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Old Tuesday, February 27, 2007
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ALL ABOUT PAKISTAN AFFAIRS


LIST OF SUFFIS AND ULEMA`S

1. Hazrat sheikh bukhari
2. Hazrat datta ghanj baksh
3. Hazrat khuwaja mohiddin chushti
4. Hazrat bhaw-al-din zikriya
5. Hazrat fareed-al-din
6. Hazrat Alla-al-din sabbir
7. Hazrat majadid alaf saani
8. Hazrat shah wali ullah
9. Hazrat sheikh abdul haq muhdas
10. Hazrat lal shebaaz ali qalander
11. Hazrat abdul-latif bhitai
12. Hazrat syed ali hamdani
13. Hazrat jalal-al-din sulheti
14. mulana mohd qasim nanutuye
15. mulana Ahmed ali khan brelwi
16. mulana mehmood-al-hassan devbandi
17. mulana ubaid allah sindhi
18. mulana ashraf ali khanuwi
19. mulana shabbit ahmed usmani


Mahmud Ghaznavi (977 - 1030)


Mahmud ghaznavi was the muslim ruler of ghazni who gained fame by raiding india on seventeem times from 1000 to 1027 A.D. On each occasion he defeated hindu kings and returned to Ghazni with enormous wealth.He is the person who bring Islam in sub-continent by capturing the Sommnath.


Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi (RA)


Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi was a muslim saint and scholar who flourished during the reigns of Akbar and Jahangir. He differed with etheistic view of Sheikh Mubarak and his sons Faizi and Abul Fazl.Jahangir imprisoned him for his religious activities but released him shortly afterwards. Sheikh ahmed Sirhindi propounded the doctrine of Wahdatul Shahud which successfully countered the Bhakti philosophy of Wahdatul Wujud.


Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-26)


Ibrahim Lodhi was the last lodhi sultan of Delhi. He was defeated by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.


MUGHAL EMPIRE

After defeating the Ibrahim lodhi ,The mughal empire had been came in existence by Zahir-ul-din Babur

1. Zahir-ul-din Babur
2. Humayun
3. Akber
4. Jahangir
5. Shahjahan
6. Orangzeb alamgir
7. Bhadur Shah Zafar


Downfall of muslim rule (CAUSES)


1.Ignorance of religious beliefs
2. Lack of solidarity
3. Centralization of mughul Administration
4. No law of succession
5. Weakness of Character
6.Educational Decline
7. Military weakness
8. No naval Force


Establishment of British rule

The british east India company was struggling for gaining ground to establish itself permanently on the subcontinent since 1600 A.D. The other European colonialist powers had lost their will to keep themselves in row with the English because of their superiority on seas. Lord Clive established English influence on sound footing and returned to england in 1787
When no rival European power was left on the scene , the English took advantage of the unsettled conditions of India and consolidated themselves politically.They clevely played one local ruler against the other and conquered India with the might of india.They demonstrated a great diplomati skill and employed improved arms with a better knowledge of warfare. The indian rulers at last fell a victim to their own entanglement. They were either forced to accept the authority of East India Company or to be completely wiped off.This process of expansion of the british occupation od India continued in one form orthe other.Kingdom after kingdom fell and then English finally pushed themselves ahead to succeed the mughuls.
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Jehad Movement

Jehad Movement was started by Syed Ahmed Barelvi and his companions in the first half of the 19th century.This movement aimed at taking back control of India from the british and the Sikhs. Jehad movement met some sucess in its early stage when the Mujahideen defeated Sikh army and captured Peshawar.


Two Nation Theory

It is the theory that the hindus and muslims are two different nations because each of them has a separate religion, language, architecture, culture and way of life. This theory formed the basis of the pakistan movement which finally led to the creation of pakistan in 1947. Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam were the greatest exponents of Two-NationTheory.

In the view of Allama Iqbal:
"India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races , speaking different languages and professing different religions....Even the Hindus do not form a homogeneous group. The principle of European democracy can not b applied to india without recognizing the fact of communal groups The muslims demand for the creation of a muslim india within India is, therefore, perfectly justified"

According to Quaid-e-Azam
"We maintain and hold that Muslims and Hindus are two major nations by any definition or test of a nation.We are a nation of a hundred million and what is more we are a nation with our own distinct culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names nad nomenclature, sense of values and proportion"


Hindi-Urdu Controversy (1867)


Hindi- Urdu Controversy became the focus of nation attention in 1867 when some hindus of benarus tried to replace urdu with hindi as the court language. Sir syed ahmed was disappointed at the anti-Muslim attitude of Hindus.


War of Independence (1857)


The muslim of the Sub-continent fought a war of Independence in 1857 to overthrow the British Raj.However, this war could not succeed because it lacked competent leadership, coordination troops , military and financial resources and modern weapons. After the war, the British held the muslim responsible for this catastrophe and unleashed a wave of oppression and repression on them


M.A.O college Aligarh


In 1875, Muhammad Anglo-Oriental High school was founded by Sir syed ahmed khan. Two years later, in 1877 it was given the status of a college. It functioned from 1877 to 1919 and educated thousands of muslim students who formed the vanguard of pakistan movement.This college was given the status of a muslim university in 1920,after the death of Sir syed ahmed khan.


Deoband Movement


Deoband movement was a socio-religious movement of Indian in the later half of the 19th century. It was started by Maulana Mohd Qasim Nanautvi in 1866. It aimed at educating the muslims in purely religious subjects by keeping english out of its syllabus. It laid stress on Arabic and Persion languages.



Nadva-tul-Ulema, Lucknow


In 1894, Nadva-tu-Ulema, lucknow was founded by Maulana Abdul Ghafoor and Maulana Shibli Nomani. Nadva aimed at reforming Muslim society by imparting both ecclesiastical and secular knowledge to muslims


Anjuman Himayat-e-Islam, Lahore

Anjuman himayat-e-Islam ,lahore was established in 1884. Khalifa hameeduddin and Maulvi Ghulam Ullah were elected as its first president and secretary respectively.Later on, the Anjuman opened many educational and welfare institutionsion Lahore. Out of these Islamia college Railway road became very famous. The students of Islamia college arranged the annual meeting of muslim league at Lahore on 23rd march 1940 which passed lahore resolution.


First Constituent Assembly


First constituent assembly held its first meeting on 10th august,1947.Originally it comprised of 69 members of Central legislature belonging to punjab,sindh,NWFP and Baluchistan.Later on,the numer of members was raised to 79.This first constituent assemble was dissolved by ghulam mohammad in oct,1954.


Objectives Resolution

The Contituent Assembly approved the objective resolution on 12th mar,1949.It embodied the basic principles for the future contituent of pakistan.The objective resolution stated that the sovereignty belonged to Allah and declared that the Muslims of pakistan would lead their lives according to the principles of Islam and The minorities would b free to practise their religions.


Ulema`s 22 Points

The Govt of pakistan convened a convention of Ulema from 21-24th jan 1951 at karachi.The convention was attended by 31 muslim religious scholars belonging to all sects od Islam.The Ulema agreed on 22 points


Establishment of pakistan (Initial problems and events)

1. Demarcation of boundaries .....Radcliffe`s Award
2. Congress Reaction
3. Uprooting of muslim in punjab
4. Refugees problem and their resettlement
5. Division of Armed forces and Military Assets
6. Division of financial Assets
7. Canal Water Dispute
8. Accession of Princely states (junagarh,kashmir and hyderabad)
9. economic problems and political problems
10. Constitutional problem
11. Death of Quaid-e-Azam


Indus water Treaty


Indus water treaty was signed by india and pakistan in 1960to resolve the outstanding canal water dispute between the two countries

Rann of Kutch

Rann of Kutch is a wide stretch of marshy land situated towards the south-east of pakistan. In 1965 this area became a scene of border clash betweem india and pak.


Six Points of Mujid-ur-rehman


In feb 1966, Sheikh Mujib the leader of Awami league announced his 6 points, which demanded maximum autonomy for East pakistan.Later on, these points became the basis for the separation movement by Bengalis.


Liaquat - Nehru Pact

Liaquat Ali khan and Nehru signed a pact on 8th april 1950 in delhi.According to this agreement, both the countries agreed to protect the rights of their minorities and undertook to stop propaganda against each other.


Simla Accord


The 1971 Indo-pak was abd the insurgency of bengalis resulted in the separation of east pakistan. The way brought in its wake many issue, which included the release of PoWs, trial of selected PoWs, return of Baharis to pakistan and recognition of bangladesh . In july 1972, Z.A.Bhutto and Indira Gandhi signed an Accord in simla which is historically known as simla accord
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Languages of pakistan


Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. About thirty-one distinct languages are spoken in pakistan, not counting a number of dialects, but no single language is commonly spoken or understood in all parts of the country.Many of the languages are spoken by a relatively small proportion of the population and some are not even commonly written, but sentiment and association among the speakers is almost invariably opposed to absorption into one of the larger units. With minor exception all the languages are also spoken outside the country


Ratio of languages of pakistan

1. Urdu ( 7.6 )
2. Punjabi ( 44.1 )
3. Pushto ( 15.4 )
4. Sindhi ( 14.1 )
5. Balochi ( 3.6 )
6. Saraiki ( 10.5 )
7. Others ( 4.7 )


POPULATION OF PAKISTAN BY RELIGION


According to census of 1981 , religion-wise population of pakistan was as under

1. Muslim = 81,450,057
2. Christians = 1,310,426
3. Hindus = 1,276,116
4. Ahmadis = 104,244
5. Bhuddist = 2639
6. Parsis = 7007
7. Others = 103,155


Economics of Pakistan (Five Year Plans)


So far the government of pakistan has launched the following nine five year plans. ( 1975 to 1978 ) is regarded as no plan period

1. First five year plan (1955-60)
2. Second five year plan (1960-65)
3. Third five year plan (1965-70)
4. Fourth five year plan (1970-75)
5. Fifth five year plan (1978-83)
6. Sixth five year plan (1983-88)
7. Seventh five year plan (1988-93)
8. Eighth five year plan (1993-98)
9. Ninth five year plan (1998-2003)


Important Rivers Of Pakistan

PUNJAB : Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , Sutlej
SINDH : Hub , Mir Nadi , Arl Nadi
NWFP : Indus , Kabul , Swat , Bara , Chitral , Zhob , Panjkora , Gomal , Kurram
BALUCHISTAN : Hangol , Nari , Bolan , Dasht , Mula , Rakhshan , Pashin Lora


The Largest in Pakistan

Air Lines : PIA
Air Port : Quaid-e-azam International Airport , Khi
Bank : State bank Of pakistan.The largest commercial bank is Habib bank Ltd with Rs. 194.6 billion desposit
Barrage : Sukkur Barrage
City : Karachi, Estimated population 9.9 millions
Canal : Lloyd Barrage Canal
Dam : Tarbela Dam (vol 148 million cubic metres)
Desert : Thar (sindh)
Division : Kalat division (baluchistan),Area 1,38,633 sq km
District : Khuzdar (baluchistan)
Fort : Rani Kot (sindh)
Gas Field : Sui Gas Field, Baluchistan
Hospital: Nishtar Hospital , Multan
Hydro-Electric Power Station : Tarbela (3478 MW)
Industrial Unit : Pakistan Steel Mills , Karachi
Industry : Textile Industry
Island : Manora (karachi)
Jungle : Chhanga Manga (kasur)
Lake (Artificial) : Keenjhar Lake (sindh)
Lake (natural): Manchhar Lake, Dadu (sindh)
Library : The punjab public Library,Lahore (punjab)
Mine : Salt Mines , Khewra (punjab)
Mosque : Shah Faisal Mosque , Isl
Motorway : Lahore-Islamabad,motorway
Museum : National Museum, karachi
Newspaper : Jang (urdu) ; The news (eng)
Nuclear Reactor : Karachi Nuclear Power plant (KANUPP)
Oil Field : Dhurnal Oil Field
Park : Ayub National Park , Rawalpindi
Radio station : Islamabad
Railway station : Lahore
River : Indus river
University : Punjab University , lahore


The Longest in Pakistan

coast : Balochistan (771 kms long)
Frontier : Pak-Afghan border (2252 kms)
Railway Platform : Rohri (sindh),Length 1894 feet
Railway track : Karachi to Landi kotal
Road : Karachi to peshawar
Tunnel (railway) : Khojak baluchistan (2.43 miles)
Tunnel (road) : Lowari (5 miles)
Tunnel (water) : Warsak Dam Tunnel (3.5 miles)


The Tallest in pakistan

Tower : Minar-e-pakistan (height 196 feet 8 inches)
Minart : Four Minarets of Shah faisal Mosque with height of 286 feet each
Mountain pass : Muztagh Pass (Height 19030 feet)
Mountain peak : K-2 (karakoram) height 28269 feet


Mountain Passes Of Pakistan

1. Muztagh Pass
2. Karakoram Pass
3. Khan kun Pass
4. Zagar Pass
5. Kilik Pass
6. Khunjrab Pass
7. Mintaka Pass
8. Dorath Pass
9. Babusar Pass
10. Shandur Pass
11. Lowari Pass
12. Buroghil Pass
13. Khyber Pass
14. Shimshal Pass
15. Ganshero Pass
16. Tochi Pass
17. Gomal Pass
18. Durgai Pass
19. Malakand Pass


Foreign Banks Operating In pakistan


1. ABN Amro Bank N.V.
2. Albaraka Islamic Bank BSC (EC)
3. American Express Bank Ltd
4. Standard Chartared Grindlays Bank Ltd
5. Bank of Tokyo Mitsubisho Ltd
6. Bank of Ceylon
7. Citibank N.A
8. Deutsche Bank A.G
9. Emirates Bank International Ltd
10. Habib bank A.G Zurich
11. Mashreq Bank P.S.C
12. Oman Internation Bank S.O.A.G
13 Rupali Bank Ltd
14. Standard Chartered Bank


Saindak Metal (Pvt) Ltd.


The Saindak Metal is the first important metal mining project in pakistan.It is designed to produce 15810 tonnes of blister copper annually which contained gold (1.47 tonnes) and silver (2.76 tonnes)


Metallic Minerals In Pakistan

Alum : Kalat , Khairpur , Peshawar , Quetta
Antimony : Karangli , Qila Abdullah , Shekran
Arsenic : Gilgit , Londku
Bauxite : Dhamman , Jhal , Muzaffarabad , Niazpur
Chromite : Lasbela , Malakand , Muslim bagh , Raskoh
Copper: Koh Marani , Kalat , Maranj , Pishin , Saindak
Gold : Chitral , Gilgit , Karak , Mardan , Lasbella
Iron Ore : Chitral , Chilgazi , Kalabagh, Rashkoh
Lead : Chiral , Khuzdar , Lasbella , Mardan
Magnesite : Kalat , Khumhar , Abbottabad , Zhob
Manganese : Haji Mohd Khan , Abbottabad , Zhob
Silver : Saindak (baluchistan)


Non-Metallic Minerals In pakistan


Asbestos : Char Bagh , Chitral , D.I Khan , Zhob
Calcite : Lasbella , Zhob
China Clay : Hazara , Multan , Peshawar , Rawalpindi
Coal : Dandot , Degari , Makarwal
Dolomite : D.I Khan , Jhimpir , Rawal pindi
Flourite : Chitral , Dir , Hazara
Glass sand : Bande sadiq , Mianwali , Salt Range
Graphite : Chitral , Hazara , Khyber
Gypsum : Dadu , D.I khan , Hyderabad , Kohat , Sibi , Quetta
Limestone : Daudkhel , D.I Khan , Hyderabad , Kalat , Rohri
Marble : Attock , Chagi , Gilgit , Hazara , Mardan, Swat
Natural Gas : Dhurnal , Kandhkot, Mayal , Mari , Sui ,Tut , Uch
Precious Stones : Chitral , Hunza , Malakand , Swat
Salt : Bahadur Khel , Khewra , Kalabagh
Silica : Dandot , Hazara , Jangshahi , Makarwal
Sulphur : Chitral , Hyderabad , Kalat , Koh sultan


NATIONAL ANTHEM OF PAKISTAN


National Anthem of pakistan was written by renowned poet " Hafeez Jullundari " in 1954.The anthem consist of 50 words arranged in 15 lines.Renowned musician "Abdul Karim Chhagle" composed the Anthem.A total number of 11 male and female singers took part in its musical composition.Pakistan national anthem was first played on 13th august,1954 before "Shah of Iran Raza Shah Pehlavi".


National Saving Organization (NSO)


The NSO works under the Directorate of National Saving. The directorate has 12 regions and 365 branches in pakistan. It offers many saving schemes which include saving account,Defence Saving Certificates, Khas Deposit Certificates , Postal Life Insurance , Mahana Amdani Accounts and Prize Bonds


National Holidays

1. Pakistan republic day (23rd march)
2. Labour day (1st may)
3. Bank Holiday (1st july)
4. Independence day (14th aug)
5. Defence day (6th sep)
6. Death Anniversary of Quaid-e-Azam (11th sep)
7. Birth Anniversay of Allama Iqbal (9th nov)
8. Birth Anniversary of Quaid-e-Azam (25th dec)

In addition, The govt of pakistan notifies holidays on Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid -ul-Uzha,Ashura Muharram and Eid Milad-un-Nabi according to islamic Calendar


Press Organization of pakistan


1. APNS : All-Pakistan News Agency
2. PFUJ : Pakistan Federal Union of Jounalists
3. APNEC : All-Pakistan News Employees Confederation
4. NECP : Newspapers Editors Council of Pakistan

NEWS AGENCIES OF PAKISTAN

1. APP : Associated Press of Pakistan
2. INP : Independent News of Pakistan
3. IPS : Islamabad Press Service
4. PPI : Pakistan Press International


More Information of pakistan

* Syed Ahmed khan wrote " Khutbat-i-Ahmadiya " on 1869 in reply to william muir`s " Life of Mohammad"

* Sir syed retired from service in 1976

* The total area of pakistan is 796096 square kilometres (307374 sq mi )

* There are 27 divisions and 108 districts in pakistan

* The total number of primary schools are 169,087,middle schools are 19180 and high schools are 13108.

* The number of registered doctors are 92248, Nurses are 40114 and Dentists are 4622.

* The first postage stamp of pakistan issued on 9th july, 1948

* The first census of pakistan was conducted on 9th feb,1951

* Gen. Ayub khan took over as the president on 17th feb ,1960 and Gen. A M Yahya khan took over on 31st mar.1969.

* PPP was founded by ZA bhutto on 30th nov,1967.

* The 1973 Constitution of pakistan promulgated on 12th april, 1973.

* Dr. Abdul Salam was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in Physics on 15th oct,1979.

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Foriegn policy of pakistan

1.Foriegn policy
2.Principles of Pakistan foriegn policy
3.SIX important phases of pakistan policy
4.Relation of pakistan and Super power (USA)
5.Relation of pakistan and Russia
6.Relation with Islamic world (Relation with Afghanistan,Iran,Turkey,Saudiarab,Bangladesh)
7.Importance of kashmir problem in indo-pak relation
8.Importance of foriegn policy
9.Pakistan and OIC,SAARC,NAM and ECO
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Default Cultural Heritage of Pakistan

The land where the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is situated today had been a seat of world’s leading Civilizations from the time immemorial. There is plenty of evidence from the pre-historic and historic period to support this argument, e.g. fossil jaws of apes, circa 14 millions years old found from Pothohar. They belong to a species named “Sivapithecus Pakininsis”, said to be the ancestor of Man. A 2 million years old earliest stone hand axe. Now on display in Islamabad Museum, Islamabad.

The legacy of our predecessors at the time of our independence, on August 14, 1947, came to us as a treasure which may be called as Pakistan’s national heritage. So rich and diversified is this heritage that Pakistani nation can be proud of its glorious past, be Islamic, Post Islamic or pre-Islamic period as far back as pre-historic times. No other country of the world can produce the treasure of by gone days as can be found in Pakistan. It is now incumbent upon us to treasure our national heritage and save it from further deterioration and theft.
The establishment of NFCH is much appreciated and a great interest is shown by the general public hence since its establishment in 1994 hundreds of proposals were received from different agencies and individuals for the conservation, preservation and publication of the Pakistan’s national heritage. It is hoped that with the continued patronage of the government, the Philanthropists and the Business Community to the NFCH we shall be able to achieve the aforesaid goal.

The Cultural Heritage of Pakistan is spread over the centuries, starting from pre-historic times to the present day and which may be summarized in the following periods:

Indus Civilization:

Gandhara Civilization:

Islamic Period:

Sikh Period:

British Period:

Post independence Period
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Pakistan's Historical Background

Pakistan emerged on the world map on August 14,1947. It has its roots into the remote past. Its establishment was the culmination of the struggle by Muslims of the South-Asian subcontinent for a separate homeland of their own and its foundation was laid when Muhammad bin Qasim subdued Sindh in 711 A.D. as a reprisal against sea pirates that had taken refuge in Raja Dahir's kingdom.

The advent of Islam further strengthened the historical individuality in the areas now constituting Pakistan and further beyond its boundaries. Stone Age Some of the earliest relics of Stone Age man in the subcontinent are found in the Soan Valley of the Potohar region near Rawalpindi, with a probable antiquity of about 500,000 years. No human skeleton of such antiquity has yet been discovered in the area, but the crude stone implements recovered from the terraces of the Soan carry the saga of human toil and labor in this part of the world to the inter-glacial period. These Stone Age men fashioned their implements in a sufficiently homogenous way to justify their grouping in terms of a culture called the Soan Culture. About 3000 B.C, amidst the rugged wind-swept valleys and foothills of Balochistan, small village communities developed and began to take the first hesitant steps towards civilization. Here, one finds a more continuous story of human activity, though still in the Stone Age.

These pre-historic men established their settlements, both as herdsmen and as farmers, in the valleys or on the outskirts of the plains with their cattle and cultivated barley and other crops. Red and buffer Cultures Careful excavations of the pre-historic mounds in these areas and the classification of their contents, layer by layer, have grouped them into two main categories of Red Ware Culture and Buff Ware Culture. The former is popularly known as the Zhob Culture of North Balochistan, while the latter comprises the Quetta, Amri Nal and Kulli Cultures of Sindh and South Balochistan. Some Amri Nal villages or towns had stone walls and bastions for defence purposes and their houses had stone foundations. At Nal, an extensive cemetery of this culture consists of about 100 graves. An important feature of this composite culture is that at Amri and certain other sites, it has been found below the very distinctive Indus Valley Culture. On the other hand, the steatite seals of Nal and the copper implements and certain types of pot decoration suggest a partial overlap between the two. It probably represents one of the local societies which constituted the environment for the growth of the Indus Valley Civilization.

The pre-historic site of Kot Diji in the Sindh province has provided information of high significance for the reconstruction of a connected story which pushes back the origin of this civilization by 300 to 500 years, from about 2500 B.C.. to at least 2800 B.C. Evidence of a new cultural elements of pre-Harappan era has been traced here. Pre-Harappan Civilization When the primitive village communities in the Balochistan area were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji, one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world which flourished between the years 2500 and 1500 B.C. in the Indus Valley sites of Moenjodaro and Harappa. These Indus Valley people possessed a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well developed system of quasi pictographic writing, which despite continuing efforts still remains undeciphered. The imposing ruins of the beautifully planned Moenjodaro and Harappa towns present clear evidence of the unity of a people having the same mode of life and using the same kind of tools. Indeed, the brick buildings of the common people, the public baths, the roads and covered drainage system suggest the picture of a happy and contented people. Aryan Civilization In or about 1500 B.C., the Aryans descended upon the Punjab and settled in the Sapta Sindhu, which signifies the Indus plain. They developed a pastoral society that grew into the Rigvedic Civilization. The Rigveda is replete with hymns of praise for this region, which they describe as "God fashioned". It is also clear that so long as the Sapta Sindhu remained the core of the Aryan Civilization, it remained free from the caste system. The caste institution and the ritual of complex sacrifices took shape in the Gangetic Valley. There can be no doubt that the Indus Civilization contributed much to the development of the Aryan civilization. Gandhara Culture The discovery of the Gandhara grave culture in Dir and Swat will go a long way in throwing light on the period of Pakistan's cultural history between the end of the Indus Culture in 1500 B.C. and the beginning of the historic period under the Achaemenians in the sixth century B.C. Hindu mythology and Sanskrit literary traditions seem to attribute the destruction of the Indus civilization to the Aryans, but what really happened, remains a mystery. The Gandhara grave culture has opened up two periods in the cultural heritage of Pakistan: one of the Bronze Age and the other of the Iron Age. It is so named because it presents a peculiar pattern of living in hilly zones of the Gandhara region as evidenced in the graves. This culture is different from the Indus Culture and has little relations with the village culture of Balochistan. Stratigraphy as well as the artifacts discovered from this area suggest that the Aryans moved into this part of the world between 1,500 and 600 B.C. In the sixth century B.C., Buddha began his teachings, which later on spread throughout the northern part of the South-Asian subcontinent. It was towards the end of this century, too, that Darius I of Iran organized Sindh and Punjab as the twentieth satrapy of his empire.

There are remarkable similarities between the organizations of that great empire and the Mauryan empire of the third century B.C., while Kautilya's Arthshastra also shows a strong Persian influence, Alexander of Macedonia after defeating Darius III in 330 B.C. had also marched through the South-Asian subcontinent up to the river Beas, but Greek influence on the region appears to have been limited to contributing a little to the establishment of the Mauryan empire. The great empire that Asoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, built in the subcontinent included only that part of the Indus basin which is now known as the northern Punjab. The rest of the areas astride the Indus were not subjugated by him. These areas, which now form a substantial part of Pakistan, were virtually independent from the time of the Guptas in the fourth century A.D. until the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in the thirteenth century. Gandhara Art Gandhara Art, one of the most prized possessions of Pakistan, flourished for a period of 500 years (from the first to the fifth century A.D.) in the present valley of Peshawar and the adjacent hilly regions of Swat, Buner and Bajaur. This art represents a separate phase of the cultural renaissance of the region. It was the product of a blending of Indian, Buddhist and Greco-Roman sculpture. Gandhara Art in its early stages received the patronage of Kanishka, the great Kushan ruler, during whose reign the Silk Route ran through Peshawar and the Indus Valley, bringing great prosperity to the whole area. Advent of Islam The first followers of prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), to set foot on the soil of the South-Asian subcontinent, were traders from the coast land of Arabia and the Persian Gulf, soon after the dawn of Islam in the early seventh century A.D.

DAWN OF ISLAM

The first permanent Muslim foothold in the subcontinent was achieved with Muhammad bin Qasim's conquest of Sindh in 711 A.D. An autonomous Muslim state linked with the Umayyed, and later, the Abbassid Caliphate was established with jurisdiction extending over southern and central parts of present Pakistan. Quite a few new cities were established and Arabic was introduced as the official language. At the time of Mahmud of Ghazna's invasion, Muslim rule still existed, though in a weakened form, in Multan and some other regions. The Ghaznavids (976-1148) and their successors, the Ghaurids (1148-1206), were Central Asian by origin and they ruled their territories, which covered mostly the regions of present Pakistan, from capitals outside India. It was in the early thirteenth century that the foundations of the Muslim rule in India were laid with extended boundaries and Delhi as the capital. From 1206 to 1526 A.D., five different dynasties held sway. Then followed the period of Mughal ascendancy (1526-1707) and their rule continued, though nominally, till 1857. From the time of the Ghaznavids, Persian more or less replaced Arabic as the official language. The economic, political and religious institutions developed by the Muslims bore their unique impression. The law of the State was based on Shariah and in principle the rulers were bound to enforce it. Any long period of laxity was generally followed by reinforcement of these laws under public pressure. The impact of Islam on the South-Asian subcontinent was deep and far-reaching. Islam introduced not only a new religion, but a new civilization, a new way of life and new set of values. Islamic traditions of art and literature, of culture and refinement, of social and welfare institution, were established by Muslim rulers throughout the subcontinent. A new language, Urdu, derived mainly from Arabic and Persian vocabulary and adopting indigenous words and idioms, came to be spoken and written by the Muslims and it gained currency among the rest of the Indian population.

URDU AS THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE OF PAKISTAN

Apart from religion, Urdu also enabled the Muslim community during the period of its ascendancy to preserve its separate identity in the subcontinent.

Muslim Identity -- The question of Muslim identity, however assumed seriousness during the decline of Muslim power in South Asia. The first person to realize its acuteness was the scholar theologian, Shah Waliullah (1703-62). He laid the foundation of Islamic renaissance in the subcontinent and became a source of inspiration for almost all the subsequent social and religious reform movements of the nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. His immediate successors, inspired by his teachings, tried to establish a modest Islamic state in the north-west of India and they, under the leadership of Sayyed Ahmad Shaheed Barelvi (1786-1831), persevered in this direction. British Expansionism and Muslim Resistance Meanwhile, starting with the East India Company, the British had emerged as the dominant force in South Asia. Their rise to power was gradual extending over a period of nearly one hundred years. They replaced the Shariah by what they termed as the Anglo-Muhammadan law whereas Urdu was replaced by English as the official language. These and other developments had great social, economic and political impact especially on the Muslims of South Asia. The uprising of 1857, termed as the Indian Mutiny by the British and the War of Independence by the Muslims, was a desperate attempt to reverse the adverse course of events. Religious Institutions The failure of the 1857 War of Independence had disastrous consequences for the Muslims as the British placed all the responsibility for this event on them. Determined to stop such a recurrence in future, the British followed deliberately a repressive policy against the Muslims. Properties and estates of those even remotely associated with the freedom fighters were confiscated and conscious efforts were made to close all avenues of honest living for them. The Muslim response to this situation also aggravated their plight. Their religious leaders, who had been quite active, withdrew from the mainstream of the community life and devoted themselves exclusively to imparting religious education. Although the religious academies especially those of Deoband, Farangi Mahal and Rai Bareilly, established by the Ulema, did help the Muslims to preserve their identity, the training provided in these institutions hardly equipped them for the new challenges. Educational Reform The Muslims kept themselves aloof from western education as well as government service. But, their compatriots, the Hindus, did not do so and accepted the new rulers without reservation. They acquired western education, imbibed the new culture and captured positions hitherto filled in by the Muslims. If this situation had prolonged, it would have done the Muslims an irreparable damage. The man to realise the impending peril was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1889), a witness to the tragic events of 1857. He exerted his utmost to harmonize British Muslim relations. His assessment was that the Muslims' safety lay in the acquisition of western education and knowledge. He took several positive steps to achieve this objective. He founded a college at Aligarh to impart education on western lines. Of equal importance was the Anglo-Muhammadan Educational Conference, which he sponsored in 1886, to provide an intellectual forum to the Muslims for the dissemination of views in support of western education and social reform. Similar were the objectives of the Muhammadan Literary Society, founded by Nawab Adbul Latif (1828-93), active in Bengal, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan's efforts transformed into a movement, known as the Aligarh Movement, and it left its imprint on the Muslims of every part of the South-Asian subcontinent. Under its inspiration, societies were founded throughout the subcontinent which established educational institutions for imparting education to the Muslims.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was averse to the idea of participation by the Muslims in any organized political activity which, he feared, might revive British hostility towards them. He also disliked Hindu Muslim collaboration in any joint venture. His disillusionment in this regard stemmed basically from the Urdu Hindi controversy of the late 1860s when the Hindu enthusiasts vehemently championed the cause of Hindi to replace Urdu. He, therefore, opposed the Indian National Congress when it was founded in 1885 and advised the Muslims to abstain from its activities. His contemporary and a great scholar of Islam, Syed Ameer Ali (1849-1928), shared his views about the Congress, but, he was not opposed to Muslims organizing themselves politically. In fact, he organised the first significant political body of the Muslims, the Central National Muhammadan Association. Although, its membership was limited, it had more than 50 branches in different parts of the subcontinent and it accomplished some solid work for the educational and political advancement of the Muslims. But, its activities waned towards the end of the nineteenth century. The Muslim League At the dawn of the twentieth century, a number of factors convinced the Muslims of the need to have an effective political organization. Therefore, in October 1906, a deputation comprising 35 Muslim leaders met the Viceroy of the British at Simla and demanded separate electorates. Three months later, the All-India Muslim League was founded by Nawab Salimullah Khan at Dhaka, mainly with the objective of safeguarding the political rights and interests of the Muslims. The British conceded separate electorates in the Government of India Act of 1909 which confirmed the Muslim League's position as an All-India party. Attempt for Hindu Muslim Unity The visible trend of the two major communities progressing in opposite directions caused deep concern to leaders of All-India stature. They struggled to bring the Congress and the Muslim League on one platform. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) was the leading figure among them. After the annulment of the partition of Bengal and the European Powers' aggressive designs against the Ottoman Empire and North Africa, the Muslims were receptive to the idea of collaboration with the Hindus against the British rulers.

The Congress Muslim League rapprochement was achieved at the Lucknow sessions of the two parties in 1916 and a joint scheme of reforms was adopted. In the Lucknow Pact. as the scheme was commonly referred to, the Congress accepted the principle of separate electorates, and the Muslims, in return for `weightage' to the Muslims of the Muslim minority provinces, agreed to surrender their thin majorities in the Punjab and Bengal. The post Lucknow Pact period witnessed Hindu Muslim amity and the two parties came to hold their annual sessions in the same city and passed resolutions of identical contents.

KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

The Hindu Muslim unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-cooperation Movements. The Muslims of soothsayer, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, launched the historic Khilafat Movement after the First World War to protect the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) linked the issue of Swaraj (self-government) with the Khilafat issue to associate the Hindus with the Movement. the ensuing Movement was the first countrywide popular movement.

Although the Movement failed in its objectives, it had a far-reaching impact on the Muslims of South Asia. After a long time, they took united action on a purely Islamic issue which momentarily forged solidarity among them. It also produced a class of Muslim leaders experienced in organizing and mobilizing the public. This experience was of immense value to the Muslims later during the Pakistan Movement The collapse of the Khilafat Movement was followed by a period of bitter Hindu Muslim antagonism. The Hindus organized two highly anti Muslim movements, the Shudhi and the Sangathan. The former movement was designed to convert Muslims to Hinduism and the latter was meant to create solidarity among the Hindus in the event of communal conflict. In retaliation, the Muslims sponsored the Tabligh and Tanzim organizations to counter the impact of the Shudhi and the Sangathan. In the 1920s, the frequency of communal riots was unprecedented. Several Hindu-Muslim unity conferences were held to remove the causes of conflict, but, it seemed nothing could mitigate the intensity of communalism. Muslim Demand Safeguards In the light of this situation, the Muslims revised their constitutional demands. They now wanted preservation of their numerical majorities in the Punjab and Bengal, separation of Sindh from Bombay, constitution of Balochistan as a separate province and introduction of constitutional reforms in the North-West Frontier Province. It was partly to press these demands that one section of the All-India Muslim League cooperated with the Statutory commission sent by the British Government under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon in 1927.

SIMON COMMISSION

The other section of the League, which boycotted the Simon Commission for its all-White character, cooperated with the Nehru Committee, appointed by the All-Parties Conference, to draft a constitution for India. The Nehru Report had an extremely anti-Muslim bias and the Congress leadership's refusal to amend it disillusioned even the moderate Muslims. Allama Muhammad Iqbal Several leaders and thinkers, having insight into the Hindu-Muslim question proposed separation of Muslim India. However, the most lucid exposition of the inner feeling of the Muslim community was given by Allama Muhammad Iqbal(1877-1938) in his Presidential Address at the All-India Muslim League Session at Allahabad in 1930. He suggested that for the healthy development of Islam in South-Asia, it was essential to have a separate Muslim state at least in the Muslim majority regions of the north-west. Later on, in his correspondence with Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, he included the Muslim majority areas in the north-east also in his proposed Muslim state. Three years after his Allahabad Address, a group of Muslim students at Cambridge, headed by Chaudhry Rehmat Ali, issued a pamphlet, Now or Never, in which drawing letters from the names of the Muslim majority regions, they gave the nomenclature of "Pakistan" to the proposed State. Very few even among the Muslim welcomed the idea at the time. It was to take a decade for the Muslims to embrace the demand for a separate Muslim state. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Meanwhile, three Round Table Conferences were convened in London during 1930-32, to resolve the Indian constitutional problem. The Hindu and Muslim leaders, who were invited to these conferences, could not draw up an agreed formula and the British Government had to announce a `Communal Award' which was incorporated in the Government of India Act of 1935. Before the elections under this Act, the All-India Muslim League, which had remained dormant for some time, was reorganized by Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who had returned to India in 1934,after an absence of nearly five years in England. The Muslim League could not win a majority of Muslim seats since it had not yet been effectively reorganized. However, it had the satisfaction that the performance of the Indian National Congress in the Muslim constituencies was bad. After the elections, the attitude of the Congress leadership was arrogant and domineering. The classic example was its refusal to form a coalition government with the Muslim League in the United Provinces. Instead, it asked the League leaders to dissolve their parliamentary arty in the Provincial Assembly and join the Congress. Another important Congress move after the 1937 elections was its Muslim mass contact movement to persuade the Muslims to join the Congress and not the Muslim League. One of its leaders, Jawaharlal Nehru, even declared that there were only two forces in India, the British and the Congress. All this did not go unchallenged.

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah countered that there was a third force in South-Asia constituting the Muslims. The All-India Muslim League, under his gifted leadership, gradually and skillfully started organising the Muslims on one platform. Towards a Separate Muslim Homeland The 1930s witnessed awareness among the Muslims of their separate identity and their anxiety to preserve it within separate territorial boundaries. An important element that brought this simmering Muslim nationalism in the open was the character of the Congress rule in the Muslim minority provinces during 1937-39. The Congress policies in these provinces hurt Muslim susceptibilities. There were calculated aims to obliterate the Muslims as a separate cultural unit. The Muslims now stopped thinking in terms of seeking safeguards and began to consider seriously the demand for a separate Muslim state. During 1937-39, several Muslim leaders and thinkers, inspired by Allama Iqbal's ideas, presented elaborate schemes for partitioning the subcontinent according to two-nation theory. Pakistan Resolution The All-India Muslim League soon took these schemes into consideration and finally, on March 23, 1940, the All-India Muslim League, in a resolution, at its historic Lahore Session, demanded a separate homeland for the Muslims in the Muslim majority regions of the subcontinent. The resolution was commonly referred to as the Pakistan Resolution. The Pakistan demand had a great appeal for the Muslims of every persuasion. It revived memories of their past greatness and promised future glory. They, therefore, responded to this demand immediately. Cripps Mission The British Government recognized the genuineness of the Pakistan demand indirectly in the proposals for the transfer of power after the Second World War which Sir Stafford Cripps brought to India in 1942. Both the Congress and the All-India Muslim League rejected these proposals for different reasons. The principles of secession of Muslim India as a separate Dominion was however, conceded in these proposals. After this failure, a prominent Congress leader, C. Rajgopalacharia, suggested a formula for a separate Muslim state in the Working Committee of the Indian National Congress, which was rejected at the time, but later on, in 1944, formed the basis of the Jinnah-Gandhi talks. Demand for Pakistan

PAKISTAN MOVEMENT

The Pakistan demand became popular during the Second World War Every section of the Muslim community-men , women, students, Ulema and businessmen-were organized under the banner of the All-India Muslim League. Branches of the party were opened even in the remote corners of the subcontinent. Literature in the form of pamphlets, books, magazines and newspapers was produced to explain the Pakistan demand and distributed widely. The support gained by the All-India Muslim League and its demand for Pakistan was tested after the failure of the Simla Conference, convened by the Viceroy, Lord Wavell, in 1945. Elections were called to determine the respective strength of the political parties. The All-India Muslim League election campaign was based on the Pakistan demand. The Muslim community responded to this call in an unprecedented way. Numerous Muslim parties were formed making united parliamentary board at the behest of the Congress to oppose the Muslim League. But the All-India Muslim League swept all the thirty seats in the Central Legislature and in the provincial elections also, its victory was outstanding. After the elections, on April 8-9,1946, the All-India Muslim League called a convention of the newly-elected League members in the Central and Provincial Legislatures at Delhi. This convention, which constituted virtually a representative assembly of the Muslims of South Asia, on a motion by the Chief Minister of Bengal, Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy, reiterated the Pakistan demand in clearer terms. Cabinet Plan In early 1946, the British Government sent a Cabinet Mission to the subcontinent to resolve the constitutional deadlock. The Mission conducted negotiations with various political parties, but failed to evolve an agreed formula. Finally, the Cabinet Mission announced its own Plan, which among other provisions, envisaged three federal groupings, two of them comprising the Muslim majority provinces, linked at the Centre in a loose federation with three subjects. The Muslim League accepted the plan, as a strategic move, expecting to achieve its objective in not-too-distant a future. The All-India Congress also agreed to the Plan, but, soon realising its implications, the Congress leaders began to interpret it in a way not visualized by the authorise of the Plan. This provided the All-India Muslim League an excuse to withdraw its acceptance of the Plan and the party observed August 16, as a `Direct Action Day' to show Muslim solidarity in support of the Pakistan demand. Partition Scheme In October 1946, an Interim Government was formed. The Muslim League sent its representative under the leadership of its General Secretary, Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan, with the aim to fight for the party objective from within the Interim Government. After a short time, the situation inside the Interim Government and outside convinced the Congress leadership to accept Pakistan as the only solution of the communal problem. The British Government, after its last attempt to save the Cabinet Mission Plan in December 1946, also moved towards a scheme for the partition of India. The last British Viceroy, Lord Louis Mountbatten, came with a clear mandate to draft a plan for the transfer of power.

After holding talks with political leaders and parties, he prepared a Partition Plan for the transfer of power, which, after approval of the British Government, was announced on June 3,1947. Emergence of Pakistan Both the Congress and the Muslim League accepted the Plan. Two largest Muslim majority provinces, Bengal and Punjab, were partitioned. The Assemblies of West Punjab, East Bengal and Sindh and in Balochistan, the Quetta Municipality, and the Shahi Jirga voted for Pakistan. Referenda were held in the North-West Frontier Province and the District of Sylhet in Assam, which resulted in an overwhelming vote for Pakistan. As a result, on August 14,1947, the new state of Pakistan came into existence.
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Default The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan

12th April, 1973

Whereas sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone, and the authority to be exercised by the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust;


And whereas it is the will of the people of Pakistan to establish an order :-


Wherein the State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of the people;


Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed;


Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah;


Wherein adequate provision shall be made for the minorities freely to profess and practise their religions and develop their cultures;


Wherein the territories now included in or in accession with Pakistan and such other territories as may hereafter be included in or accede to Pakistan shall form a Federation wherein the units will be autonomous with such boundaries and limitations on their powers and authority as may be prescribed;


Therein shall be guaranteed fundamental rights, including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality;


Wherein adequate provision shall be made to safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities and backward and depressed classes;


Wherein the independence of the judiciary shall be fully secured;


Wherein the integrity of the territories of the Federation, its independence and all its rights, including its sovereign rights on land, sea and air, shall be safeguarded;


So that the people of Pakistan may prosper and attain their rightful and honoured place amongst the nations of the World and make their full contribution towards international peace and progress and happiness of humanity :


Now, therefore, we, the people of Pakistan,


Cognisant of our responsibility before Almighty Allah and men;


Congnisant of the sacrifices made by the people in the cause of Pakistan;


Faithful to the declaration made by the Founder of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, that Pakistan would be a democratic State based on Islamic principles of social justice;


Dedicated to the preservation of democracy achieved by the unremitting struggle of the people against oppression and tyranny;


Inspired by the resolve to protect our national and political unity and solidarity by creating an egalitarian society through a new order;


Do hereby, through our representatives in the National Assembly, adopt, enact and give to ourselves, this Constitution.

It is consist of 280 articles which include amendments in several years

For further instance explore on following link :
http://www.nrb.gov.pk/constitutional...ion/index.html
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pl anyone post some quotations about pak affairs. i.e on 2 nation theory, Aligarh movemnt,formation of muslim league, partition and anulment of bengal,lucknow pact , etc
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Creation of Pakistan


The Islamic Republic of Pakistan emerged as an independent state on 14 August 1947. It has its roots into the remote past. Its establishment was the culmination of the long struggle by Muslims of the South-Asian subcontinent for a separate homeland of their own. Its foundation was laid when Mohammad bin Qasim subdued Sindh in 711 AD as a reprisal against sea pirates that had taken refuge in Raja Dahir’s kingdom. The advent of Islam further strengthened the historical individuality in the areas now constituting and further beyond its boundaries.

The impact of Islam on the South-Asian subcontinent was deep and far-reaching. Islam introduced not only a new religion, but also a new civilization, a new way of life and new set of values. Islamic traditions of art and literature, of culture and refinement, of social and welfare institutions were established by Muslim rulers throughout the subcontinent. A new language URDU, derived mainly from Arabic and Persian vocabulary and adapting indigenous words and idioms, came into existence.

With the decline of Muslim power during 16th and 17th centuries the British (starting with the East India Company) began to emerge as the dominant force in South Asia. Their rise to power was gradual, extending over a period of 100 years. They replaced the Shariah by what they termed as Anglo-Muhammadan law whereas Urdu was replaced by English as the official language. These and many other developments had great social, economic, and political impact especially on the Muslims of subcontinent.





WAR OF INDEPENDENCE


The uprising of 1857, termed as the Indian Mutiny by the British and the War of Independence by the Muslims, was a desperate attempt to reverse the adverse course of events. The failure of the 1857 War of Independence had disastrous consequences for the Muslims as the British placed all the responsibility for this event on them. Determined to stop such a recurrence in future, the British followed a repressive policy against the Muslims. Properties and estates of those even remotely associated with the freedom fighters were confiscated and efforts were made to close all avenues of honest living for them. The Muslim response to these situations also aggravated their plight. While this repression was going on, the Muslims kept themselves aloof from modern education as well as government service. But, their compatriots, the Hindus, did not do so and accepted the new rulers without reservation. They acquired modern western education, imbibed new culture and captured position hitherto filled in by the Muslims.






TWO NATIONS THEORY (IMPACT OF WAR OF INDEPENDENCE)


Pakistan’s ideology is based on the Two-Nation Theory, and as the Quaid-e-Azam summed it, “..we have our distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of International Law we are a nation.”

The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims were not confined to the struggle for political supremacy, but were also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than a thousand years, they continued to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, are all poles apart. Even the language they speak and the dresses they wear are entirely different.

The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. When they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe; they put forward their demand for a separate state.

The Muslims of South Asia believe that they are a nation in the modern sense of the word. The basis of their nationhood is neither territorial, racial, linguistic nor ethnic; rather they are a nation because they belong to the same faith, Islam. On this basis they consider it their fundamental right to be entitled to self-determination. They demanded that areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, wherein they would be enabled to order their lives in individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). They further want their state to strengthen the bonds of unity among Muslim countries.

In his speech at Lahore, after criticizing the concept of a constituent assembly, Jinnah declared..

“It has always been taken for granted, mistakenly that the Muslims are a minority, and … these settled notions are very difficult to remove. The Musalmans are not a minority. The Musalmans are a nation by any definition… The problem in India is not of inter-communal but manifestly of an international character. The only course open to us all is to allow the major nations separate homelands by dividing India into autonomous national states.”






URDU-HINDI CONTROVERSY


The Urdu-Hindi Controversy arose when Hindus demanded implementation of the Devanagari script in government offices, law courts and schools. Muslims coming to India, spoke their own language and also learned the language spoken by the natives. Out of this intermingling of languages, there arose a lingua franca, which came to be spoken by both Muslims and Hindus. The official language continued to be Persian; Turkish was the mother tongue of Muslims from Turkey, and Arabic was the language of the religion, Islam. The mixture of these languages with that spoken in India came to be known as Urdu. It soon became the language of society and of sublime poetry. It gradually supplanted Persian and became a language spoken and understood in most parts of India. It is a language which has risen as a result of the mixture of foreign and native languages. Urdu had powerful appeal as its literature grew rapidly. During the eighteenth century Urdu spread to all corners of India, and Urdu literary circles were established in every part of India.

Contrary to this, Hindi was written in Devanagri script, had a similarly high percentage of Sanskrit words, and was loosing its importance. When it came to poetry, differences went much deeper. In Urdu, the forms, the thought and the imagery were borrowed from Iran and Central Asia, whereas in Hindi they were indigenous. Seeing the ever increasing significance of the Urdu language, it was introduced as a official language in 1825. Its popularity was a source of annoyance to Hindus. They were out to destroy the cultural heritage and religion of Muslims, and this they could do by causing harm to the Urdu language, as a good deal of Muslim cultural heritage was preserved in Urdu. Also the literary, religious and intellectual works of Muslim scholars and poets were preserved in Urdu. Moreover, the exegesis of the Holy Quran, Hadith, Islamic jurisprudence and all religious books had been produced in Urdu. Thus, to eliminate Urdu was to deprive Muslims of their great cultural and religious heritage.

As part of a deliberate scheme to destroy Muslim culture in India, Hindus started an anti-Urdu movement in Benares in 1867, which gradually spread to Bihar, U.P. and other parts of India. The Hindus opposed the use of Urdu in courts, public offices and schools and demanded its replacement by Hindi. This unjustified opposition to Urdu convinced Sir Syed Ahmed Khan that Muslims and Hindus were two different nations. The entire Muslim community in India also criticized this policy. Initially, the controversy caused no serious harm, but in later years it developed into a formal movement. But when Sir Anthony McDonnel, Lt. Governor of United Provinces, issued a resolution on 19 April 1900 which decreed the use of Hindi in Devanagari script, and the seventy-five year history of Urdu as an official language came to on end, Muslims were deeply agitated. Considered from the point of view of their educational needs, legal and social business, literature and also from the point of view of Hindu-Muslim amity, this resolution was very harmful.

Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, successor of Sir Syed in political and educational affairs of the Muslims, requested the governor to allow the Muslims to clarify their viewpoint in regard to Urdu, but no heed was paid. As a result a public meeting was held at Aligarh on May 13, 1900 to protest against the language decree. In the meantime, the Urdu Defence Association was formed on August 8, 1900 which unanimously adopted a resolution demnding withdrawl of the recognition accorded to Hindu. The Nawab declared that Muslims who did not weild the pen, had ‘the strength to wield the sword’ and expressed his amazement that hte community was foresaken and ignored by the government. This was the first public demonstration of a political nature staged by Muslims. The lieutenant governor disliked demonstrations, which became routine throughout the country, collected the trustees of Aligarh College, expressed his disapproval, and alleged that Aligarh students had been made propagandists of this movement. He also threatened to stop the government grant for the college if it continued. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk resigned as secretary of Aligarh College in order to be free to carry on his campaign in defence of Urdu so that his personal prestige should not stand in the way of progress and future of the college. However, he took up the pen in defence of Urdu and also took up the task which Sir Syed had left. The Urdu Defence Association did great services to the Urdu language.

In 1902, Sir James La Touche replaced Lt. Governor McDonnel in U.P. He made it clear that the government did not restrict anyone’s freedom, and Urdu was restored to its former position in offices and law courts. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk secured a significant victory from the point of view of the political interests of the Muslim nation, thus paving the way for its eventual organization as a political force which could not be ignored.






SIMLA DEPUTATION


The Simla Deputation occupies a very important place in the history of modern Muslim India. For the first time, Hindu-Muslim conflict was lifted to the constitutional plane. The rift in society was now to be translated into legal and political institutions. The Muslims had made it clear that they had no confidence in the Hindu majority, that they were not prepared to put their future in the hands of assemblies elected on the assumption of a homogeneous Indian nation. By implication they rejected the idea of a single Indian nation on the ground that the minority could not trust the majority. From this it was but a short step to demanding a separate state for the Muslims of India It is in this sense that in the beginnings of separate electorates may be seen the glimmerings of the two-nation theory. The significance of the Simla demand lay in the reservations which the Muslims had about their Indian nationality.

Soon after the War of Independence of 1857, the British government realised that it was not safe to legislate for millions of people with few means of knowing–except by a rebellion–whether the laws suit them or not. Undoubtedly, Syed Ahmad Khan’s pamphlet Causes of the Indian Revolt contributed to this realisation on part of the British. It asserted that the absence of Indians from the councils of the country was mainly responsible for the troubles of 1857.

In 1861, the governor general’s council was enlarged to include 50% non-officials nominated by the governor general. Their appointment indicated a desire on the part of the government to obtain unofficial cooperation and advice in making laws. On January 15, 1883, when the bill for local self-government was moved, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a member of the Lord Ripon’s legislative council, argued that in India, a homeland of different peoples believing in different modes of life, western democracy would not work, because the Hindu majority would dominate the minorities. As a result of his constant efforts for the nomination system, the Indian Councils Act of 1892 indirectly introduced the principle of election. The use of the word “election” was avoided; some unofficial members were still nominated, and others were appointed on the recommendation of important communities and interests represented by such bodies as landlord associations, municipal and district boards, universities, or chambers of commerce. The government of India issued directions to provincial government that representation should be provided for certain classes and interests, including Muslims. Thus, the new act introduced a semi-electorate system and the principles of representation and election in India. But this system proved totally futile, as from 1892 to 1906, not even a single Muslim representative could secure a seat in the legislative councils as the local bodies were also dominated by Hindus, who always voted on religious grounds.

The turning point in the early phase of the Muslim political movement came in the summer of 1906. The elections in England in 1905 changed the whole sphere of politics. The new Liberal government in England announced that it intended to introduce constitutional changes in India. The viceroy, Lord Minto, had already appointed a committee of his executive council to inquire into the working of the Indian Councils Act of 1892 and to examine the question of further constitutional reforms. The committee expressed the opinion that the Muslims had not been sufficiently represented on the existing councils, that the few elected members had not been really represented and that nomination had failed to secure the appointment of Muslims of the class desired by the community.

Therefore, to safeguard their interests, Muslim leaders drew up a plan for separate electorates for their community and presented it to Lord Minto in Simla on 1 October, 1906. The lead was taken by Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, secretary of the Board of Trustees of Aligarh College. He had written and addressed leading Muslims about such a deputation. Consisting of representatives of all shades of Muslim opinion, the Simla Deputation, led by Sir Agha Khan, demanded two points of policy. First in all local and provincial elections Muslims must be separately elected by purely Muslim electors. Second, Muslims must be given weightage in all elected bodies, i.e., they should have more seats than warranted by their their ratio in the population.

The first demand was made on two grounds: that in the prevailing state of communal tension no Muslim elected through a joint electorate would genuinely reflect the will of the community, and that in the absence of separate electorates every contested election would lead to communal riots. The demand of weightage was supported by two arguments: Muslims still owned much of the landed property in India, and they formed a very large proportion of the Indian army. The address presented by the deputation was a model of mature thinking and sober expression. The viceroy accepted both demands.

Though the demand for separate representation of Muslims had been acceded to by the Viceroy, sustained efforts had to be made over the next three years in order to secure the separate electorate in the Morley-Minto reforms of 1909.





ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE 1906


Up to the end of nineteenth century, the Muslims had stayed away from organized polities. However, Hindu agitation against the partition of Bengal, and Hindu religious revivalism and hostility to the Muslims injected into the Congress by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a fundamentalist Hindu leader changed the situation. By 1906, Muslim leaders were convinced that they should form their own party to protect Muslim interests and speak for the community on all important occasions. The Simla Deputation strengthened this belief by demonstrating the potency of united action.

In 1901, a meeting of Muslim leaders was held at Lucknow under the presidentship of Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk for this purpose. This meeting decided to establish an organisation to look after the social and political needs of the Muslims. But this organisation remained confined to one province of northern India.

Five years later, on December 30, 1906, at a conference of Muslim leaders (the Muhammadan Educational Conference) in Dhaka, the efforts of this deputation succeeded, and the All India Muslim League was formed.

It was Sir Salimullah who initially sketched a plan for an all India Muslim organisation, which was seconded by Hakim Ajmal Khan. Other prominent Muslim leaders such as Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk, Syed Nawab Ali Chaudary, Justice Shah Din, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar participated in the effort.

The League was intended to promote loyalty among Indian Muslims to the British government and to remove any misconceptions about the intentions of the government. Second, it aimed to protect and advance the political rights and interests of Indian Muslims and represent their needs and aspirations to the government. Finally, it hoped to prevent the rise of Muslim hostility towards other communities.

It was provided that the membership of the All-India Muslim League would not exceed four hundred, which would be distributed among the different provinces according to fixed proportions. Every candidate was to be a Muslim, not less than 25 years of age, capable of reading and writing in one of the languages and possessing an annual income of not less than Rs. 500. The League was to have a president, six vice-presidents, a secretary and two joint secretaries, all elected for a term of three years.

In another resolution, a provisional committee consisting of sixty members including members of the Simla Deputation was appointed to draft the constitution. The League constitution was written in English, by a graduate of Cambridge University, Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar. The book was named The Green Book.

As the Indo-Pak history unfolds, the struggle of the Muslim League to safeguard the interests of the Indian Muslims become more and more evident ultimately leading to the creation of Pakistan in 1947.






MORLEY MINTO REFORMS (1909)


Officially known as the Government of India Act, 1909, the Minto-Morley Reforms take their name after their official sponsor, Minto, then Governor-General and John Morley (1838-1923), Secretary of State for India. When Lord Minto came as viceroy to India, the whole country was in a state of political unrest. In collaboration with Lord Morley, secretary of state for India, Minto appointed a committee to go into details and prepare a despatch regarding constitutional reforms. This despatch was ready in 1907 and was sent to London on March 19. It served as the basis of the reforms which were enacted into law by the Indian Councils Act of 1909.

The important constitutional changes introduced by these reforms were several. Provincial legislative councils were enlarged up to a maximum of 50 members in the larger provinces and 30 in the smaller ones. The number of the unofficial members was raised equal to that of the official members. The method of election was partly indirect and partly direct. Second, Muslims were given separate representation in most provinces. In addition, the power of legislative councils was increased. The Imperial Legislative Council was also enlarged, but the officials would remain in majority. Finally, an Indian member was taken into the executive council of the viceroy and in each of the provincial executive councils.

Despite many defects in this scheme, the Morley-Minto reforms were important in several aspects. For Muslims, the most important change brought about by the reforms was the establishment of separate electorates. The Simla deputation demand was met, and a system of separate Muslim representation was introduced.

All Hindu and several British observers of the Indian scene criticised the creation of communal electorates as a breach of democratic principle. But Morley saw the force of the Muslim argument that to make Muslim seats dependent on Hindu votes would embitter communal relations. Mere reservation of seats would not have gone to a Muslim candidate who identified himself wholeheartedly with the interests of his own community. Another argument in support of this was that it was the unanimous demand of a large community. But Hindu politicians and the Congress immediately began a campaign of criticism and opposition. At the

1910 Congress session, it condemned the provision of separate representation for Muslims and demanded withdrawal of the resolution. From then on up to the passing of the 1935 Act, the Congress made a habit of it to condemn separate electorates and to advocate their removal.

The sober, well-reasoned and constitutional advocacy of the Muslim League thus did not fail to achieve its objective. Within two years of its inception, the Muslim League scored a major political victory against a more powerful political organisation. The day the demand for separate electorate was conceded, the course for the Muslim freedom movement changed. It laid down the foundation for the growth of the Muslim national consciousness which, after a forty year struggle, was to achieve for the Muslims the culmination of their aspirations as a distinct nation.




to be continued
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Default Pakistan Affairs (part 2)

Pakistan Affairs (part 2)


This thread has been created for the reason of invisibility of Pakistan Affairs. It`ll be moved there as soon as the software rebooted.



The Islamic Republic of Pakistan emerged as an independent state on 14 August 1947. It has its roots into the remote past. Its establishment was the culmination of the long struggle by Muslims of the South-Asian subcontinent for a separate homeland of their own. Its foundation was laid when Mohammad bin Qasim subdued Sindh in 711 AD as a reprisal against sea pirates that had taken refuge in Raja Dahir’s kingdom. The advent of Islam further strengthened the historical individuality in the areas now constituting and further beyond its boundaries.

The impact of Islam on the South-Asian subcontinent was deep and far-reaching. Islam introduced not only a new religion, but also a new civilization, a new way of life and new set of values. Islamic traditions of art and literature, of culture and refinement, of social and welfare institutions were established by Muslim rulers throughout the subcontinent. A new language URDU, derived mainly from Arabic and Persian vocabulary and adapting indigenous words and idioms, came into existence.

With the decline of Muslim power during 16th and 17th centuries the British (starting with the East India Company) began to emerge as the dominant force in South Asia. Their rise to power was gradual, extending over a period of 100 years. They replaced the Shariah by what they termed as Anglo-Muhammadan law whereas Urdu was replaced by English as the official language. These and many other developments had great social, economic, and political impact especially on the Muslims of subcontinent.


WAR OF INDEPENDENCE


The uprising of 1857, termed as the Indian Mutiny by the British and the War of Independence by the Muslims, was a desperate attempt to reverse the adverse course of events. The failure of the 1857 War of Independence had disastrous consequences for the Muslims as the British placed all the responsibility for this event on them. Determined to stop such a recurrence in future, the British followed a repressive policy against the Muslims. Properties and estates of those even remotely associated with the freedom fighters were confiscated and efforts were made to close all avenues of honest living for them. The Muslim response to these situations also aggravated their plight. While this repression was going on, the Muslims kept themselves aloof from modern education as well as government service. But, their compatriots, the Hindus, did not do so and accepted the new rulers without reservation. They acquired modern western education, imbibed new culture and captured position hitherto filled in by the Muslims.





TWO NATIONS THEORY (IMPACT OF WAR OF INDEPENDENCE)


Pakistan’s ideology is based on the Two-Nation Theory, and as the Quaid-e-Azam summed it, “..we have our distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of International Law we are a nation.”

The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims were not confined to the struggle for political supremacy, but were also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than a thousand years, they continued to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, are all poles apart. Even the language they speak and the dresses they wear are entirely different.

The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. When they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe; they put forward their demand for a separate state.

The Muslims of South Asia believe that they are a nation in the modern sense of the word. The basis of their nationhood is neither territorial, racial, linguistic nor ethnic; rather they are a nation because they belong to the same faith, Islam. On this basis they consider it their fundamental right to be entitled to self-determination. They demanded that areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, wherein they would be enabled to order their lives in individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). They further want their state to strengthen the bonds of unity among Muslim countries.

In his speech at Lahore, after criticizing the concept of a constituent assembly, Jinnah declared..

“It has always been taken for granted, mistakenly that the Muslims are a minority, and … these settled notions are very difficult to remove. The Musalmans are not a minority. The Musalmans are a nation by any definition… The problem in India is not of inter-communal but manifestly of an international character. The only course open to us all is to allow the major nations separate homelands by dividing India into autonomous national states.”





URDU-HINDI CONTROVERSY


The Urdu-Hindi Controversy arose when Hindus demanded implementation of the Devanagari script in government offices, law courts and schools. Muslims coming to India, spoke their own language and also learned the language spoken by the natives. Out of this intermingling of languages, there arose a lingua franca, which came to be spoken by both Muslims and Hindus. The official language continued to be Persian; Turkish was the mother tongue of Muslims from Turkey, and Arabic was the language of the religion, Islam. The mixture of these languages with that spoken in India came to be known as Urdu. It soon became the language of society and of sublime poetry. It gradually supplanted Persian and became a language spoken and understood in most parts of India. It is a language which has risen as a result of the mixture of foreign and native languages. Urdu had powerful appeal as its literature grew rapidly. During the eighteenth century Urdu spread to all corners of India, and Urdu literary circles were established in every part of India.

Contrary to this, Hindi was written in Devanagri script, had a similarly high percentage of Sanskrit words, and was loosing its importance. When it came to poetry, differences went much deeper. In Urdu, the forms, the thought and the imagery were borrowed from Iran and Central Asia, whereas in Hindi they were indigenous. Seeing the ever increasing significance of the Urdu language, it was introduced as a official language in 1825. Its popularity was a source of annoyance to Hindus. They were out to destroy the cultural heritage and religion of Muslims, and this they could do by causing harm to the Urdu language, as a good deal of Muslim cultural heritage was preserved in Urdu. Also the literary, religious and intellectual works of Muslim scholars and poets were preserved in Urdu. Moreover, the exegesis of the Holy Quran, Hadith, Islamic jurisprudence and all religious books had been produced in Urdu. Thus, to eliminate Urdu was to deprive Muslims of their great cultural and religious heritage.

As part of a deliberate scheme to destroy Muslim culture in India, Hindus started an anti-Urdu movement in Benares in 1867, which gradually spread to Bihar, U.P. and other parts of India. The Hindus opposed the use of Urdu in courts, public offices and schools and demanded its replacement by Hindi. This unjustified opposition to Urdu convinced Sir Syed Ahmed Khan that Muslims and Hindus were two different nations. The entire Muslim community in India also criticized this policy. Initially, the controversy caused no serious harm, but in later years it developed into a formal movement. But when Sir Anthony McDonnel, Lt. Governor of United Provinces, issued a resolution on 19 April 1900 which decreed the use of Hindi in Devanagari script, and the seventy-five year history of Urdu as an official language came to on end, Muslims were deeply agitated. Considered from the point of view of their educational needs, legal and social business, literature and also from the point of view of Hindu-Muslim amity, this resolution was very harmful.

Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, successor of Sir Syed in political and educational affairs of the Muslims, requested the governor to allow the Muslims to clarify their viewpoint in regard to Urdu, but no heed was paid. As a result a public meeting was held at Aligarh on May 13, 1900 to protest against the language decree. In the meantime, the Urdu Defence Association was formed on August 8, 1900 which unanimously adopted a resolution demnding withdrawl of the recognition accorded to Hindu. The Nawab declared that Muslims who did not weild the pen, had ‘the strength to wield the sword’ and expressed his amazement that hte community was foresaken and ignored by the government. This was the first public demonstration of a political nature staged by Muslims. The lieutenant governor disliked demonstrations, which became routine throughout the country, collected the trustees of Aligarh College, expressed his disapproval, and alleged that Aligarh students had been made propagandists of this movement. He also threatened to stop the government grant for the college if it continued. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk resigned as secretary of Aligarh College in order to be free to carry on his campaign in defence of Urdu so that his personal prestige should not stand in the way of progress and future of the college. However, he took up the pen in defence of Urdu and also took up the task which Sir Syed had left. The Urdu Defence Association did great services to the Urdu language.

In 1902, Sir James La Touche replaced Lt. Governor McDonnel in U.P. He made it clear that the government did not restrict anyone’s freedom, and Urdu was restored to its former position in offices and law courts. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk secured a significant victory from the point of view of the political interests of the Muslim nation, thus paving the way for its eventual organization as a political force which could not be ignored.





SIMLA DEPUTATION


The Simla Deputation occupies a very important place in the history of modern Muslim India. For the first time, Hindu-Muslim conflict was lifted to the constitutional plane. The rift in society was now to be translated into legal and political institutions. The Muslims had made it clear that they had no confidence in the Hindu majority, that they were not prepared to put their future in the hands of assemblies elected on the assumption of a homogeneous Indian nation. By implication they rejected the idea of a single Indian nation on the ground that the minority could not trust the majority. From this it was but a short step to demanding a separate state for the Muslims of India It is in this sense that in the beginnings of separate electorates may be seen the glimmerings of the two-nation theory. The significance of the Simla demand lay in the reservations which the Muslims had about their Indian nationality.

Soon after the War of Independence of 1857, the British government realised that it was not safe to legislate for millions of people with few means of knowing–except by a rebellion–whether the laws suit them or not. Undoubtedly, Syed Ahmad Khan’s pamphlet Causes of the Indian Revolt contributed to this realisation on part of the British. It asserted that the absence of Indians from the councils of the country was mainly responsible for the troubles of 1857.

In 1861, the governor general’s council was enlarged to include 50% non-officials nominated by the governor general. Their appointment indicated a desire on the part of the government to obtain unofficial cooperation and advice in making laws. On January 15, 1883, when the bill for local self-government was moved, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a member of the Lord Ripon’s legislative council, argued that in India, a homeland of different peoples believing in different modes of life, western democracy would not work, because the Hindu majority would dominate the minorities. As a result of his constant efforts for the nomination system, the Indian Councils Act of 1892 indirectly introduced the principle of election. The use of the word “election” was avoided; some unofficial members were still nominated, and others were appointed on the recommendation of important communities and interests represented by such bodies as landlord associations, municipal and district boards, universities, or chambers of commerce. The government of India issued directions to provincial government that representation should be provided for certain classes and interests, including Muslims. Thus, the new act introduced a semi-electorate system and the principles of representation and election in India. But this system proved totally futile, as from 1892 to 1906, not even a single Muslim representative could secure a seat in the legislative councils as the local bodies were also dominated by Hindus, who always voted on religious grounds.

The turning point in the early phase of the Muslim political movement came in the summer of 1906. The elections in England in 1905 changed the whole sphere of politics. The new Liberal government in England announced that it intended to introduce constitutional changes in India. The viceroy, Lord Minto, had already appointed a committee of his executive council to inquire into the working of the Indian Councils Act of 1892 and to examine the question of further constitutional reforms. The committee expressed the opinion that the Muslims had not been sufficiently represented on the existing councils, that the few elected members had not been really represented and that nomination had failed to secure the appointment of Muslims of the class desired by the community.

Therefore, to safeguard their interests, Muslim leaders drew up a plan for separate electorates for their community and presented it to Lord Minto in Simla on 1 October, 1906. The lead was taken by Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, secretary of the Board of Trustees of Aligarh College. He had written and addressed leading Muslims about such a deputation. Consisting of representatives of all shades of Muslim opinion, the Simla Deputation, led by Sir Agha Khan, demanded two points of policy. First in all local and provincial elections Muslims must be separately elected by purely Muslim electors. Second, Muslims must be given weightage in all elected bodies, i.e., they should have more seats than warranted by their their ratio in the population.

The first demand was made on two grounds: that in the prevailing state of communal tension no Muslim elected through a joint electorate would genuinely reflect the will of the community, and that in the absence of separate electorates every contested election would lead to communal riots. The demand of weightage was supported by two arguments: Muslims still owned much of the landed property in India, and they formed a very large proportion of the Indian army. The address presented by the deputation was a model of mature thinking and sober expression. The viceroy accepted both demands.

Though the demand for separate representation of Muslims had been acceded to by the Viceroy, sustained efforts had to be made over the next three years in order to secure the separate electorate in the Morley-Minto reforms of 1909.





ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE 1906


Up to the end of nineteenth century, the Muslims had stayed away from organized polities. However, Hindu agitation against the partition of Bengal, and Hindu religious revivalism and hostility to the Muslims injected into the Congress by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a fundamentalist Hindu leader changed the situation. By 1906, Muslim leaders were convinced that they should form their own party to protect Muslim interests and speak for the community on all important occasions. The Simla Deputation strengthened this belief by demonstrating the potency of united action.

In 1901, a meeting of Muslim leaders was held at Lucknow under the presidentship of Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk for this purpose. This meeting decided to establish an organisation to look after the social and political needs of the Muslims. But this organisation remained confined to one province of northern India.

Five years later, on December 30, 1906, at a conference of Muslim leaders (the Muhammadan Educational Conference) in Dhaka, the efforts of this deputation succeeded, and the All India Muslim League was formed.

It was Sir Salimullah who initially sketched a plan for an all India Muslim organisation, which was seconded by Hakim Ajmal Khan. Other prominent Muslim leaders such as Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk, Syed Nawab Ali Chaudary, Justice Shah Din, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar participated in the effort.

The League was intended to promote loyalty among Indian Muslims to the British government and to remove any misconceptions about the intentions of the government. Second, it aimed to protect and advance the political rights and interests of Indian Muslims and represent their needs and aspirations to the government. Finally, it hoped to prevent the rise of Muslim hostility towards other communities.

It was provided that the membership of the All-India Muslim League would not exceed four hundred, which would be distributed among the different provinces according to fixed proportions. Every candidate was to be a Muslim, not less than 25 years of age, capable of reading and writing in one of the languages and possessing an annual income of not less than Rs. 500. The League was to have a president, six vice-presidents, a secretary and two joint secretaries, all elected for a term of three years.

In another resolution, a provisional committee consisting of sixty members including members of the Simla Deputation was appointed to draft the constitution. The League constitution was written in English, by a graduate of Cambridge University, Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar. The book was named The Green Book.

As the Indo-Pak history unfolds, the struggle of the Muslim League to safeguard the interests of the Indian Muslims become more and more evident ultimately leading to the creation of Pakistan in 1947.







to be continued
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