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Default 11th century

11th century

• c. 1000 - [medicine, ophthalmology] Ammar ibn Ali of Mosul writes the Choice of Eye Diseases, a landmark text on ophthalmology in medieval Islam. In cataract surgery, He attempted the earliest extraction of cataracts using suction. He invented a hollow metallic syringe hypodermic needle, which he applied through the sclerotic and successfully extracted the cataracts through suction. He discovered the technique of cataract extraction while experimenting with his hypodermic needle invention on a patient

• c. 1000 - [physics, mathematics] Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), discovers that the heaviness of bodies vary with their distance from the center of the Earth, and solves equations higher than the second degree.

• [COLOR="Red"]c. 1000 - [mathematics][/COLOR] Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi first states a special case of Fermat's last theorem.

• c. 1000 - [mathematics] Law of sines is discovered by Muslim mathematicians, but it is uncertain who discovers it first between Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, and Abu al-Wafa.

• 1000 - [mathematics] Al-Karaji writes a book containing the first known proofs by mathematical induction. He who used it to prove the binomial theorem, Pascal's triangle, and the sum of integral cubes. He was "the first who introduced the theory of algebraic calculus."

• 1000 - [medicine, surgery, engineering] Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), the father of modern surgery, publishes his 30-volume medical encyclopedia, the Kitab al-Tasrif, which remains a standard textbook in Muslim and European universities until the 16th century. The book first introduced many surgical instruments, including the first instruments unique to women, as well as the surgical uses of catgut and forceps, the ligature, surgical needle, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, specula, lithotomy scalpel, and bone saw. He also invented the the plaster cotton dressing, oral anaesthesia, inhalational anaesthetic, and anaesthetic sponge.

• 1000s - [glass] Clear glass mirrors were being produced in al-Andalus.

• 1000s - [civil engineering] Cobwork (tabya) first appeared in the Maghreb and al-Andalus in the 11th century, and was later described in detail by Ibn Khaldun in the 14th century, who regarded it as a characteristically Muslim practice. Cobwork later spread to other parts of Europe from the 12th century onwards.

• 1000s - [mechincal technology] In Al-Andalus, Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi invents complex gearing, Epicyclic gearing, segmental gearing, and the geared mechanical clock. Muslim engineers also invent the Weight-driven mechanical clock.

• c. 1000 - 1009 - [physics, engineering] Ibn Yunus publishes his astronomical treatise Al-Zij al-Hakimi al-Kabir in Egypt. It contains the earliest desciption of a pendulum. He also constructs the first monumental astrolabe.

• 1000 - 1020 - [astronomy, engineering] Al-Sijzi invents the Zuraqi, a unique astrolabe designed for a heliocentric planetary model in which the Earth is moving rather than the sky.

• 1000 - 1030 - [biology] - Ibn Miskawayh discusses ideas on evolution.

• 1000 - 1031 - [astronomy] Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī was the first to conduct elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena. He discovered the Milky Way galaxy to be a collection of numerous nebulous stars.

• 1000 - 1037 - [mechanics, physics] Ibn al-Haytham discusses the theory of attraction between masses, and it seems that he was aware of the magnitude of acceleration due to gravity. Ibn al-Haytham also discovered the law of inertia, known as Newton's first law of motion, when he stated that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stops it or changes its direction of motion.

• 1000 - 1037 - [alchemy, chemistry, engineering] Avicenna criticizes the theory of the transmutation of metals. He also invents the chemical process of steam distillation and extracts the first fragrances and essential oils as a result, for use in aromatherapy and the drinking and perfumery industries. He also invents the air thermometer for use in his laboratory experiments.

• 1000 - 1037 - [mechanics, physics] Avicenna, the father of the fundamental concept of momentum in physics, discovered the concept of momentum, when he referred to impetus as being proportional to weight times velocity, a precursor to the concept of momentum in Newton's second law of motion. His theory of motion was also consistent with the concept of inertia in Newton's first law of motion.

• 1000 - 1038 - [astronomy, physics] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), in his Epitome of Astronomy, was the first to insist that the heavenly bodies "were accountable to the laws of physics".

• 1000 - 1038 - [biology] Ibn al-Haytham writes a book in which he argues for evolutionism.

• 1000 - 1048 - [alchemy, chemistry] Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī criticizes the theory of the transmutation of metals.

• 1000 - 1048 - [anthropology, Indology, history] Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, considered "the first anthropologist" and the father of Indology, wrote detailed comparative studies on the anthropology of peoples, religions and cultures in the Middle East, Mediterranean and South Asia. Biruni's anthropology of religion was only possible for a scholar deeply immersed in the lore of other nations. Biruni has also been praised for his Islamic anthropology.

• 1000 - 1048 - [earth sciences, Indology, geodesy, geology] Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, who is considered the father of Indology, the father of geodesy, one of the first geologists, and an influential geographer, hypothesized that India was once covered by the Indian Ocean while observing rock formations at the mouths of rivers, introduced techniques to measure the Earth and distances on it using triangulation, and measured the radius of the Earth as 6339.6 km, the most accurate up until the 16th century. He also determines the Earth's circumference.

• 1000 - 1048 - [engineering, mechanics, physics] Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī was the first to realize that acceleration is connected with non-uniform motion. He also invents the laboratory flask, pycnometer, and conical measure.

• 1000 - 1121 - [mechanics, physics] Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, and later al-Khazini, were the first to apply experimental scientific methods to mechanics, especially the fields of statics and dynamics, particularly for determining specific weights, such as those based on the theory of balances and weighing. Muslim physicists unified statics and dynamics into the science of mechanics, and they combined the fields of hydrostatics with dynamics to give birth to hydrodynamics. They applied the mathematical theories of ratios and infinitesimal techniques, and introduced algebraic and fine calculation techniques into the field of statics. They were also generalized the theory of the centre of gravity and applied it to three-dimensional bodies. They also founded the theory of the ponderable lever and created the "science of gravity" which was later further developed in medieval Europe.

• 1019 - [astronomy, technology] In Afghanistan, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī observed and described the solar eclipse on April 8, 1019, and the lunar eclipse on September 17, 1019, in detail, and gave the exact latitudes of the stars during the lunar eclipse He also invents the Orthographical astrolabe and the planisphere, which was the earliest star chart. He also invents a geared mechanical lunisolar calendar analog computer with gear train and eight gear-wheels, an early example of a fixed-wired knowledge processing machine.

• 1020 - [astronomical instruments] The geared mechanical astrolabe is perfected by Ibn Samh in Al-Andalus. These can be considered as an ancestor of the mechanical clock.

• 1021 - [optics, physics, engineering, mathematics, ophthalmology, psychology, scientific method, surgery] Ibn al-Haytham, who is considered the father of optics, the pioneer of the scientific method, the "first scientist", and the founder of psychophysics and experimental psychology, completes his Book of Optics, which has been ranked alongside Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica as one of the most influential books ever written in the history of physics. The book drastically transformed the understanding of light and vision, and introduced the experimental scientific method, hence the book is considered the root of experimental physics. It correctly explained and proved the modern intromission theory of vision, and described experiments on lenses, mirrors, refraction, reflection, and the dispersion of light into its constituent colours.[155] It also explained binocular vision and the moon illusion, speculated on the finite speed, rectilinear propagation and electromagnetic aspects of light, first stated Fermat's principle of least time, described an early version of Snell's law, and argued that rays of light are streams of energy particles travelling in straight lines The book also contains the earliest discussions and descriptions on psychophysics and experimental psychology, the psychology of visual perception, phenomenology, and the inventions of the pinhole camera, camera obscura, and parabolic mirror. In mathematics, the book formulated and solved "Alhazen's problem" geometrically, and developed and proved the earliest general formula for infinitesimal and integral calculus using mathematical induction. In medicine and ophthalmology, the book also made important advances in eye surgery, as it correctly explained the process of sight and visual perception for the first time.[121] The work also had an influence on the use of optical aids in Renaissance art and the development of the telescope and microscope.

• 1021 - [glass, scientific instruments] In the Book of Optics, Ibn al-Haytham develops the following scientific instruments: magnifying glass, parabolic mirror, spherical mirror, concave mirror, convex mirror, pinhole camera, and camera obscura.

• 1021 - 1037 - [optics, physics] Avicenna "observed that if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of particles by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite." He also provided a sophisticated explanation for the rainbow phenomenon.

• 1021 - 1048 - Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī stated that light has a finite speed, and he was the first to discover that the speed of light is much faster than the speed of sound.

• 1025 - [medicine, pathology, physiology] Avicenna (Ibn Sina), who is considered the father of modern medicine and one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history, publishes his 14-volume medical encyclopedia, The Canon of Medicine, which remains a standard textbook in Muslim and European universities until the 17th century. The book's contributions to medicine includes the introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification in the study of physiology, the discovery of contagious diseases, the distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy, the contagious nature of phthisis, the distribution of diseases by water and soil, the first careful descriptions of skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, perversions, and nervous ailments, the use of ice to treat fevers, the separation of medicine from pharmacology (important to the development of the pharmaceutical sciences), the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases, and the introduction of evidence-based medicine, experimental medicine, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, clinical pharmacology, neuropsychiatry, physiological psychology, risk factor analysis, and the idea of a syndrome in the diagnosis of specific diseases. The Canon is also considered the first pharmacopoeia.

• 1025 - [medicine, pathology] In The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna is the first to carry out cancer therapy. He recognized cancer as a tumor and noted that a "cancerous tumour progressively increases in size, is destructive and spreads roots which insinuate themselves amongst the tissue elements." He also attempted the earliest known treatments for cancer. One method he discovered was the "Hindiba", a herbal compound drug which Ibn al-Baitar later identified as having "anticancer" properties and which could also treat other tumors and neoplastic disorders. After recognizing its usefulness in treating neoplastic disorders, Hindiba was patented in 1997 by Nil Sari, Hanzade Dogan, and John K. Snyder. Another method for treating cancer first described by Avicenna was a surgical treatment. He stated that the excision should be radical and that all diseased tissue should be removed, which included the use of amputation or the removal of veins running in the direction of the tumor. He also recommended the use of cauterization for the area being treated if necessary Avicenna's Canon was also the first to describe the symptoms of esophageal cancer and the first to refer to it as "cancer of the esophagus." Hirudotherapy, the use of medicinal leech for medical purposes, was also introduced by Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine. He considered the application of leech to be more useful than cupping in "letting off the blood from deeper parts of the body." He also introduced the use of leech as treatment for skin disease. Leech therapy became a popular method in medieval Europe due to the influence of his Canon. In phytotherapy, Avicenna also introduced the medicinal use of Taxus baccata L. He named this herbal drug as "Zarnab" and used it as a cardiac remedy. This was the first known use of a calcium channel blocker drug, which were not used in the Western world until the 1960s.

• 1025 - 1028 - [astronomy] Ibn al-Haytham, in his Doubts on Ptolemy, criticizes Ptolemy's astronomical system for relating actual physical motions to imaginary mathematical points, lines, and circles.

• 1027 - [arithmetic, astronomy, earth sciences, geology, geometry, logic, mathematics, music, natural sciences, philosophy, psychology] Avicenna (Ibn Sina) writes one of the first scientific encyclopedias, The Book of Healing. Its contributions include nine volumes on Avicennian logic; eight on the natural sciences; four on the quadrivium of arithmetic, astronomy, geometry and music; a number of volumes on early Islamic philosophy, Islamic mathematics, metaphysics and psychology; the astronomical theory that Venus is closer to Earth than the Sun; and a geological hypothesis on two causes of mountains.

• 1028 - 1087 - [astronomy, engineering] Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) invents the "Saphaea", the first universal latitude-independent astrolabe which did not depend on the latitude of the observer and could be used anywhere. He also invents the equatorium, a mechanical analog computer device, and he discovers that the orbits of the planets are ellipses and not circles.

• 1029 - [chemistry, technology] The purification process for potassium nitrate (saltpetre; natrun or barud in Arabic) was first described by the Muslim chemist Ibn Bakhtawayh in his Al-Muqaddimat.

• 1030 - [astronomy] Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī discussed the Indian planetary theories of Aryabhata, Brahmagupta and Varahamihira in his Ta'rikh al-Hind (Latinized as Indica). Biruni stated that Brahmagupta and others consider that the earth rotates on its axis and Biruni noted that this does not create any mathematical problems.

• 1030 - 1048 - [astronomy] Abu Said Sinjari suggested the possible heliocentric movement of the Earth around the Sun, which Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī did not reject. Al-Biruni agreed with the Earth's rotation about its own axis, and while he was initially neutral regarding the heliocentric and geocentric models, he considered heliocentrism to be a philosophical problem. He remarked that if the Earth rotates on its axis and moves around the Sun, it would remain consistent with his astronomical parameters.

• 1031 - [astronomy] Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī completes his extensive astronomical encyclopaedia Canon Mas’udicus, in which he records his astronomical findings and formulates astronomical tables. It presents a geocentric model, tabulating the distance of all the celestial spheres from the central Earth. The book introduces the mathematical technique of analysing the acceleration of the planets, and first states that the motions of the solar apogee and the precession are not identical. Al-Biruni also discovered that the distance between the Earth and the Sun is larger than Ptolemy's estimate, on the basis that Ptolemy disregarded the annual solar eclipses. Al-Biruni also described the Earth's gravitation as "the attraction of all things towards the centre of the earth."

• 1038 - [astronomy] Ibn al-Haytham described the first non-Ptolemaic configuration in The Model of the Motions. His reform excluded cosmology, as he developed a systematic study of celestial kinematics that was completely geometric. This in turn led to innovative developments in infinitesimal geometry. His reformed model was the first to reject the equant and eccentrics, free celestial kinematics from cosmology, and reduce physical entities to geometrical entities. The model also propounded the Earth's rotation about its axis, and the centres of motion were geometrical points without any physical significance, like Johannes Kepler's model centuries later.

• 1038 - 1075 - [engineering] Ibn Bassal invents the flywheel in al-Andalus, and he first employs it in a Noria and a Saqiya chain pump.

• 1044 or 1048 - 1123 [mathematics, literature] Omar Khayyαm, a mathematician and poet, "gave a complete classification of cubic equations with geometric solutions found by means of intersecting conic sections. Khayyam also wrote that he hoped to give a full description of the algebraic solution of cubic equations in a later work: 'If the opportunity arises and I can succeed, I shall give all these fourteen forms with all their branches and cases, and how to distinguish whatever is possible or impossible so that a paper, containing elements which are greatly useful in this art will be prepared'." He later became the first to find general geometric solutions of cubic equations and laid the foundations for the development of analytic geometry and non-Euclidean geometry. He extracted roots using the decimal system (Hindu-Arabic numeral system). He is well-known for his poetic work Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, but there is dispute whether the Maqamat, a famous diwan of poetry translated to English are actually his work.

• 1058 - 1111 [law; theology] Al-Ghazali (Algazel), judge and prolific thinker and writer on topics such as sociology, theology and philosophy. He critiqued the philosophers Avicenna and al-Farabi in The Incoherence of the Philosophers. Wrote extensive expositions on Islamic tenets and foundations of jurisprudence. Also critiqued the Muslim scholastics (al-mutakallimun.) Was associated with sufism but he later critiqued it as well.

• 1070 - [astronomy] Abu Ubayd al-Juzjani proposed a non-Ptolemaic configuration in his Tarik al-Aflak. In his work, he indicated the so-called "equant" problem of the Ptolemic model, and proposed a solution for the problem.

• 1085 - 1099 - [related] First wave of devastation of Muslim resources, lives, properties, institutions, and infrastructure over a period of one hundred years: Fall of Muslim Toledo (1085), Malta (1090), Sicily (1091) and Jerusalem (1099). This was followed by several Crusades from 1095 to 1291.

• 1087 - [astronomy] Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī publishes the Almanac of Azarqueil, the first almanac. The entries found in the almanac "give directly the positions of the celestial bodies and need no further computation". The work provided the true daily positions of the sun, moon and planets for four years from 1088 to 1092, as well as many other related tables. A Latin translation and adaptation of the work appeared as the Tables of Toledo in the 12th century and the Alfonsine tables in the 13th century.

• 1091 - [education] Another early university, the Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad, was founded, and is considered the "largest university of the Medieval world".

Last edited by Shooting Star; Saturday, June 30, 2012 at 03:07 AM.
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