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Default 10th century

10th century

• 800 - 1000 [technology] The first wind powered gristmills and sugar refineries appear in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran. The first geared gristmills and the on/off switch are also invented by Muslim engineers. Other inventions from the Islamic world include the paned window, street lamp, Mercury escapement mechanism, bridge dam and Milling dam in Iran, diversion dam in Iraq, and litter collection, waste containers and Waste disposal in Al-Andalus.

• 800 - 1000 [drinking industry] Soft drinks, sherbets and syrup are invented in the Islamic world.

• 800 - 1000 The first public library and lending library are built in the Islamic world. The library catalog is also invented in Islamic libraries.

• 800 - 1300 [environmental science] The earliest known treatises dealing with environmentalism and environmental science, especially pollution, were Arabic medical treatises written by al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, al-Masihi, Avicenna, Ali ibn Ridwan, Ibn Jumay, Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Abd-el-latif, Ibn al-Quff, and Ibn al-Nafis. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, and environmental impact assessments of certain localities. Cordoba, al-Andalus also had the first waste containers and waste disposal facilities for litter collection.[

• 800 - 1300 [medicine, urology] In sexual health, Muslim physicians and pharmacists identified the issues of sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction, and they were the first to prescribe medication for the treatment of these problems. They developed several methods of therapy for this issue, including the single drug method where a drug is prescribed, and a "combination method of either a drug or food." These drugs were also occasionally used for recreational drug use to improve male sexuality in general by those who did not suffer from sexual dysfunctions. Most of these drugs were oral medication, though a few patients were also treated through topical and transurethral means. Sexual dysfunctions were being treated with tested drugs in the Islamic world since the 9th century until the 16th century by a number of Muslim physicians and pharmacists, including Ibn Al-Jazzar, Al-Razi, Thabit bin Qurra, Avicenna (The Canon of Medicine), Averroes, Ibn al-Baitar, and Ibn al-Nafis (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine).

• 865 - 925 [chemistry, medicine] Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes), in his Doubts about Galen, was the first to prove both Aristotle's theory of classical elements and Galen's theory of humorism wrong using an experimental method. He carried out an experiment which would upset these theories by inserting a liquid with a different temperature into a body resulting in an increase or decrease of bodily heat, which resembled the temperature of that particular fluid. Al-Razi noted particularly that a warm drink would heat up the body to a degree much higher than its own natural temperature, thus the drink would trigger a response from the body, rather than transferring only its own warmth or coldness to it. Al-Razi's chemical experiments further suggested other qualities of matter, such as "oiliness" and "sulfurousness", or inflammability and salinity, which were not readily explained by the traditional fire, water, earth and air division of elements.

• 858 - 1048 [astronomical instruments] The first reference to an "observation tube" is found in the work of Al-Battani, and the first exact description of the observation tube was given by al-Biruni, in a section of his work that is "dedicated to verifying the presence of the new cresent on the horizon." Though these early observation tubes did not have lenses, they "enabled an observer to focus on a part of the sky by eliminating light inteference." These observation tubes were later adopted in Latin-speaking Europe, where they influenced the development of the telescope.

• 865 - 925 [chemical technology] Kerosene was produced from the distillation of petroleum and was first described by al-Razi (Rhazes) in Baghdad. In his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets), he described two methods for the production of kerosene. One method involved using clay as an absorbent, while the other method involved using ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac). Al-Razi also described the first kerosene lamps (naffatah) used for heating and lighting in his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets). These were used in the oil lamp industry.

• 865 - 925 [alchemy] Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi writes that the only vegetable substance used by Muslim alchemists are the ashes of the Ushnan plant, from which they produced alkali metals and alkali salts. Razi also lists ten animal substances that were used by him and his contemporary alchemists: hair, skulls, brains, bile, blood, milk, urine, eggs, nacre (mother of pearl) and horn. He writes that hair, brains, bile, eggs, skulls and blood were used to prepare sal ammoniac.

• 865 - 925 [chemical processes] Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi first described the following chemical processes: calcination (al-tashwiya).solution (al-tahlil), sublimation (al-tas'id), amalgamation (al-talghim), ceration (al-tashmi), and a method of converting a substance into a thick paste or fusible solid.

• 900s - [mathematics, accounting] By this century, three systems of counting are used in the Arab world. Finger-reckoning arithmetic, with numerals written entirely in words, used by the business community; the sexagesimal system, a remnant originating with the Babylonians, with numerals denoted by letters of the arabic alphabet and used by Arab mathematicians in astronomical work; and the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, which was used with various sets of symbols. Its arithmetic at first required the use of a dust board (a sort of handheld blackboard) because "the methods required moving the numbers around in the calculation and rubbing some out as the calculation proceeded." Al-Uqlidisi (born 920) modified these methods for pen and paper use. Eventually the advances enabled by the decimal system led to its standard use throughout the region and the world.

• 900s - [technology] The first milling factory is built in Baghdad.

• 900s - [astronomy, mathematics, technology] The cartographic grid is invented in Baghdad, and graph paper is also invented in the Islamic world.

• 900s - Muslim astronomers also invent the almucantar quadrant, navigational astrolabe, vertical sundial, and polar sundial.

• 900s - [chemistry] Shaving soap is invented by Arabic chemists.

• 900s - [medicine] Alcohol is first employed for medical uses by Arabic physicians.

• 800 - 1000 - Muslim engineers invented a variety of surveying instruments for accurate levelling, including: a wooden board with a plumb line and two hooks, an equilateral triangle with a plumb line and two hooks, and a "reed level". They also invented a rotating alhidade used for accurate alignment, and a surveying astrolabe used for alignment, measuring angles, triangulation, finding the width of a river, and the distance between two points separated by an impassable obstruction

• 903 - 986 - [astronomical instruments] Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Latinized name, Azophi) first described over 1,000 different uses of an astrolabe, in areas as diverse as astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation, surveying, timekeeping, Qibla, Salah prayer, etc.

• 964 - [astronomy] Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi writes the Book of Fixed Stars, a star catalogue thoroughly illustrated with observations and descriptions of the stars, their positions, their apparent magnitudes and their colour. He identified the Large Magellanic Cloud, which is visible from Yemen, though not from Isfahan; it was not seen by Europeans until Magellan's voyage in the 16th century. He also made earliest recorded observation of the Andromeda Galaxy in 964 AD; describing it as a "small cloud". He also cataloged the Omicron Velorum star cluster as a "nebulous star", and an additional "nebulous object" in Vulpecula, a cluster now variously known as Al Sufi's Cluster, the "Coathanger asterism", Brocchi's Cluster or Collinder 399.

• 909 - 950 [ceramics, pottery] The Hispano-Moresque style of Islamic pottery emerged in Andalusia under the Fatimids.

• 920 [mathematics] Born al-Uqlidisi. Modified arithmetic methods for the Indian numeral system to make it possible for pen and paper use. Until then, doing calculations with the Indian numerals necessitated the use of a dust board as noted earlier.

• 927 - 928 - [astronomical instruments] The earliest surviving example of an astrolabe is dated 315 AH in the Islamic calendar.

• 936 - 1013 [medicine] Al-Zahrawi (Latinized name, Albucasis) Surgery, Medicine. Called the "Father of Modern Surgery."

• 940 - 997 [astronomy; mathematics] Muhammad Al-Buzjani. Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry, Trigonometry.

• 940 [mathematics] Born Abu'l-Wafa al-Buzjani. Wrote several treatises using the finger-counting system of arithmetic, and was also an expert on the Indian numerals system. About the Indian system he wrote: "[it] did not find application in business circles and among the population of the Eastern Caliphate for a long time." Using the Indian numeral system, abu'l Wafa was able to extract roots.

• 945 - 1000 [cuisine] Some of the earliest restaurants came into existence throught the medieval Islamic world at this time. The Islamic world had "restaurants where one could purchase all sorts of prepared dishes." These restaurants were mentioned by Al-Muqaddasi (born 945) in the late 10th century.

• 953 [mathematics] Born al-Karaji of Karaj and Baghdad (full name, Abu Bekr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Al-Karaji or al-Karkhi). Believed to be the "first person to completely free algebra from geometrical operations and to replace them with the arithmetical type of operations which are at the core of algebra today. He was first to define the monomials x, x2, x3, ... and 1 / x, 1 / x2, 1 / x3, ... and to give rules for products of any two of these. He started a school of algebra which flourished for several hundreds of years". Discovered the binomial theorem for integer exponents. This "was a major factor in the development of numerical analysis based on the decimal system."

• 953 [technology] The earliest historical record of a reservoir fountain pen dates back to 953, when Ma'ād al-Mu'izz, the caliph of Egypt, demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen which held ink in a reservoir and delivered it to the nib via gravity and capillary action, as recorded by Qadi al-Nu'man al-Tamimi (d. 974) in his Kitdb al-Majalis wa'l-musayardt.

• 957 [geography; cartography; exploration; chemistry] died Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masudi, best known as a cartographer, was also a traveler historian, etc. Al-mas`oudi described his visit to the oilfields of Baku. Wrote on the reaction of alkali water with zaj (vitriol) water giving sulfuric acid.

• 965 - 1040 [mathematics; optics; physics] Born ibn al-Haitham (full name, ; Latinized name, Alhazen). Possibly the first to classify all even perfect numbers (i.e., numbers equal to the sum of their proper divisors) as those of the form 2k − 1(2k − 1) where 2k − 1 is prime number. Al-Haytham is also the first person to state Wilson's theorem. if p is prime than 1 + (p − 1)! is divisible by p. "It is called Wilson's theorem because of a comment by Waring in 1770 that John Wilson had noticed the result. There is no evidence that Wilson knew how to prove it. It was over 750 years later that Lagrange gave the first known proof to the statement in 1771.! “Haytham in the tenth-eleventh century wrote a scathing critique of Ptolemy’s work: ‘Ptolemy assumed an arrangement that cannot exist, and the fact that this arrangement produces in his imagination the motions that belong to the planets does not free him from the error he committed in his assumed arrangement, for the existing motions of the planets cannot be the result of an arrangement that is impossible to exist’.”[

• 972 - 1058 [humanities] Al-Mawardi (Alboacen) Political science, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Ethics.

• 975 - [education] Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt, was a Jami'ah ("university" in Arabic) which offered a variety of post-graduate academic degrees (ijazah), and had individual faculties[ for a theological seminary, Islamic law and Islamic jurisprudence, Arabic grammar, Islamic astronomy, early Islamic philosophy and logic in Islamic philosophy.

• 975 - 1075 - [ceramics, pottery] Fustat becomes a center for innovative Islamic pottery and ceramics.

• 980 [mathematics] Born al-Baghdadi (full name, ). Studied a slight variant of Thabit ibn Qurra's theorem on amicable numbers. Al-Baghdadi also wrote texts comparing the three systems of counting and arithmetic used in the region during this period. Made improvements on the decimal system.

• 981 - 1037 [astronomy; mathematics; medicine; philosophy] Ibn Sina (Avicenna); Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy. Is considered to be the father of modern medicine

• 994 - [Astronomy, engineering] Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi constructs the first astronomical sextant in Ray, Iran.

• 996 - [Astronomy, engineering] The geared mechanical astrolabe, featuring eight gear-wheels, is invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī.

Last edited by Shooting Star; Saturday, June 30, 2012 at 03:14 AM.
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