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Old Saturday, December 18, 2010
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Default Zoology Most Repeated Topics

Most Repeated Questions of Zoology

PAPER I

PROTOZOA

2010: “A protozoan cell is not equal to a cell of multicellular organism”. Discuss the statement.
2009: Conjugation and its significance
2009: Write an essay on “Protozoa and diseases”
2008: Explain the medical importance of plasmodium
2007: Some Protozoa are medicinally important, explain at least three such Protozoan.
2006: Discuss PROTOZOA as UNICELLULAR and ACELLULAR organisms
2005: Write a brief account on conjugation in protozoa.
2004: Give a brief account of Pathogenic Protozoa
2003: Discuss the phenomenon of Autogamy with special reference to Paramecium.
2002: Describe various modes of LOCOMOTION in PROTOZOA
2002: Describe CONJUGATION in PARAMECIUM and its significance
2001: Briefly describe four different methods of ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION met in the PROTOZOA

CORALS

2010: How will you differentiate between corals and coral reefs? How are different types of coral reefs formed?
2009: What are coral reefs? Give an account of various forms of coral reefs
2005: "Corals are distributed over a wide range,yet coral reefs are present in selected areas". Discuss.
2002: Write down the economic importance of CORAL REEFS.


CNIDARIA / COELENTRATA

2010: Polymorphism – coelentrata
2009: Coelenterates show some resemblances with Porifera. Discuss briefly2007: Canal system is found in Porifera, explain its types & significance.
2008: Draw label V.S of polyp of obelia
2006: Define POLYMORPHISM and discuss it with reference to CEOLENTRATES
2006: PORIFERA exhibits a Tissue level of organization".Discuss.
2005: Porifera is a group falling at just above the colonial level of organization. Comment.
2005: Psuedocoelom, Enterocoelomates
2004: “Polyp and Medusa are strictly homologous structures.” Justify the statement. 2003: Define Polymorphism and explain with reference to Coelentrata
2001: Give a brief account of different types of species found in PORIFERA
2001: Define POLYMORPHISM. Discuss the phenomenon with reference to order SIPHONOPHORA (COELENTRATA).
2001: Write a short essay on affinities of CTENOPHORA

SPONGES/ PORIFERA

2010: “Sponges are at colonial level of cellular organization”. Justify the statement.
2009: Give an account of canal system in sponges.
2008: What are spicules? Explain various types of spicules in sponges. What is their importance in the classification of sponges?
2004: Describe different types of Canal System found in Sponges.
2003: “Sponges have a Diploblastic organization.” Discuss the statement.
2002: Give economic importance of SPONGES.

PLATYHELMINTHESIS

2010: Discuss parasite adaptation with special reference to platyhelminthes
2009: Flame cells,
2009: what is adaptation? Briefly discuss parasitic adaptations in platyhelminthes.
2008: Explain different types of parasitic adaptations in platy helminthes
2007: How Platyhelminthes are adapted for Parasitic mode of life
2005: Parasitism leads to the development of some characters and withdrawl of some other characters. discuss the statement with reference to platyhelminthes.
2003: Give a brief over view of Parasitic Adaptations in Platyhhelminthes.
2002: Describe the life history of LIVER FLUKE by giving suitable diagrams.
2001: Discuss the general adaptation of parasitic mode of life with special reference to phylum PLATY HELMINTHES

ECHINODERMATA

2010: Echinoderm affinity
2009: 2007: 2004: 2005: 2003: 2002: Describe water vascular system of Echinodermata
2008: Tube feet in echinoderms
2006: "ECHINODERMS have a close evolutionary relationship with CHORDATES". Comment the statement.
2006: TUBE FEET IN ECHINODERMS
2004: Echinodermal larvae
2001: Discuss REGENERATION with special reference to ECHINODERMS.


ANNELIDS AND NEMATODS

2010: Importance of Nematodes
2010: Define metameric segmentation. Explain with reference to Annelida.
2009: Give an account of human diseases caused by nematodes.
2009: Trochophore larva
2009: Spicules,
2006: ANNELIDS have said to have true METAMERIC SEGMENTATION."
2004: “In Tapeworm True Segmentation is absent.” Comment.
2003: “The Annelids are Metamerically Segmented organisms.” Discuss the statement.
2002: Explain METAMERISM and its significance in ANNELIDA
2001: Give an account of two broad types of NEPHRIDIA found in POLYCHAETA.


MOLLUSCS

2010: Shell in Mollusca
2007: Shell in Mollusca
2007: Describe structure and Types of foot in Mollusca.
2006: FOOT IN MOLLUSCA
2005: Write a brief account of shellin mollusca.
2004: Give an account of Podium in Mollusca.
2003: “The skeletal support though gives protection, yet makes Molluscas inefficient. Comment on the statemtent.
2002: Describe the adaptive modifications of FOOT IN GASTROPODES.
2001: Write a short essay on TORISON in GASTROPODA.
Torsion in gastropods

ARTHROPODA

2005: Respiration in Arthopodes
2004: Tracheal apparatus of insects and those of Arachnids are essentially different. Discus the above statement.
2002: Give the diagnostic features of ARTHROPODES

INSECTS

2010: Discuss metamorphosis with reference to insects.
2007: Insects respiration is through tracheal tubes. Explain its structure along with its working.
2007: Describe complete Metamorphosis in an insect.
2006: Discuss insects as the most sucessful gruop.
2003: Describe Respiratory System in insects.
2001: Define METAMORPHOSIS and discuss the phenomenon with reference to INSECTS.

CHORDATES

2010: Discuss evolution of heart in different chordate groups.
2010: “Hemichordates have both chordate and non-chordate character”. Justify.
2010: Discuss Amphioxus as a complete chordate.
2009: what is cleavage? Describe its types , with example found in chordates
2009: Amphioxus
2006: HEMICHORDATES have a mixture of CHORDATE and NON-CHORDATE characters." Explain.
2006: ALL the CHORDATES character are present in Ascidea in larval stage". Discuss.
2005: "Amphioxus is an ideal chordate". Discuss the statement.
2005: Heat gradually evolved into a more efficient pumping organ in different chordate groups." Explain the statement.
2005: Discuss retrogressive metamorphosis with reference to Ascidians.
2005: Skeleton in petromyzon is at very initial stage of development. Justify the statement.
2005: Discuss the different type of eggs found in different chordate groups.
2004: “Hemichoda” should not be included in Chordata. Justify the statement
2004: “Amphioxus” is certainly related to Ancestral vertebrates. Comment upon the statement.
2003: Discuss the evolutionary changes in the structure of heart indifferent Chordate groups.
2003: “Amphioxus is an ideal Chordate.” Comment.
2001: Discuss the possible origin of the CHORDATES.
2001: Give a brief account of the evolutionary changes in HEART in different classes of CHORDATES.
2001: Describe the two basic types of CLEAVAGE with reference to CHORDATES.
2001: NOTOCHORD
What is gastrulation? State gastrulation in microlecithal and mesolecithal eggs


VERTEBRATES

2009: describe various types of heart found in vertebrates
2009: give classification of vertibrate eggs according to the quantity of yolk they contain
2008: Discuss different types of hearts found in vertebrates.
2008: State the different types of eggs on the basis of amount and distribution of yolk
2008: Give cellular blood components of vertebrates
2008: Give various function of skin in vertebrates
2008: Mention structure of bone in vertebrates
2008: What is a portal system? Explain hepatic portal system of vertebrates.
2008: Amphibian Heart
2007: Amount of yolk determine the cleavage type, describe various types of cleavages found in vertebrates.
2007: How vertebrate kidney was evolved.
2004: Discuss the Evolution of Aortic Arches in different vertebrate groups

BIRDS

2010: Feathers in Birds
2010: “Birds are said to be glorified reptiles”. Justify the statement.
2010: Define biological migration. Discuss the phenomenon with reference to birds.
2009: write an essay on flight adaptations of birds
2007: How Birds migrate, explain various factors, which are involved in their migration
2007: Gastrulation in birds
2006: Discss the different adoptation to flight with reference to birds.
2005: Write an essay on migration in birds, with special reference to Pakistan.
2004: Discuss Birds as a flying Machine.
2003: Write a brief essay on Migration in birds
2002: Write about the economic importance of birds
2002: Write about MIGRATION in birds
2001: Develop an outline on adaptation of FLIGHT IN BIRDS
2001: FEATHERS IN BIRDS

MAMMALS

2010: Give a brief account of embryonic membranes.
2010: Exoskeleton in mammals
2009: what is placenta? Give its classification in mammals according to the mode of implantation.
2009: uriniferous tubule of a mammal
2007: Describe Placentation in mammals, explain various types
2006: Describe placentation in mammals
2004: Amplify the statement that Monotremes show a mixture of Mammalion and Reptilian characters.
2004: Briefly describe the structure, formation and function of “Placenta”.
2002: Describe the mechanism of RSPIRATION IN MAMMALS
2002: Write briefly about the POUNCED MAMALS
2002: Give an account of DENTITION IN MAMMALS
2002: Describe the structure and function of MAMMALIAM KIDNEY.
2001: Write a short note on anatomy of the MAMMALIAN KIDNEY
2001: Write an essay on PLACENTATION IN MAMMALS
2001: VIVIPARITY

REPTILES AND FISHES

2010: Scales in Fishes
2010: Desert adaptations in Reptiles
2009: Snake biting
2008: Write an essay on biting mechanism of snakes
2007: Differentiate between the scale of fishes and Reptiles.
2006: Write a short essay on different types of scales found in fishes
2006: Write an essay on biting mechanism of snakes
2003: . Name the ten Cranial Nerves found in Scoliodon
2002: Snakes are useful creatures. Discuss
2002: Describe the various types of SCALES in FISHES
2001: CAUDAL FINS IN FISH

MISCELLANEOUS
Osmoregulation,
Schizocoel
Secondary Segmentation
Give an account of development of chick upto the development of three Germinal Layers.
Enumerate the functions of the skin and also tell the structures derived from it.


PAPER II

CELL , ORGANELLES AND MEMBRANES

2010: Describe structure, chemical composition and function of Endoplasmic reticulum.
2010: Define membrane system. What are the main members of this system in a cell
2008: Give an account of mechanism by which living cell is believed to synthesize proteins.
2008: Describe structure and function of cell membrane
2008: Describe the structure and function of E.R
2008: What are cytoskeletons? Explain different types of cytoskeleton found in a cell.
2007: Describe structure, chemical composition and function of mitochondria
2007: Explain Polymorphism in Lysosomes.
2006: What are various functions of Endoplasmic recticulum.
2004: Give a detailed account of structure of lysosome. discuss its function in a cell.
2005: Give an account of morphology.chemical composition and functioning of golgi complex.
2005: lysosomes
2004: Give a diagrammatic representation of the structure of the mitochondrion and its molecular skeleton to show its association with Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation.
2003: Golgi Complex
2003: Discuss the basic structure and chemical composition of Mitochondrion
2002: Describe the structure and function of PLASMA MEMBRANE.
2002: MITOCHONDRIA
2001: Lysosome


NUCLEUS, NUCLIEC ACIDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

2010: Describe the phenomenon of transcription.
2008: What is the structure and role of Nucleolus in the cell
2007: Discuss the mechanism of replication of DNA
2007: Write an essay on protein synthesis
2006: Describe various steps involved in Translation
2005: List the steps involved in the synthesis of protien starting from DNA
2004: Discuss the steps involved in the semi conservative replication of DNA
2001: The role of Nucleic Acid in Protein Synthesis.
2001: Nucleolus

CHROMOSOME AND CELL DIVISION

2010: Draw neat diagrams to show different stages of meiosis in a cell, where diploid number of chromosomes is 6.
2008: Describe the prophase I of meiosis in detail with the help of labeled diagram
2007: Give ultra structure and morphology of chromosomes.
2007: Discuss various chromosomal aberrations along with their role
2004: Describe the microscopic, ultramicroscopic and chemical structure of a Eukaryotic chromosome.
2004: List the steps invovled during the process of meiosis
2003: Draw neat diagram representing important stages of meiosis in an organism having the diploid chromosomal number of 4.
2002: CHROMOSOME MAP
2001: Meiosis and its significance
2001: Chromosomal aberrations.


BIOCHEMISTRY, HORMONES AND ENZYMES

2010: Develop a list of the hormones secreted by pituatary gland and indicate their target organs and effects.
2008: Pituitary gland
2007: What is biochemistry of hormones? Explain mechanism of hormone action
2005: Discuss different enzymes involved in digestion in man
2005: pituitary hormones
2004: Pituitary Gland works as a link b/w the nervous system and the other hormonal complexes of the body
2003: Define hormones. How do these differ from enzymes?
2003: What do you understand from energy subsidy
2002: What is FEED BACK MECHNISM with respect to HORMONES? Explain with examples.
2002: Define INHIBITORS and give its types.
2002: Explain the factors that affect the rate of ENZYME ACTION.
2001: Give in detail the account of functions of various hormones produced by different lobes of Pituitary gland.



GENETICS
2010: Define Epistasis. Describe six basic types of epistatic reactions.
2010: Define sex-linkage. Explain the phenomenon with one example
2007: Explain mendals law of independent assortment
2006: What is sex linked inheritance? Explain in humans
2007: Explain law of Independent assortment by taking examples from animals.
2006: Discuss the phenomena of genetic linkage
2006: Describe sex linkage ,giving suitable example
2006: Discuss Mendal's law of segregation,as it is understood now.
2005: Discuss the multiple allele inheritance with reference to inhertance of ABO blood groups in man.
2005: Define epistasis?How does it differes from dominance?Give three examples of epistatic interactions.
2004: Define gene map.Discuss the method involved in the preparation of a gene map in diploid
2004: State and explain Heackle 's Biogenetic law
2004: Show as to how complementary interactions of two independent pairs of Alleles in seed colour in corn or coat colour in Rodents modigy the Mendelian Raito of independent assortment. Do these modified ratios in fact disprove “Mendelian Second Law of Independent Assortment”?
2004: Genetic drift
2004: How ‘Genetic Maps’ of chromosomes are constructed in Drosophilia. What techniques should be used in man for this purpose? (12)
2003: Explain TEST CROSS and give its significance
2003: Define and explain Generic Linkage. What are the cytogical bases of linkage?
2002: Write an essay on GENETIC ENGINEERING.
2001: Gene concept
2001: Sex-linked inheritance.
2001: Linkage and crossing over


EVOLUTION

2010: “Hardy Weinberg Law provides the basis for modern synthesis on mechanism of evolution”. Explain.
2010: “Darwin and Wallace worked under identical conditions but in different areas to develop the theory of natural selection”. Justify the statement
2010: Write an essay on possible origin of life.
2010: “Fossils provide some important evidences of evolution”. Discuss
2008: Given an account of Lamarck’s theory of evolution
2008: Natural selection
2007: Describe species concept in detail
2007: Evidence from paleontology and comparative embryology in favor of evolution
2007: Prove the role of Natural Selection in Darwinian Evolution by examples.
2007: What is a specie, how they were evolved, discuss various ideas.
2007: Give an account of theory of Darwin theory of natural selection,as it is understood now.
2006: State and explain Heackle 's Biogenetic law
2005: Compare the darwin's theory of natural selection with the Lamark's theory of acquired characters.
2005: Give a brief account of the possible origin of life on this globe.
2004: Could ‘Natural Selection’ alone produce ‘Speciation’ in natural populations
2004: Is there any truth in ‘Neo Lamarckism’? How ‘Baldwin Effect’ fits in this concept
2004: Briefly describe Polyploidy as a method of origin of species.
2004: Genetic drift
2003: How will you explain the production of long neck in Giraffe under Darwinian Theory
2002: Define POLYPLOIDY and explain its role in the origin of new species
2002: Write what you know about the theory of NATURAL SELECTION. How does it differ from MUTATION THEORY?
2002: Briefly discuss the EMBRYOLOGICAL EVIDENCE of animal evolution.

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

2008: what are biochemical cycles? Describe the carbon cycle in detail
2007: How CO2 is transported tin higher animals? Explain various methods.
2007: What is the relationship between availability of water and the nitrogenous waste products produced in animals?
2007: Explain Biogeochemical cycle, with the help of Nitrogen cycle.
2005: What is biogeochemical cycle? Describe phophorus cycle.
2003: Give a detailed account of Phosphorous cycle
2002: Write about NITROGEN CYCLE in detail.
2001: Nitrogen cycle

ECOLOGY

2010: Define an ecosystem. Discuss the system considering the example of a pond as an almost complete ecosystem
2010: List four adaptations of animals to desert conditions.
2007: Name various zones of a deep freshwater pond. What type of life is present in each zone.
2005: Define ecosystem.discuss pond as an example of complete ecosystem
2005: air pollution
2004: Differentiate between Immunity against a disease and Resistance against a pesticide in natural populations.
2004: Define “Industrial Melanism”. Explain why in a polluted area near Birmingham, U.K., most of the specimens of peppered moth are melanic but in countryside theses are typical light coloured.
2004: Define “Pesticidal Pollution”. In how many ways does it effect the human health?
2004: Acid rain
2003: Define pollution. Discuss air pollution with reference to Pakistan
2003: Define and explain Epistasis. How does it differ from Genetic dominance?
2002: GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
2002: PARASITISM, PREDATION
2001: Give an account of sources, effects and control of Air Pollution.


HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY


2010: How are the nerve impulses pass through the nervous network
2010: Define excretion. What are the rationales for adapting to different excretory substances in different animal groups?
2005: What are the different excretory products in animals?How and why these are produced in different animal groups
2005: Briefly discuss the mechanism involved in transport of oxygen from lungs to tissues
2004: Define respiration.Discuss the mechanism invoved in the transport of carbon dioxide from tissue to lungs.
2004: What is the basic excretory product?Discuss different excretory substances produced in different animals
2004: Describe the mechanism involved in transmission of the nerve impluse along the nervous system.
2004: Define “Respiration”, and “External” and “Internal” Respiration. How the air conducting passage ways and the Respiratory membranes function to achieve these goals.
2004: Differentiate between physical and chemical regulation of body temperature.
2004: Explain the meaning of ‘Conduction’, ‘Convection’ and ‘Radiation’ in relation to the loss of heat from the body
2003: Define Excretion and briefly discuss the main excretory products in animals.
2003: Discuss the mechanism of transport of oxygen from lungs to the tissues.
2001: Erythocytes
2001: Discuss the mechanism of transport of carbon dioxide from tissue to lungs.
2001: Discuss in detail the relationship between ontogeny and Phylogeny.

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These are the questions taken from the question papers of CSS from the year 2001-2010. Those topics whose topic name is given only not the actual question, came either in the form of short note or definition/short question. There can be mistakes in the year no. of few questions but pardon me for that as I compiled it in a very short time. I am sure it will help many.
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