Architecture Of Sultanate Period
Architecture Of Sultanate Period
Architecture of Sultanate Period was the fusion of the two styles of the Hindus and the Muslims. Before the conquest of India by the Sultanate, the Hindus and the Buddhists had advanced a great deal in the art of architecture. There existed large beautiful temples, mansions, palaces, forts etc, when they came to India. They had developed their architecture and had already graceful maturity and the great mosque of Cairo, Bengal, Cardovaand builders were able to draw on a rich store of experience and using the Indian masons they were able to erect more notable buildings than all the other countries that came under the influence of Islam.
BUILDINGS OF SLAVE DYNASTY
Architectural activity under the Sultanate commenced of immediately with the establishment of the Muslim empire. The foundation of the Quwat-ul-Islam Mosque in Delhi and the other mosque known as Delhi ka Johupran were laid down by Qutub-ud-Din Aibak spent most of his brief reign at Lahore. The adornment of Muslim capital was essentially the work of Iltutmish. He doubled the size of the Quwat-ul-Islam Mosque and built “Qutb Minar.”
Fergusan said, “As the most perfect example of the tower known to exist anywhere”. He also built Nasiriya Madrassa and Hauz-i-Shams.
BUILDINGS OF KHILJI RULE
Khilji rulers also built many beautiful edifices. Ala-ud-Din Khilji was a great builder. He made many beautiful additions in Qwat-ul-Islam Mosque and constructed a tower known as “Hauz-i-Ala” Madrasa Ala, Ala Darwaza and Jamat Khana Mosque, were constructed by him at the Dargah of Nizam-ul-Din Auliya. Fort of Siri, Fort of Hazor-Piller and Hauz Khas are other building built by him.
BUILDINGS OF TUGHLAQ RULE
Ghias-ud-Din Tughlaq laid the foundation of a town namely Tughlaqabad near Dehli. Its simplicity is clearly visible though Muhammad Tughlaq was the patron of art and learning yet he could not pay concentration to both sides. However, he built the city of Jahanpanah and fort of Adilabad. Firoz Tughlaq founded Firozabad, Hisar Firoza, Fatehabad and Jaurpur.
BUILDINGS OF SAYED AND LODHIS
Owing to Tamur’s invasion in 1398 A.D., the resources of the country on the whole suffered a great setback. However, the tombs of Mubarak Shah and Muhammad Shah were built during the reign of Sayed’s dynasty and tomb of Sikander Lodi in Lodi period. Other buildings are the tomb of Bare Khan, Chhote Khan, Bare Gunbad, etc.
BUILDINGS OF THE PROVINCIAL, BAIMANI & VIJAYA NAGAR RULERS
After the fall of Tughlaq dynasty, the country was divided into various small provinces. In these provinces and kingdoms, a number of beautiful edifices were constructed. Adina Masjid, Chhota Sone Masjid and Bare Sona Mashid were built in Bengal. Jamia Masjid, Hindale Mahal Jahaz Mahal etc, were built in Malwa.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SULTANATE ARCHITECTURE
. The buildings at Delhi, where foreign Muslim builders were available in the largest numbers, display the traditional characteristics of the Muslims at its highest. Here Hindu craft ship had only a limited play.
. At Juanpur and Deccan, the local style enjoyed greater ascendancy.
. At Bengal, the conquerors not only adopted the established fashion of buildings but also adorned their structures imitated by the Hindu prototypes.
. Before the arrival of the Muslims, concrete had been in little use in India and was scarcely used. But the Mohammedans employed the same as freely as the Romans.
. Even in Delhi, the style varied with different periods when Muslim architects and supervisors were not available. The true Islamic architecture can be seen in Iltutmish period with Ala-ud-Din when the Muslim tradition became firmly established and ornamentation became an integral part.
. The Tughlaq introduced a new and austere phase, “a severe and puritanical simplicity”. In the Tughlaq architecture, the Hindu influence not only reduced to minimum but suffered from serious faults.
. Under the Lodhies, there reemerged a vigorous and catholic spirit of design, replete with creative energy and imagination and almost reminiscent of the Khilji period.
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