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Pakistan Affairs A 100 marks paper divided into mainly two zones: Pre-Partition and Post-Partition

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Old Thursday, April 02, 2009
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Default Educational Policy Of Pakistan 1998 To 2010

EDUCATIONAL POLICY OF PAKISTAN 1998 TO 2010

INTRODUCTION

According to the constitution of 1973, article 25

1. All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law.
2. There shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex alone.
3. Nothing in this constitution shall present the state from making any special provision for the protection of women and children.

For the normal and non-lawyer persons there is no relation in this article and its sub-clause with “EP” but for law fraternity it has impact that might be left on whole state policy. Especially where according to law and constitution we donot discriminate among students and institution on the basis of sex, gender, and cast.


Justice “Muhammad Nassem chuhdry” in his famous commentary of constitution of 1973stated that:


“Educational institution Allegation of discrimination in making of answer books by specified papers to appear in court on fixed date of hearing along with answer book of all other examinees marked by them .Validity leave to appeal was granted to examine whether high court was right in summoning examines as well as the answer books to find out if they had been corrected making.”

#1996-schr-676

“Reasonable classification has always been considered permissible ,provided that such classification is based on reasonable and rational categorization .such classification must not be arbitrary or artificial, it must be evenly applicable to all persons or goods similarly situated or placed” (justice m.naseem chuhdry 1973 const /p-89)


And the other article of constitution that cast shadow over educational policy is Article-31, with article 31, we have one other article that is 227 that also stress on Islamic sharia applicability over the whole system of state.


So in the process of making E-policy ,publishing E-policy, propagating E-policy, while preparing for curriculum ,we drive not only light and guide ness from constitution generally and “objective Especially” but also we take guide ness from Islamic sharia .

According to the constitution “No law will be made by legislature that is contradictory and against the Islamic ideologies” so this article clearly makes link with educational policy of state.

Pakistan is a federal Islamic cum parliamentary state by the faith of country law and Regulation, even though researcher such As “Dr.poly dada” said that Pakistan is not an Islamic state but it’s a state of Muslims”. But majority believes that it’s an Islamic state.

This is the point that left lot of flaw and gap while making and implementing state Educational policy.
Pakistani educational system has converted and splitted in class education such like. Upper class school, upper middle school, lower middle school, lower private schools and maddarsahs based system run by wafaq-ul madaris and tanzeem-ul-madarees.and government yellow wall schools.

And higher education is also seems devided in same pattern, till yet 3 major educational policies, reformation and, recommendation has been made that are coming below.

1. Policy presented by justice S.M.Shareef on the 26 August of 1959.
2. the Educational policy and reformation that was made by the Z.A.bhutto made commission on the 15, March of 1972.
3. The educational policy made for the period of 1998 till 2010 .

Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010

Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education

Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur'an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. Nazira Qur'an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur'an will be offered.

Literacy and Non-Formal Education

Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.


Elementary Education

About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner. Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and assessment system.

Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (I-VIII). Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education.

Secondary Education
One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for technical and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level.


Teacher Education

To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels i.e. introduction of programs of FA/FSc education and BA/BSc education . The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers, preferably at least once in five years. A special package of incentives package shall be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher educators shall be created.

Technical and Vocational Education

To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system. Revision and updating of curricula shall be made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market and for accommodating the new developments. Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be reflected in the curricula. Institution-industry linkages shall be strengthened to enhance the relevance of training to the requirements of the job market. Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. A National Council for Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.

Higher Education

Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Reputed degree colleges shall be given autonomy and degree awarding status. Degree colleges shall have the option to affiliate with any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for examination and award of degrees. To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at higher rates than usual grades. Local M.Phil. And Ph.D programs shall be launched and laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. Split PhD programs shall be launched in collaboration with reputed foreign universities and at the minimum, 100 scholars shall be annually trained under this arrangement. All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned.

Information Technology

Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc

Library and Documentation Services

School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library. Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced.

Private Sector in Education

Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations. Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided (a) plots in residential schemes on reserve prices, and (b) rebate on income tax, like industry. Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. Curricula of private institutions must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.

Innovative Programes

The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. This mechanism is expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.

Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation

A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels. Data collected through Provincial EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System (NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. Databases of critical indicators on qualitative aspects of educational growth shall be developed and maintained by AEPAM for developing sustainable indicators of progress, based on more reliable and valid data to facilitate planning, implementation and follow-up. A School Census Day shall be fixed for collecting data from all over the country.
The total expenditure of the government on education will be raised from its present level of 2.2% to 4% of GNP by the year 2002-03 (p.132).

Analysis
If you will go through the Education policy of Pakistan from 1998 to 2010 you would have to know that the policy is just consist on 15 points. And whole theme of policy move around these 15 points.

So in the very first Aim and objective point we may find there that “Education and Training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teaching of Islam as laid down in the quran and sunnah and to Educate, to train them as a true plasticizing Muslims .These lines are not a new lines lined by the policy makers, we continuously keep on reading all these stuff for previous 60 years from the Mouth of government and policy makers. And again the policy proved that it has been unsuccessful what are the reasons? And what is the logic behind it? We don’t have an enough time and space to discuss here the answer may be asked to educators.

As clearly the clash between the deeni madersah students and modern school and institutions students is going on and fight is being on in fata, and tribal Agencies, and again the battle among the Mr. and Mullah is being fought due to un-unified, non-logic, non centralized policy. gap and gulf between these both educational systems is clear to every body.

Now we turn our selves to the 2nd point where our policy makers shown there dream to achieve the 70% literacy rate from 39% till 70%.and it clearly seems us impossible ,even though the project such as in province Punjab like “parha likha” Punjab didn’t reach to the zenith .Basically they need sincerity,professionalism,and hard working .in the statement of policy makers where they displayed their concern over education through the policy that till 2010 disparities in basic education that will be reduce to half by year 2010.

Policy makers in their 3rd stage relate it to the elementary education, and here they explained that they till the 2002-3. 90% of the age of 5-9 will be enrolled in elementary education .they will also revise the curriculum and stress will be given to teachers training, and improvement in the management and supervision system will be made, and same formula will be apply to the existing examination and assessment system.


Secondary stage:

After the elementary stage we have now the secondary education, the unique stuff in the secondary stage is that, it insisted that there shall be one model school that will be setup in the district level and the participation level rate will be increased from 31 % to 48% by 2002-03.one sharp feature of this stage is about the Technical Education that will will be made to the part of secondary education and curricula will be updated for particular task. Multiple text books will be introduced at secondary school level.


One of the novel things in the policy is about training of secondary teachers through workshops and refreshment cources.Both the formal and non means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers.


The commission also gave importance to the technical and vocational education in country for producing trained manpower. But we see that the Government has been unsuccessful while chasing target. Reasons are several and they cant be throughly explained. Basic the commission failed to recognized that where world is going on? and on what lines the Asian tigers working? ,as usual ,few discipline in science and technologies were given importance. Telecommunication progress mean the advancement in service sector of telecom . No technology related to matter has been transferred to Pakistan and no assistance to universities provided as compare to china, India and Malaysia ,where not only micro processors and hardwares are being assembled but also technologies has been also provided to these particular countries.

Even though the most progressive technical industry of Pakistan that is Automobiles have not been provided fully assistance and technology to local market. The main CEO is pertaining to manufacturing country. No collaboration to any technical and engineering university has been made.

Increasing fuel prices and high rise car price stresses the manufacture to manufacture the nano car for common man as have been done in India by Tata group. Where local universities and foreign collaboration made it happen. I think our policy makers are not technical they just makes policy for groups and classes and for their own sake.

Higher education stage:

Three major successful and last stages are implementation of policy about the HE and HEC, and also they stressed the need to develop the information technology structure or the library and documentation structure to safe Your heritage and archives.

They are claimed to be competively successful phases for the policy makers and government all because of “Dr Ata-ul-rehamn” self interest. HEC a successor of university grant commission in his guidance lead this phase in right direction. And throughout they enhanced the standard of Higher education .That worked for producing quality scholars; PhD’s and they also worked to ban plagiarism.

This stage insist that “access to the Higher Education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010.Merit shall be the only criterion for entry to the higher Education .

Degree colleges shall have to affiliate with any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for Examinination and award for degrees”



The Novelty in this programme is that the split-PhD programme has been created through this programme 100 researcher and desirous student will be sent to international university and institutions. And annually we will have a trained upgraded researchers, scholars to assist our Higher education system and standard will be only merit. I have confirmed this many of The persons from HEC about it, and they accepted that HEC is the most reputable professional institute in this country, but few complained have been received that few eligible low status student were not selected, this is a sad thing and only God know that How much it keeps Reality.

In information Technology stage HEC tried to make PCs common, to common people. And used PCs were imported in country at very low price. Few year of the policy announcement no tax was imposed on computer hardwares.networking, bandwith low rate, intranet culture was developed here to make information easy and accessible .that’s why in elementary and secondary level computer classes were conducted, IT course was included in the curriculum .

Policy makers in policy making stressed and took initiative that the setting up of private institution in country will be encourage .and powers for education will flow fro central to district level.


The Expenditure of the Government on Education will be raised from present level 2.2% to 4% of total GNP by The year 2002-03
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