmutation of metals, the philosopher's stone, and Takwin, the artificial creation of life in the laboratory. He also further developed the five classical elements into seven elements by adding two metals: sulfur (‘the stone which burns’ that characterized the principle of combustibility) and mercury (which contained the idealized principle of metallic properties) as 'elements'.

715 - 815 - [chemical substances] In contrast to the ancients ("the only acid known to the ancients was vinegar"), Jabir was the first to produce a number of other acids: mineral acids such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, uric acid,[ acetic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid[ andaqua regia. Several chemical elements were also first discovered by Geber: arsenic, antimony and bismuth. Geber was also the first to classify sulfur and mercury as 'elements'.] He also discovered a number of other chemical substances.

715 - 815 - [crystallography] Crystallization is invented by Geber.

715 - 815 - [glass] Geber wrote on adding color to glass by adding small quantities of metallic oxides to the glass, such as manganese dioxide (magnesia). These coloured glasses were a new advancement in the glass industry unknown in antiquity.

715 - 815 - [chemical technology, glass] In the Book of the Hidden Pearl, Geber scientifically described 46 original recipes for producing coloured glass, in addition to 12 recipes inserted by al-Marrakishi in a later edition of the book; the first recipes for the manufacture of artificial pearls and for the purification of pearls that were discoloured from the sea or from grease; the first recipes for the dying and artificial colouring of gemstones and pearls; the first recipes for the manufacture of glue from cheese; and invented plated mail for use in armours (jawasin), helmets (bid) and shields (daraq).[ and first described the production of high quality coloured glass cut into artificial gemstones.

715 - 815 - [chemistry] Destructive distillation is developed by Arabic chemists.

740 - 828 - [animal husbandry, botany, zoology] Al-Asma'i was the earliest Arab biologist, botanist and zoologist; his works include the Book of Distinction, Book of the Wild Animals, Book of the Horse, and Book of the Sheep.

751 - [Technology] Papermaking is introduced to the Islamic world from Chinese prisoners after the Battle of Talas.

754 - [Medicine, pharmacy] the first pharmacy and drugstores are opened in Baghdad. The first apothecary shops are also opened in the Islamic world.

763 - 809 - [library] The House of Wisdom is founded by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid.

• 763 - 809 - [medicine] "The first free public hospital was opened in Baghdad during the Caliphate of Haroon-ar-Rashid." These "Bimaristans" were hospitals in the modern sense, an establishment where the ill were welcomed and cared for by qualified staff. In this way, Muslim physicians were the first to make a distinction between a hospital and other different forms of healing temples, sleep temples, hospices, assylums, lazarets and leper-houses, all of which in ancient times were more concerned with isolating the sick and the mad from society "rather than to offer them any way to a true cure." The medieval Bimaristan hospitals are thus considered "the first hospitals" in the modern sense of the word.

763 - 800 - [medicine, psychiatry, psychology] The first psychiatric hospitals and insane asylums are built by the Muslim Arabs in Baghdad and then Fes.

764 - 800 - [petroleum, civil engineering] The streets of the newly constructed Baghdad are paved with tar, derived from petroleum, coming from natural oil fields in the region, through the process of destructive distillation.

770 - [astronomy, mathematics] An Indian astronomer visits the court of Caliph Al-Mansur, and brings with him the Surya Siddhanta and the works of Aryabhata and Brahmagupta.

777 - [astronomy, mathematics] Muhammad al-Fazari and Yaqūb ibn Tāriq translate the Surya Siddhanta and Brahmasphutasiddhanta, and compile them as the Zij al-Sindhind, the first Zij treatise

794 - [Industry, technology] The first paper mills are created in Baghdad, marking the beginning of the paper industry.

c. 796 - [astronomical instruments] The first person credited for building the brass astrolabe in the Islamic world is reportedly Muhammad al-Fazari.

Late 700s - early 800s - [musical science] Mansour Zalzal of Kufa. Musician (luth) and composer of the Abbasid era. Contributed musical scales that were later named after him (the Mansouri scale) and introduced positions (intervals) within scales such as the wasati-zalzal that was equidistant from the alwasati alqadima and wasati al-fors. Made improvements on the design of the luth instrument and designed the Luth. Teacher of Is-haq al-Mawsili.

700 - 900 - [legal science] Charitable trust first developed in Islamic law as the Waqf

Last edited by Shooting Star; Saturday, June 30, 2012 at 03:23 AM.
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