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CHAPTER XVIII
OF OFFENCES RELATING TO DOCUMENTS AND TO TRADE OR
PROPERTY MARKS

463. Forgery: Whoever makes any false document or part of a document, with intent to
cause damage or injury, to the public or to any person, or to support any claim or title, or
to cause any person to part with property, or to enter into any express or implied contract,
or with intent to commit fraud or that fraud may be committed, commits forgery.
464. Making a false document: A person is said to make a false document.
First: Who dishonestly or fraudulently makes, signs, seals or executes a document or part
of a document, or makes any mark denoting the execution of a document, with the
intention of causing it to be believed that such document or part of a document was made,
signed, sealed or executed by the authority of a person by whom or by whose authority he
knows that it was not made, signed, sealed or executed, or at a time at which he knows
that it was not made, signed, seated or executed; or
Secondly : Who, without lawful authority, dishonesty or fraudulently, by cancellation or
otherwise, alters a document in any material part thereof, after it has been made "or
executed either by himself or by any other person, whether such person be living or dead
at the time of such alteration; or
Thirdly: Who dishonestly or fraudulently causes any person to sign, seal, execute or later
a document, knowing that such person by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication
cannot, or that. by reason of deception practised upon him, he does not know the contents
of the document or the nature of the alteration.
Illustrations
(a) A has a letter of credit upon B for rupees 10,QOO, written by Z. A, in order to defraud
E, adds a cipher to the 10,000 and makes the sum 10,000, intending that it may be
believed by 5 that Z so wrote .the letter, A has committed forgery.
(b) A, without Z's authority, affixes Z's seat to a document purporting to be a conveyance
of an estate from Z to A, with the intention of selling the estate to 6 and thereby of
obtaining from B the purchase-money. A has committed forgery.

(c) A picks up a cheque on a banker signed by B, payable to bearer, but without any sum
having been inserted in the cheque. A fraudulently tills up the cheque by inserting the sum
of ten thousand rupees. A commits forgery,
(d) A leaves with B, his agent, a- cheque on a banker, signed by A, without inserting the
sum payable and authorises B to fill up the cheque by inserting a sum not exceeding ten
thousand rupees for the purpose of making certain payments. B fraudulently fills up the
cheque by inserting the sum of twenty thousand rupees. B commits forgery.
(e) A draws a bill of exchange on himself in the name of B without B's authority, intending
to discount it as. a genuine bill with a banker and intending to take up the bill on its
maturity. Here, as A draws the bill with intent to deceive the banker by leading him to
suppose that he had the security of B, and thereby to discount the bill, A is guilty of
forgery.
(f) Z's will contains these words: "I direct that all my remaining property be equally divided
between A, B and C." A dishonestly scratches out B's name, intending that it may be
believed that the whole was left to himself and C, A has committed forgery.
(g) A endorses a Government promissory-note and makes it payable to Z or his order by
writing on the bill the words "Pay to Z or his order" and signing the endorsement. B
dishonestly erases the words "Pay to Z or his order" and thereby converts the special
endorsement into a blank endorsement. B commits forgery.
(h) A sells and conveys an estate to Z, A afterwards, in order to defraud Z of his estate'
executes a conveyance of the same estate to B, dated six months earlier than the date of
the conveyance to Z, Intending it to be believed that he had conveyed the estate to B
before he conveyed it to Z. A has committed forgery.
(i) Z dictate his will to A. A intentionally writes down a different legatee from the legatee
named by Z, and by representing to Z, that he has prepared th6 will according to his
instructions, Induces Z to sign the will. A has committed forgery.
(j) A writes a- fetter and signs it with B's name without B's authority, certifying that A is a
man of good character and distressed circumstances from unforeseen misfortune,
intending by means of such letter to obtain aims from Z and other persons. Mere, as A
made false document in order to induce Z to part with property, A has committed forgery.
(k) A without B's authority writes a letter and signs It in B's name certifying to A's
character, Intending thereby to obtain employment under Z. A has committed forgery
inasmuch as he intended to deceive Z by the forged certificate, and thereby to induce Z to
enter into an express or implied contract for service.
Explanation 1: A man's signature of his own name may amount to forgery.
Illustrations

(a) A signs his own name to a bill of exchange, intending that it may be believed that the
bill was drawn by another person of the same name. A has committed forgery.
(b) A writes the word "accepted" on a piece of paper and sings it with Z's name, in order
that 8 may afterwards write on the paper a bill of exchange drawn by B upon Z, and
negotiate the bill as though it had been accepted by Z. A is guilty of forgery; and if B,
knowing the fact, draws the bill upon the paper pursuant to As intention, B is also guilty of
forgery.
A picks up a bill of exchange payable to the order of a different person of the same
name A endorses the bill in his own name, intending to cause it to be believed that it was
endorsed by the person to whose order it was payable, here A has committed forgery.
(d) A purchases an estate sold under execution of a decree against B. B after the seizure
of the estate, in collusion With Z, executes a lease of the estate to Z at a nominal rent and
for a long period and dates the lease six months prior to the seizure, with intent to defraud
A, and to cause it to be believed that the lease was granted before the seizure. S, though
he executes the lease in his own name, commits forgery by antedating it.
(e) A, a trader, in anticipation of insolvency, lodges effects with B for A's benefit, and with
intent to defraud his creditors and in order to give a colour to the transaction, writes a
promissory-note binding himself to pay to B a sum for value received, and antedates that
note, intending that it may be believed to have been made before A was on the point of
insolvency. A has committed forgery under the first head of the definition.
Explanation 2: The making of a false document in the name of a fictitious person,
intending it to be believed that the document was made by a real person, or in the name of
a deceased person, intending it to be believed that the document was made by the person
in his lifetime, may amount to forgery.
Illustration
A draws a bill of exchange upon a fictitious person, and fraudulently accepts the bill in the
name of such fictitious person with intent to negotiate it. A commits forgery.
465. Punishment for forgery: Whoever commits forgery shall be punished with
imprisonment of either description for a term, which may extend to two years, or with fine,
or with both.
466. forgery or record of Court or of public register, etc.: Whoever forges a document,
purporting to be a record or proceeding of or in a Court of Justice, or a register of birth,
baptism, marriage or burial or a register kept by a public servant as such, or a certificate
or document purporting to be made by public servant in his official capacity, or an
authority to institute or defend a suit, or to take any proceedings therein or to confess
Judgment, or a power-of-attorney, shall be punished with imprisonment of either
description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

467. Forgery of valuable security, will, etc.: Whoever forges a document which purports
to be a valuable security, or a will, or an authority to adopt a son, or which purports to give
authority to any person to make or transfer any valuable security, or to receive the
principal, interest or dividends thereon, or to receive or deliver any money, movable
property, or valuable security, or any document purporting to be as acquaintance or
receipt acknowledging the payment of money, or an acquaintance or receipt for the
delivery of any movable property or valuable security, shall be punished with
imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may
extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
468. Forgery for purpose of cheating: Whoever commits forgery, intending that, the
document forged shall be used for the purpose of cheating, shall be punished with
imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shaft
also be liable to fine.
469. Forgery for purpose of harming reputation : Whoever commits forgery, intending
that the document forged shall harm the reputation of any party, or knowing that it is likely
to be used for that purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a
term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.
470. Forged document: A false document made wholly or in part by forgery is designated
"a forged document".
471. Using as genuine a forged document: Whoever fraudulently or dishonestly uses
as genuine any document which he knows or has reason to believe to be a forged
document, shall be punished in the same manner as if he had forged such document.
472. Making or possessing counterfeit seal, etc., with intent to commit forgery
punishable under Section 467 : Whoever makes or counterfeits any seal, plate or other
instrument for making an impression, intending that the same shall be used for the
purpose of committing any forgery which would be punishable under Section 467 of this
Code, or with such intent, has in his possession any such seal, plate or other instrument,
knowing the same to be counterfeit, shall be punishable with imprisonment for life, or with
imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall
also be liable to fine.
473. Making or possessing counterfeit seal, etc., with intent to commit forgery
punishable otherwise: Whoever makes or counterfeits any seal, plate or other
instrument for making an impression, intending that the same shall be used for the
purpose of committing any forgery which would be punishable under any section of this
chapter other than Section 467, or such intent, has in his possession any such seal, plate
or other instrument, knowing the same to be counterfeit, shall be punished with
imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall
also be liable to fine.

474. Having possession of document described in Section 466 or 467 knowing it to
be forged and intending to use it as genuine: Whoever has in his possession any
document knowing the same to be forger and intending that the same shall fraudulently or
dishonestly be used as genuine, shall, if the document is one of the description mentioned
in Section 466 of this Code, be-punished with imprisonment of either description for a term
which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine and if the document is
one of the description mentioned in Section 467; shall be punished with imprisonment for
life, or with imprisonment of either description, for a term which may extend to seven
years, and shall also be liable to fine,
475. Counterfeiting device or mark used for authenticating documents described in
Section 467, or possessing counterfeit marked material: Whoever counterfeits
upon, or in the substance of, any material, any device or mark used for the purpose of
authenticating any document described in .'Section 467 of this Code, intending that such
device or mark shall be used for the purpose of giving the appearance of authenticity to
any document then forged or thereafter to be forged on such material, or who, with such
intent, has in his possession any material upon or in the substance of which any such
device or mark has been counterfeit, shall be punished with imprisonment for fife, or with
imprisonment of either description, for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall
also be liable to fine.
476. Counterfeiting device or mark used for authenticating documents other than
those described in Section 467, or possessing counterfeit marked material:
Whoever counterfeits upon, or in the substance of, any material, any device or mark used
for the purpose of authenticating any document other than the documents described in
Section 467 of this Code, Intending that device or mark shall be used for the purpose of
giving the appearance of authenticity to any document then forged or thereafter to be
forged on such material, or who, with such intent, has in his possession any material upon
or in the substance of which any such device or mark has been counterfeited, shall be
punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven
years, and shall also be liable to fine.
477. Fraudulent cancellation, destruction, etc., of will, authority to adopt, or valuable
security: Whoever fraudulently or dishonestly, or with intent to cause damage or injury to
the public or to any person, cancels, destroys or defaces or attempts to cancel, destroy or
deface or secretes or attempts to secrete any document which is or purports to be a will,
or an authority to adopt a son, or any valuable security, or commits mischief in respect to
such document, shall be punished with imprisonment for life or with imprisonment of either
description- for a term-which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.
477-A. Falsification of accounts: Whoever, being a clerk, officer or servant, or employed
or acting in the capacity of a clerk, officer or servant, wilfully, and with intent to defraud,
destroys, alters, mutilates or falsifies any book, paper, writing, valuable security or account
which belongs to or is in the possession of his employer, or has bean received by him for
or on behalf of his employer, or wilfully, and with intent to defraud, makes or abets the

making of any false entry in, or omits or alters or abets the omission or alteration of any
material particular form or in, any such book, paper, writing valuable security or account,
shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to
seven years, or with fine, or with both.
Explanation: It shall be sufficient in any charge under this section to allege a general
intention to defraud without naming any particular person intended to be defrauded or
specifying any particular sum of money intended to be the subject of the fraud, or any
particular day on which the offence was committed
Section 477-A ins, by the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, IIl of 1895.
Of Trade, Property and Other Marks
478. Trade mark: A mark used for denoting that goods are the manufacture or
merchandise of a particular person is called a trade mark, and for the purposes of this
Code the expression "trade mark" includes any trademark which is registered in the
register of trade marks kept under the Trade Marks Act, 1940 (V of 1940).
Sec. 478 subs. by the Federal Laws (Revision and Declaration) Ordinance, XXVII of 1981.
479. Property, mark: A mark used for denoting that movable property belongs to a
particular person is called a property mark.
480. Using a false trade mark: Whoever marks any goods or any case, packages or
other receptacle containing goods, or uses any case, package or other receptacle with
any mark thereon, in a manner reasonably calculated to cause it to be believed that the
goods so marked/or any goods contained in any such receptacle so marked, are the
manufacture or merchandise of a person whose manufacture or merchandise they are
not, is said to use a false trade mark.
481. Using a false property mark: Whoever marks any movable property or goods or
any case, package or other receptacle containing movable property or goods, or uses any
case package or other receptacle having any mark thereon, in a manner reasonably
calculated to cause it to be believed that the property or goods so marked, or any property
or goods contained in any such receptacle so marked, belong to a person to whom they
do not belong, is said to use a false property mark.
482. Punishment for using a false trade-mark or property mark: Whoever uses any
false trade mark or any false property mark shall, unless he proves that he acted without
intent to defraud, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which
may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.
483. Counterfeiting a trademark or property mark used by another: Whoever
counterfeits any trade mark or property mark used by any other person shall be punished
with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with
fine, or with both.

484. Counterfeiting a mark used by a public servant: Whoever counterfeits any
property mark used by a public servant, or any mark used by a public servant to denote
that any property has been manufactured by a particular person or at a particular time or
place, or that the property is of a particular quality or has passed through a particular
office, or that it is entitled to any exemption, or uses as genuine any such mark knowing
the same to be counterfeit, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a
term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.
485. Making or possession of any instrument for counterfeiting a trade mark or
property mark: Whoever makes or has in his possession any die, plate or other
instrument for the purpose of counterfeiting a trade mark or property mark, or has in his
possession a trade mark or property mark for the purpose of denoting that any goods are
the manufacture or merchandise of a person whose manufacture or merchandise they are
not, or that they belong to a person to whom they do not belong, shall be punished with
imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine,
or with both.
486. Selling goods marked with a counterfeit trade mark or property mark : Whoever
sells, or exposes, or has in possession for sale or any purpose of trade or manufacture,
any goods or thing with a counterfeit trade mark or property mark affixed to or impressed
upon the same or to or upon any case, package or other receptacle in which such goods
are contained, shall, unless he proves.
(a) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing an offence against
this section, he had at the time of the commission of the alleged offence no reason to
suspect the genuineness of the mark and
(b) that, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in
his power with respect to the persons from whom he obtained such goods or things, or
(c) that otherwise he had acted innocently,
be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one
year, or with fine. or with both.
487. Making a false mark upon any receptacle containing goods : Whoever makes
any false mark upon any case, package or other receptacle containing goods, in a manner
reasonably calculated to cause any public servant or any other person to believe that such
receptacle contains goods which it does not contain or that it does not contain goods
which it does contain, or that the goods contained in such receptacle are of a nature or
quality different from the real nature or quality thereof, shall, unless he proves that he
acted without intent to defraud, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a
term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

488. Punishment for making use of any such false mark: Whoever makes use of any
such false mark in any manner prohibited by the last foregoing section shall, unless he
proves that he acted without intent to defraud, be punished as if he had committed an
offence against that section.
489. Tampering with property mark with intent to cause injury: Whoever removes,
destroys, defaces or adds to any property mark, intending or knowing it to be likely that he
may thereby cause injury to any person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either,
description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine or with both.
Of Currency-Notes and Bank-Notes
489-A. Counterfeiting currency-notes or bank-notes: Whoever counterfeits, or
knowingly performs any part of the process of counterfeiting, any currency-note or banknote, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either
description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
Explanation: For the purposes of this section and of Sections 489-B, 489-C and 489-D,
that expression "bank-note" means a promissory-note or engagement for the payment of
money to bearer on demand issued by any person carrying on the business of banking in
any part of the world, or issued by or under the authority of any State or Sovereign Power,
and intended to be used as equivalent to, or as a substitute for money.
Section 489-A to 489-D ins. by the Currency-Notes Foreign Act, XII of 1899, S.2.
489-B. Using as genuine, forged or counterfeit currency-notes or bank-notes :
Whoever sells to, or buys or receives from, any other person, or otherwise traffics, in or
uses as genuine, any forged or counterfeit currency-note or bank-note, knowing or having
reason to believe the same to be forged or counterfeit, shall be punished with
imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may
extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
489-C. Possession of forged or counterfeit currency-notes or bank-notes: Whoever
has in his possession any forged or counterfeit currency-note or bank-note, knowing or
having reason to believe the same to be forged or counterfeit and intending to use the
same as genuine or that it may be used as genuine, shall be punished with imprisonment
of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.
489-D. Making or possessing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting
currency-notes or bank-notes: Whoever makes, or performs any part of the process of
making, or buys or sells or disposes of, or has to his possession, any machinery,
instrument or material for the purpose of being used, or knowing or having reason to
believe that it is intended to be used, for forging or counterfeiting any currency-note or
bank-note, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either
description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
489-E. Making or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank-notes: (1)
Whoever makes, or causes to be made, or uses for any purposes whatsoever, or delivers

to any person, any document purporting to be, or in any way resembling or so nearly
resembling, as to be calculated to device, any currency-note or bank-note shall be
punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year,
or with fine or with both.
(2) If any person, whose name appears on a document the making of which is an offence
under sub-section (1), refuses, without lawful excuse, to disclose to a police-officer on
being so required the name and address of the person by whom it was printed or
otherwise made, he shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term
which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.
(3) Where the name of any person appears on any document in respect of which any
person is charged with an offence under sub-section (1) or on any other document used or
distributed in connection with that document it may, until the contrary is proved, be
presumed that person caused the document to be made.
Sec. 489-E ins. by the Penal Code (Amendment) Act, VI of 1943. S. 2.
489-F. Counterfeiting of using documents resembling National Prize Bonds or
un-authorised sale thereof: Whoever counterfeits, or causes to counterfeit, or perform
any act to use for any purpose whatsoever, or delivers to any person any document
purporting to be, or in any manner resembling to the National Prize Bonds, or indulges in
the business of sale or purchase of National Prize Bonds, or promotes such sale or
purchase of National Prize Bonds, in contravention of the rules made for the purpose,
shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years, or with
fine not exceeding one hundred thousand rupees, or with both.
Sec. 489-F ins. by Ordinance. LXXII of 95
489-F. Dishonestly issuing a cheque: How ever dishonestly issues a cheque towards
repayment of a loan or fulfilment of an obligation which is dishonoured on presentation,
shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to three years or with fine, or with
both, unless he can establish, for which the burden of proof shall rest on him, that he had
made arrangements with his bank to ensure that the cheque would be honoured and that
the bank was at fault in not honouring the cheque.
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