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  #31  
Old Tuesday, January 15, 2008
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Gerunds (-ing)


When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to understand that they are not the same.

Gerunds are sometimes called "verbal nouns".



When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund:
  • Fishing is fun.


When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a present participle:
  • Anthony is fishing.
  • I have a boring teacher.







1. Gerunds as Subject, Object or Complement


Try to think of gerunds as verbs in noun form.

Like nouns, gerunds can be the subject, object or complement of a sentence:
  • Smoking costs a lot of money.
  • I don't like writing.
  • My favourite occupation is reading.


But, like a verb, a gerund can also have an object itself. In this case, the whole expression [gerund + object] can be the subject, object or complement of the sentence.

  • Smoking cigarettes costs a lot of money.
  • I don't like writing letters.
  • My favourite occupation is reading detective stories.



Like nouns, we can use gerunds with adjectives (including articles and other determiners):
  • pointless questioning
  • a settling of debts
  • the making of Titanic
  • his drinking of alcohol



But when we use a gerund with an article, it does not usually take a direct object:
  • a settling of debts (not a settling debts)
  • Making "Titanic" was expensive.
  • The making of "Titanic" was expensive.





Quote:
Do you see the difference in these two sentences? In one, "reading" is a gerund (noun). In the other "reading" is a present participle (verb).

My favourite occupation is reading.
My favourite niece is reading.


reading as gerund _____ (noun) Main Verb ______ Complement


My favourite occupation is reading.
My favourite occupation is football.



reading as present participle (verb) Auxiliary _____ Verb ______ Main Verb


My favourite niece is reading.
My favourite niece has finished.





2. Gerunds after Prepositions



This is a good rule. It has no exceptions!

If we want to use a verb after a preposition, it must be a gerund. It is impossible to use an infinitive after a preposition. So for example, we say:

I will call you after arriving at the office.
Please have a drink before leaving.
I am looking forward to meeting you.
Do you object to working late?
Tara always dreams about going on holiday.


Notice that you could replace all the above gerunds with "real" nouns:

I will call you after my arrival at the office.
Please have a drink before your departure.
I am looking forward to our lunch.
Do you object to this job?
Tara always dreams about holidays.




Quote:
The above rule has no exceptions! So why is "to" followed by "driving" in 1 and by "drive" in 2?

I am used to driving on the left.
I used to drive on the left.


to as preposition _______ Preposition

I am used to driving on the left.
I am used to animals.



to as infinitive ________ Infinitive

I used to drive on the left
I used to smoke.





3. Gerunds after Certain Verbs


We sometimes use one verb after another verb. Often the second verb is in the infinitive form, for example:

I want to eat.


But sometimes the second verb must be in gerund form, for example:

I dislike eating.



This depends on the first verb. Here is a list of verbs that are usually followed by a verb in gerund form:

admit, appreciate, avoid, carry on, consider, defer, delay, deny, detest, dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, face, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, can't help, imagine, involve, leave off, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practise, put off, report, resent, risk, can't stand, suggest, understand


Look at these examples:

She is considering having a holiday.
Do you feel like going out?
I can't help falling in love with you.
I can't stand not seeing you.




Quote:
Some verbs can be followed by the gerund form or the infinitive form without a big change in meaning: begin, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer, propose, start

I like to play tennis.
I like playing tennis.
It started to rain.
It started raining.






4. Gerunds in Passive Sense

We often use a gerund after the verbs need, require and want. In this case, the gerund has a passive sense.

I have three shirts that need washing. (need to be washed)
This letter requires signing. (needs to be signed)
The house wants repainting. (needs to be repainted)


Quote:
The expression "something wants doing" is British English.






Regards,
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  #32  
Old Friday, October 30, 2009
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nice and Hard wok brother u make it very easy thanks.
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  #33  
Old Saturday, November 07, 2009
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thanks a lot for this useful post it really works.
i also suggest others to use as much adjectives in your writings as you can it will really help you people
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  #34  
Old Tuesday, November 23, 2010
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Default Am I wrong?

AOA sir i am not good in english but i want to say that in first example of noun(level one) there must be that

The dog sleaps in his own bed.

not that,


The dog sleaps in her own bed.
(If i am wrong plz tell me or there is any other logic.If there is a bitch you can use her.)
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  #35  
Old Sunday, April 17, 2011
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Quote:
Originally Posted by komal malik View Post
AOA sir i am not good in english but i want to say that in first example of noun(level one) there must be that

The dog sleaps in his own bed.

not that,


The dog sleaps in her own bed.
(If i am wrong plz tell me or there is any other logic.If there is a bitch you can use her.)
You are right dear. I fail to discriminate the gender. Besides, I used to add few mistakes to grab the attention of members on that time. It was aimed to ameliorate command over language rather than thorough reading of thread. I must appreciate your attention. Best of luck for your future endeavours.
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  #36  
Old Sunday, April 17, 2011
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Why don't we make it "it" and "sleep" for his/her and sleap ?
It will be "The dog sleeps in its own bed."
Is that right ? or am I missing something here ?
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  #37  
Old Sunday, October 30, 2011
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Transition Words and Phrases



Transition words and phrases help establish clear connections between ideas and ensure that sentences and paragraphs flow together smoothly, making them easier to read. Use the following words and phrases in the following circumstances.

To indicate more information:

Besides
Furthermore
In addition
Indeed
In fact
Moreover
Second...Third..., etc.

To indicate an example:

For example
For instance
In particular
Particularly
Specifically
To demonstrate
To illustrate

To indicate a cause or reason:

As
Because
Because of
Due to
For
For the reason that
Since

To indicate a result or an effect:

Accordingly
Finally
Consequently
Hence
So
Therefore
Thus

To indicate a purpose or reason why:

For fear that
In the hope that
In order to
So
So that
With this in mind

To compare or contrast:

Although
However
In comparison
In contrast
Likewise
Nevertheless
On the other hand
Similarly
Whereas
Yet

To indicate a particular time frame or a shift from one time period to another:

After
Before
Currently
During
Eventually
Finally
First, . . . Second, . . ., etc.
Formerly
Immediately
Initially
Lastly
Later
Meanwhile
Next
Previously
Simultaneously
Soon
Subsequently

To summarize:
Briefly
In brief
Overall
Summing up
To put it briefly
To sum up
To summarize

To conclude:
Given these facts
Hence
In conclusion
So
Therefore
Thus
To conclude
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Old Thursday, December 01, 2011
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its realy very gud and v.helpful for those who are bigners here ..and i want to say plz include the extra grammar structure here like either....or,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,neither...nor and whither...or and so on
thanx!
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  #39  
Old Thursday, December 01, 2011
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Default reference website

Reference website is
English Club

good one to learn
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  #40  
Old Thursday, December 01, 2011
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Question

Quote:
Originally Posted by Umer View Post
Why don't we make it "it" and "sleep" for his/her and sleap ?
It will be "The dog sleeps in its own bed."
Is that right ? or am I missing something here ?
Dear friend i dont think so "it"would be used in the place of "dog" because dog is not the common gender.."It" can be used in the following case

"The animal sleeps in its own bed"

Please correct if i am wrong

Regard
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