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Old Sunday, March 27, 2011
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Default Urdu Novel ka Ir'taqa

Urdu Novel ka Ir'taqa

Novel hamary yahan angraizi se aya aur atay he maqbol ho gaya. Aik angraizi naqaad ne novel ki tareef yun ki hai.

"Qisay ki kitab jo nasar mein ho aur is mein zindagi ki hu baahu tasveer ho.vo aik khaas zahni rujhan k tayhat likhi gae ho aur is mein rab't aur yak rangi ho"


Novel ki Iqsaam:

Beshumar hain maslan: Romani, Ikhlaqi, Israri, Ramziya, Ishqia, Siyasi, Nafsiyani. mager in sab ko romani novel he tassuwar ki jata hai.

Dosri qisam main nafsiyani novel aatay hain aik vo jin main muashary ki tasaveer hon , dosray vo jo seerat aur irtaqa par zor daitay hain, teesray vo jin main takhayul naf'si se kaam liya jata hai.

Bil-amoom aik novel main darj zael ajza hotay hain.

1. Plaat
2. Kirdaar
3. Mukalma
4. Manzar kashi
5. Jazbaat nigari
6. Nazriya hayat
7. Asool-e-bayan

Bunyadi tor per novel aik qisa ya kahani hai jis main zindagi ki tasever kashi aur tarjumani hoti hain.novel amoman zindagi k aik ahad aur dour per muheet hota hai aur is ki dakhali aur andhroni lahron ki tarjumani ker k awaam k samnay paish kerta hai. Qisa kahani ka ye andaaz humain "Arab" se mila laiken iska matlab ye nai k hamay han Qisay kahani ka wajud nai tha. Hmary han qadeem daastain aur kahaniyan majood thein jinhein novel ki ibtadahi shaklain kah saktay hain. bil-khasoos "Bhaag-o-bahar, Tilism hosh ruba, Dastaan ameer hamza, Fasana e ajaeib, Araish e Mehfil" waghaira Laiken urdu main jadeed kahaniyon ka aghaz 1857 k lag bag hua. Is ki ibtada Diputy Nazeer Ahmad k ikhlaqi qisoun se hui.

Nazir Ahmad pe mazhbi asraat baray gahray thay vo ikhlaq k bagair luqma nai tor'tay thay.unhon ne ibtada main jo kahaniyan likhein vo apni bachiyon ki taleemi zaroorat k paish e nazar likhain jin mein ikhlaqi aur istalahi nuqta nazar se darmayanay tabqay ki muaashi zindagi k baaz pahlowon ko khush aslobi se paish kiya gaya tha. In ki kitabain "Mira Tul Aroos, Toba tul- Nasoh, aur Fasana e Mubtala" maqbol hue. Is k bad "Ibn-ul- waqt" be inka acha novel tasuwaer kia jata hai.In k novalon mein istalahi aur mazbhi rang honay k bawajud dilchaspi ka saman majood hai. inka asloob e bayan dilkash hai agarchay kahin kahin lambhay waaz ukta daitya hain mager phir b aaj in ki kahaniyan bari dilchaspi se parhi jaati hain.

Nazir ahmad k ham asar pandat Pandat Ratan Naath Sarshaar hain. inhon ne bhi kai qisay likhay hain , bil-khaos "Fasana e Azaad, saer-e- Kohsaar, Jaam e Sarshaar, Khudaye Fojdaar kar'rum dha'rum, Hishoo, pee kahan" waghaira, Laiken inka shahkaar Fasana e azad hai. Ye novel inhon ne 'udh' akhbaar mein qist waar likha aur isay buhat maqboliyat hue. Tahum Fasana e azaad novel ki tareef pe poora nai utarta, aik naqaad k baqol ye waaqiyat ka jungle ha. Is mein koi marboot plat nai aur na waqayat mein koi tasulsul hai, kirdaar nigari to hai mager aala qisam ki nai hai. Fasana e azad main likhn'wi zindagi ki lazawal dastain hain. Nawabon k darbar aur beghmaat ki zunan musanif k pasandeda mozon hain .

Sarshaar aur Nazir ahmad k bad Abul Haleem sharar hain vo Sarshaar aur Nazir ahmad dono se bahtar fankar hain inko novel k fun ka bahtar shaur hasil hai. inhon se pahli bar fun ko malhoz rakhatay huay achay novel paish kiye. "Firdo e Bareeyen " inka shahkaar tasuwar kiya jata hai. Sharar ka dour chrischen mashinriyon ki manazr baazi ka daur tha. waisay bhi in per mazhbi rang ghalib tha.vo islami tareekh k dildada thay. lahaza in ka novel main aksar tareekhi novel hain - vo b islami tareekh se taluq rakhnay waley novel. novel ka marboot plot, chusti aur fun tarteeb sab in k han majood hai. vo dilchaspi qaim rakhana jaantay thay , mager apna tableegi maqsad bi nai bhooltay, inhon ne islami tareekh ko az sar e noh paish ker k musalmon k shandaar maazi ko zinda kernay ki koshish ki hai. In pe baray aitraz ye hain k unhon ne tareekhi waqyat ko tor maror ker paish kiya hai aur tareekh ko bighar diya hai, In k kirdaar arab k hain mager muasharat aur rasmo riwaj hindustan k hain.

Sarshaar ,Nazir ahmad, Abul Haleem sharar k bad kuch aisay novil nigar b aaye hain jin mein Rashid ul khairi, Munshi Sajjad Hussain aur Muhammad Ail tayyub k naam qabil e zikr hain mager in k haan talqeed zyada hai mager jidat o ikhtarah kam.

Rashid ul khairi, ne tabqa niswan ko apna mozo banaya. aurton ki islah ka jo silsala Nazir ahmad ne shoro kia tha isko Rahid ul khairi ne aagay barhaya.in hon ne aurat k masael ko aurat ki nazr se daikha aur inki takleef aur dukh dar ko dil guzaar rang main paish kiya.Inko musawar e gham bi kaha jata hai. "Subh e Zingadi, Mah e Ajam" in k mashhur noval hain. Inhein baja tor per auroton ka 'Sir Syyed' kaha ja sakta hai.

Munshi Sajjad Hussain ka mashhur novel "Haji Baghlol" hai. Is novel main vo Fasana e azad se motasir hotay hian. Haji baghlol kuch maqbol zaror hua mager koi infaradi muqam na hasil ker saka. isi tarah Muhamad AIi tayyub k novel b Sharar k novelon ka charba hain, vo tareekhi aur islami rang k novil likhtay.

Isi ahad main Mirza Muhammad Hadi Raswa ki noval nigari ka aghaz hua. In k novilon mein "Amro jaan ada" Urdu noval nigari main aik sang-e meel ki hasiyat rakhta hai. Is k elawa "Zaat Shareef aur Shareef Zada" b inhon ne likhay. mager in ki azmat e fun, kirdaar nigari, muashrat ki sachi tasveer afrini aur haqeeqat nigari k johar Amro jaan ada mein he nazar aatay hain, Ye aik 'tuaef' ki daastan hayat hai, is noval main raswa ne likhno ki zawal amada muashrat ki tahzeebi qadron aur samaji riwaeeton ki jeeti jagti tasveer paish ki hai. Falsfa, rayazi, science, shaeri, aur adab se raswa ko jo lagao tha is ne is noval mein aik azeem fun paray ki khasosiyat paida ki hain.In ka asloob e tahreer sada, rawan aur dil kash hai. Abarat mein motiyon ki aabdari hai. In ki zuban khalis likho ki zuban hai. Jo Husn tawazun is novel main nazar aata hai vo urdu k kisi noval main dikhai nai daita. ye her aitbaar se aik aala qism ka novil hai jo humaisha zinda rahay ga.

Raswa k bad hindustan ki zindagi main aik khas tagha'yur paida ho gaya, ab jadeed daur ka aghaz hua aur azadi ki tahreekain shooro honay lagi. Is mahol main Munshi Paraim Chand ne noval ar afsanay k medaan main qadam rakha."Meedan e Amal, Chogan e hasti " in k mashhur novil hain.In k noval wasee ul nazri, haqeeqat nigari, mashary ki tabqati kash ma'kash aur ikhtalafat ka aina daar hain. In ka fun zindagi ki nas nas ne khoon hasil kerta hai.Inhon ne apnay mahol ka ghehra mutaliya kia, aur ise mahul se apnay kirdaar hasil kiye.In k haan muqami ansar buhat ziyada hai, Vo pahle noval nigaar hain jinhon ne dihati zindagi aur dehat mein rahnay walay faqa kash, kisan aur mazdor tabqay k dukhon aur ghamon ko apnay novalon aur afsanon mein paish kiya. Rajputon ki azmon e kirdaar aur shujat ki kahaniyan likhein. In ka aik makhsos nazarya zindagi hai. in ki zuban mein farsi aur hindi alfaz ka istamal b hota hai. inka asloob sada. aam feham aur zordar hai. Praim chand ne panay novelon mein hindustan ki siyasi o muashi taraqi, muasharti aur samaji zindagi ki sachi tasveerain paish ki hain.

praim chand k baad urdu noval ki raftar mein aur taizi aa gae. bil khasos taraqi pasand musan'feen ne noval mein giran qadr azafay kiye. In naye tajurbat kernay walon mein "Sajjad Zaheer, Krishen Chandar, Asmat Chugtai, Aziz Ahmad" ne achay noval likhay.

Sajjad Zaheer ka aik noval "London ki aik raat" hai , is main mahol aur fard k intashaar ki tasveer ki gae hai. Is main kholos aur fikr ka pahlu numayan hai. Vo zindgi k mukhtalif afrad ko muashi zindagi ki roshni main daikhtay hain. Is main aik nojawan ki jinsi zindagi ki kahani bayan ki gae hai. Aik naqaad k baqol "is main zaati zindagi ka aks zyada nazr aata hai".

Krishen chander ka noval "Shikast" bhi acha noval khiyal kia gaya hai. Ye naye dour k intahsar mein aik naye aur dilkash zindagi ki justugu ka tarjuman hai. In main kashmir ka mahol pas manzar main hai. Aur aik kirdar mahol ki talkhiyon aur iztarab se ghabra ker fitrat ki hassen aghosh main panah laita hai.

Aziz ahmad ne kai achay noval likhay, "'Guraiz', 'Aise bulandi aise pasti' aur 'Shabnum'" ko zyada shuhrat hasil hue. "Guraiz " in ka numayan noval kaha jata hai, jis mein do jangon k darmayani wafqay k hangami Europe aur Ing'lastan ki zindagi ki tasveer paish ki gae hai. Is noval main ahad ka tamam inst'shar siyasi iztarab aur muashi fiza simat aaye hai. Aziz ahmad jinsi zindagi k muamalat k batan mein baray bay-baak thay aur is zaman main vo "Fried" ki jinsi nafsiyat ko b kaam main laatay hai.

Asmat Chughtai ne is dor main auraoton ki saf se ser uthaya, aur buht se mardon se bhi baazi lay gaen. In k noval "Tairi Kheer" ki buyaad is nafsiyani haqiqat pe hai, insan ka mahol iski shakhsiyat, mizaj, aur seerat ki tameer aur tashkeel main numayan hisa laita hai. seerat ki ye takmeel zaher o batin ki takmeel ka naam hai.

Is dour k bad taqseen e mulk ka azeem waqaya ru numa hua. Pakistan aur hindustan do alag alag mulk qarar paaye.Taqseem k sath he fasadat ka khoon ashaam k silsal shoro hua. Taqseem k dino mein ya is k bad kuch noval likhay gae. jin mein Rsheed Akhtar Nidvi ka "Pandara August" , Qaise Raam puri k noval 'Khoon' , 'Bay abroo', aur 'Firdos' , M.Aslam ka "Raqs e Iblees". Rama Nan'd Sagir ka "Aur insan mar gaya". Raes Ahmad Jafri ka Mujhahid, Naseem Hijazi ka "khaak o khoon",1947 k inhein fasadat aur khoon raizi ki dil guzar kahaniyan bayan kertay hain. In novoln mein insan ki hiwaniyat aur insaniyat k ibrat amoz waq'yat, noval nigaron k zati mushaahdat aur tajurbaat ka izhaar hain.

Taqseen k baad naye nas'l ubhri jis ne noval ki tarf bil-khasos tawaju di. In mein Shaukat Thanwi, Qurut ul ain Haider k navolon "Meray bi Sanam khanay, Safina e Dil, Aag ka darya" ko buht maqboliyat aur shuhrat hasil hue. Is tarah A- Hamid k "Jangal rotay hain, Jahan bar'f parti hai, Jheel aur kanwal " ko b maqboliyat hasil hue. A-R khatoon k noval "Shama, Tasveer, Afshan", Aisha Jamal k "Gard Safar " Ko b pasand kiya gaya.

Naye dor main Abdullah Husain k "Udas Naslain", Mumtaz Mufti ka "Ali Pur ka Aaili" , Fazal Kareem fazli ka "Khoon e Jigar Honay tak",Jameela Hashmi ka "Talash Baharan", Shoukat Sidique ka "Khuda ki basti", Khadija Mastoor ka "Aanghan", Altaaf Fatima ka "Nishan e Mehfil" Khasay mashhoor huye. Fiyaz Ali aur Saaliha Abid hussain ne bhi chand achay noval likhay. In taman noval nigarin ne muashi zindagi k masael aur insani seerat k buht se ghoshon aur pahl'won Ko paish kiya hai.

Jadeed dor main agrchay zindagi ki raftar buht taiz ho gae hai. Mu'aash o iqtasad ka musla ul'jh gaya hai. Fursat k lamhaat kam ho gae hain aur novalon k mutaaliya ki fursat nai rahi hai. Mager is k bawajud noval ki maqboliyat main farq nai aaya, Is ka mustaqbil bay had roshan hai.

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