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Default Repeated Question of Computer Sceince

Computer Architecture

  • Distinguish between the architecture of x86 to a 68000 processor.(2014)
  • Discuss why BIOS are not changed frequently.(2014)
  • With the help of a state diagram depict the instruction cycle with interrupts. Also, define the term bus arbitration and its various types. (2012)
  • Explain (i) Cache Memory (ii) Static & Dynamic RAM (iii) Instruction Cycle (iv) Buses & their types (2010)
  • What is a Computer Bus? Name and briefly explain the functions of important Computer Buses. (2001)
  • Explain the difference between the main memory and secondary memory of computer system (2006)
  • Describe in detail the memory types used in computers. How data and instructions are communicated to and from the computer memory. (2000)
  • Explain the two strategic technologies to make the computer speedier; RISC and Parallel Processing. Hence also differentiate between RISC and CISC. (2004)
  • Differentiate between CISC and RISC computer architectures and in this context, describe the architectures of a Stack Machine? (2002)
  • Draw the block diagram of a digital computer. Describe the functions of its various parts. (2001)
  • Illustrate the basic computer architecture and define the functions of its main components. (2000)

Operating System

  • Differentiate differences of Unix operating system over Microsoft window OS.(2014)
  • The processor must have a process to handle exceptions.Explain four things that the processor must be able to identify and/or take care of.(2014)
  • Short Notes - Semaphore (2013)
  • Short Notes Beledy's Anomlay (2013)
  • Short NotesThrashing (2013)
  • Define latency, transfer and seek time with respect to disk I/O. Compare given disk scheduling alorithm for cylinder requests in order 11, 1, 36, 16, 34, 9, 12: (2013)
First-come, first-served (FCFS)

Shortest-seek-time-first (SSTF)

  • Differentiate between thread and process. Explain your answer through example. (2008)
  • What is difference between a process and a thread? Explain your answers with examples. (2007)
  • Consider the following set of processes, with the length of CPU-burst time given in milliseconds.
    Process Burst time Priority
    P1 10 3
    P2 1 1
    P3 2 3
    P4 1 4
    P5 5 2

    The process is assumed to have arrived in order p1, p2, p3, p4, p5 all at time 0.
    a) Draw four Gantt chart illustrating the execution of these processes using FCFS,SJF, Non preemptive priority(a small priority number implies a higher priority and RR(quantum=1) scheduling .
    b) What is the turnaround time of each process for each of the scheduling algorithms in part a?
    c).What is the waiting time of each process for each scheduling algorithms in apart a
    d). which of the schedules in part a results in the minimum average time (overall processes). (2012)
  • A Bunch of jobs arriving in the ready queue as shown below using SRT and PR (Q=5). Calculate average turn around time. Draw the Gantt chart and describe which policy provides better result. (2011)

    Jobs A.T E.R.T
    1 0 10
    2 1 6
    3 2 12
    4 3 11
    5 4 5
  • Differentiate between the pre-emptive and non-preemptive scheduling .Briefly discusses the round robin and shortest scheduling policies with example for each. (2011)
  • Explain processing scheduling policies of the operating system. (2006)
  • Why scheduling is necessary in operating system? Briefly describe various scheduling policies. (2000)
  • Explain multi level feedback queue scheduling algorithm. (2009)
  • Differentiate between the Shortest process next (SPN) and shortest remaining Time (SRT) Uni processor scheduling techniques? (2008)
  • Various operating systems (i.e WIN 2K, solaris) make use of pages virtual memory technique. Explain the paged virtual memory in general terms with the help of diagram. (2008)
  • Explain virtual memory management techniques of computer operating system. (2006)
  • What is Virtual Memory and how many ways it is implemented? In this context describe some three process scheduling techniques? (2003)
  • What is thrashing? Explain different page replacement algorithms. (2007)
  • Differentiate between the paging and segmentation. And describe the working of Page-Fault Frequency Algorithm. (2002)
  • Describe briefly five state process lifecycle. (2009)
  • What are the five major activities of an operating system in regard to process management? (2001)
  • What is the process control Block and what are its functions. (2003)
  • Define a process and process control block. Draw a 5-state model for the process state transition and explain it. (2002)
  • Explain different methods for processing of data files? (2005)
  • Explain, shortly, different file management systems. (2004)

Computer Networks

  • Discuss the essential servers/services that are used to complete an intranet.(2014)
  • Write a note on network topology. Which topology will you prefer for an techniques?(2014)
  • Discuss essential issues in network programming.(2014)
  • What is the significance of OSI model in communication paradigm/ Compare layers of OSI with TCP/IP protocol stack. (2013)
  • Compare IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.4 and IEEE 802.5? Also mention their problems and applications.(2013)
  • Differentiate between Link State and Distance Vector routing protocols. (2013)
  • What is the role of address field in a packet travelling through a virtual circuit network? (2012)
  • Differentiate between the message switching and packet switching. Which one is better for data networks? (2008)
  • Compare the individual fields of IPv4 header and IPv6 header. Account for the functionality provided by each IPv4 field by showing how the same functionality is provided in IPv6.(2011)
  • What is the difference between IPV4 and IPV6.Why IPV6 was developed when there IPV4 was already developed and implemented. (2010)
  • List OSI seven layers in order and briefly describes function of each layer. (2010)
  • Compare the TCP/IP and OSI network and describe the functionality of at least two Transport and two network layer protocols. (2008)
  • Explain ISO/OSI seven layers reference model with detailed functions of each layer. (2007)
  • Describe the layering concepts in OSI model of Network architecture with functions of each layer. (2006)
  • What is the OSI model? Name various OSI layers and briefly describe their functionality. (2002)
  • What is the OSI model? How many layers does it consist of? Name these layers along with their brief functionality. (2001)
  • Describe ISO reference model. Explain at which layers, the TCP/IP works. (2000)
  • Describe the TCP/IP and explain the concept of TCP/IP ports. Also describe the functionality of at least two well-known protocol ports. (2002)
  • Describe various network Flow control protocol. (2008)
  • What are network protocols? Explain any two common LAN protocols? (2005)
  • What does a Network protocol mean? Name two main categories of network protocols. Explain and give examples of each. (2001)
  • Describe briefly different communication channels. (2009)
  • Explain any three widely used media for wireless communication. (2005)
  • What are communication protocols? Define Full Duplex and Synchronous Transmissions.( 2004)
  • What factors would you consider if you are asked to design, a LAN from scratch? Assume that all Hardware requirements can be satisfied appropriately. (2003)
  • Illustrate a simple LAN model showing major LAN components and their functions. What types of changes need to be made in such a model if the speed of data communication is to be increased? (2000)

Concepts of Programming (Structured and Object Oriented Programming )

  • What advantages are provided in OOP over other conventional programming techniques?(2014)
  • Draw a data structure of a course registration system for a university level institute.(2014)
  • What is the concept of inheritance in OOP paradigm? How can we achieve inheritance in JAVA? (2013)
  • Why is a B+ tree a better structure than an AVL tree for implementation of an indexed sequential file? Explain this with an example. (2013)
  • Convert the expression ((A+B)*C-(D-E)^(F+G)) to equivalent Prefix and postfix notations. (2013)
  • Differentiate between overloading and overriding giving examples. (2012)
  • Explain operator overloading in C/C++. (2007)
  • What is polymorphism? How can we achieve polymorphism in JAVA and what is a prerequisite? (2011)
  • What are Virtual Functions? And how they can be utilized for polymorphism? Use C++ for writing example program. (2009)
  • What is inheritance and polymorphism? Give an example also in each case. (2007)
  • Discuss briefly the main characteristics of object oriented programming. (2005)
  • Differentiate between Object Oriented Programming and Procedural Programming. Also explain the concept of Abstraction in OOP. (2004)
  • Define the classes and their relationships as given in following class diagram. Associate at least three appropriate attributes and two methods with each class. You can use any programming language and you do not need to write the code for the methods, only give the class specifications. (2012)

  • Define following terms (2010)

    6.Copy constructor,
  • Explain with examples (2009)
    (i) Inheritance & Aggregation
    (ii) Data Hiding & Encapsulation
    (iii) Constructors & Destructors
    (iv) Class, Object and Abstraction
  • Write notes on: (2002)

    (i) C++ structures and classes

Data Structure and Algorithms

  • Write a do-while loop to compute the sum of the first 30 positive odd integers.(2014)
  • Write a note on sorting algorithm. Write sodo-code for for insertion sort.(2014)
  • Suppose following sorted array A of integers:

    A[0] A[1] A[2] A[3] A[4] A[5] A[6]
    1 2 5 7 9 11 13

    If you perform the binary search, for each of the search keys given below, write down the sequence of array values that are compared with the search value during the search. (2010)
  • Searching for 2 Searching for 13 Searching for 8
  • Write and explain algorithm for Binary Search. (2009)
  • If we implement the binary search tree with the array A, what will be the status of the array A after inserting the values {7, 4, 1, 3, 11} to initially empty tree? (2010)

    A[0] A[1] A[2] A[3] A[4] A[5] A[6] A[7] A[8] A[9] A[10]
  • Write an algorithm to construct the binary tree with given preorder and inorder sequence? Prove that every binary tree is uniquely defined by its preorder and inorder sequence? (2002)
  • Write code to push and to pop elements in a stack. (2012)
  • Describe the use of print stack Trace method . Consider STACK with memory size 8. Initially it is empty . Findout the output of the following algorithm . (2011)

    Step 1:Set X=4 and =6
    Step 2 :Call PUSH(STACK,X+Y)
    Step 3 :Call PUSH(STACK,5)
    Step 4 :Call PUSH(STACK,X+4)
    Step 5 :Call PUSH(STACK,Y-3)
    Step 6 :Call PUSH(STACK,Y-X)
    Step 7 :Repeat while TOP!=NULL
    Write ITEM
    (loop ends)
    Step 8. Exit
  • You are given head of single linked list. Write code to count number of nodes in it (any language). (2012)
  • What are advantages of linked lists over dynamic arrays? (2007)
  • Explain ( 2009)
  • (i) Stack & Queue
  • (ii) Tree & Graph
  • (iii) Linked List & Array
  • Write a note on the following data structures. Also describe various functions that can be performed on them and write the C++ code for implementation of these functions. (2008)

    (i) STACK
    (ii) QUEUE.
  • Explain the following types of data structure giving example. (2006)
    (1) Stack
    (2) Queue
  • Differentiate between a Stack and a Queue. How are these handled in C++? Describe various situations where stacks are preferred over queues. (2001)
  • Describe the difference between a queue and a stack. How these are handled in a C/C++ program. Describe various situations in which you will use stack instead of queue. (2000)
  • Elucidate the concept of hashing .Explain in brief the various methods used to avoid collision in hashing. Insert key Records: 76,93,40,47,10,55(in this sequence) into hash table of length m=7 with hash function H(K)=K mod m. Perform linear and quadratic probing. (2007)
  • What is Hashing? Give few Examples of its applications where hashing is highly useful. 2007)

Software Engineering

  • Discuss some cost estimation techniques used in software engineering.(2014)
  • What are the key issues on which software engineering do work with?(2014)
  • Describe the spiral model of software development with its application. (2013)
  • Short note :-Software Quality A ssurance (2013)
  • Short note :Smoke Testing (2013)
  • Short note :Extreme Programming (2013)
  • What is Software Process Model? Explain Spiral Process Model. (2009)
  • Giving reasons for your answer based on the type of system being developed. Suggest the most appropriate generic software process model, which might be used as a basis for managing the development of the following systems.

    (i) A Virtual reality system to support software development
    (ii) An interactive railway timetable system
    (iii) A system to control Anti-lock breaking in a car
    (iv) MSN messenger
    Support your answer with necessary reasons. Clearly write down the assumptions you made.(2008)
  • Explain the basic phases of software engineering life cycle. (2007)
  • Briefly construct various Software Development Life Cycle models and their effectiveness in appropriate situations. (2002)
  • Name the models that can be used in Software engineering. Explain any one model in detail. (2001)
  • Give at least five differences between classical waterfall way of software development and evolutionary development. (2012)
  • Differentiate between Incremental and RAD models? Which one is better and why? (2008)
  • In software Engineering, differentiate between structured-oriented and object-oriented design. (2007)
  • In software engineering explain the object oriented software design. (2006 )
  • Provide five examples of software development projects that would be amenable to prototyping, name two or three applications that would be more difficult to prototype? (2002)

Database Management

  • Discuss the concepts of data independency in DBMS.(2014)
  • Write a note on DATA Models.(2014)
  • What are the main features of Relational data model? Why is it more useful than Hierarchical data model? (2013)
  • What is 2PL? Give a schedule of two complete transactions that are not allowed by 'strict 2PL' scheduler but are accepted by basic 2PL scheduler. (2013)
  • Short Note - ERD(2013)
  • Short Note -Normalization (2013)
  • Write six basic properties of a database relation. Which one of these properties is different from those of a mathematical relation? (2012)
  • Create an ER diagram for each of the following descriptions associating two or three attributes with each entity type: (2012)

    (i)Each company may operate up to four departments, and each department must belong to one company.
    (ii) Each department in part (i) employs one or more employees, and each employee works for one or more departments.
    (iii) Each of the employees in part (ii) may or may not have one or more dependants, and each dependant belongs to one employee.
    (iv) Each employee in part (iii) may or may not have an employment history.
    (v) Some of the employees are managers for other employees.
    (d) Represent all the ER diagrams described above as a single ER diagram.
  • “We can have a relation that is in 3NF but not in BCNF”, explain this point by giving an example. (2012)
  • What is normalization process? Explain the steps to normalize a relation with suitable example (2011)
  • Why normalization is used in relational database? Define second and third normal form with an example. (2010)
  • What is a Database? Explain and differentiate Relational Database Model from the other Database Models. (2009)
  • Explain with example Entity Relationship Diagram. (2009)
  • Describe the process of Normalization and various Normal forms through examples. Also describe two integrity rules. (2008)
  • Why we use normalization? Explain 1NF, 2NF, 3NF with at least one example. (2007)
  • Explain three levels of database architecture with one example of each level. (2007)
  • In database design explain term ‘normalization’. (2006)
  • Explain different types of database models with example. (2006)

  • What is the difference between a data entity in second normal form (2NF) and third normal form (3NF)? Give an example of an entity in 2NF and show its conversion to 3NF. (2005)

  • What is the difference between a data entity in first normal form (1NF) and second normal from (2NF)? Give an example of an entity in INF and show its conversion to 2NF. (2004)
  • Define 3NF, BCNF. Give an example of a relation in 3NF but not in BCNF. Transform that relation in BCNF. What arc checkpoints? Where they are used? Why? (2003)
  • Consider the following relations and identify the highest normal form of each as given, stating any assumption that you need to make.(2002)
  • What is normalization? Briefly explain 1st, 2nd and 3rd normal forms using any Database example. (2001)
  • Define a data model. Describe various sets of information this model provides. Critically examine, which information (with respect to program development) is not described by the data model alone. (2000)
  • A Relational Model is commonly used database model. What are essential characteristics of the Relation Model? And why do we use normalization? (2000)

Web Programming

  • Web-applications are getting popular now a days.Write a note on languages use for web-application developments.(2014)
  • Why is the signicance of JavaScript in web development? Why is input validation done on client side? (2013)
  • Explain - Web Services (2013)
  • Explain -Server Side Scripting (2013)
  • Explain the following: (2006)
    (i) HTML
    (ii) PERL
  • What are scripting languages? Display the user name and password of the user using Perl on the same page, using both Get and Post form? (2002)
  • Briefly contrast the uses of HTML, CGI, PERL, JAVA Applets in web page design. Where and when will you prefer to use these? (2000)
  • What are the tools to develop web pages in dynamic contents? (2004)
  • What are the tools to develop website fast and viewable? (2005)

Computer Graphics

  • What is the difference between Raster and Vector Graphics? Write down at least four differences. (2014)
  • Define 'Transformation' and discuss briefly its types.(2014)
  • Define the term “Computer Animation”. Briefly explain the design of animation sequences. (2001)
  • Explain Computer Animation (2009)
  • Write note on the computer graphics. (2006)
  • Explain Computer Graphics, 2D & 3D Graphics ( 2009)
  • In the context of computer Graphics, describe various 2D and 3D Transformations. Also write a note on Color Theory in this Context. (2008).
  • Describe various 2D-taransformations and represent them in normal form. (2003)
  • Give Explain Rendering (2009)
  • description of some 3D techniques for rendering process. (2007)
  • Write down the condition for the point clipping. (2010)
  • What is clipping? Why is it used in computer graphics? Name 5 primitive types of clipping. Briefly explain any two types.(2001)
  • What is meant by windowing and clipping operations? Describe the clipping techniques with examples. (2000)


  • Explain -SEO (2013)
  • Explain -Affiliate Marketing (2013)
To succeed,look at things not as they are,but as they can be.:)

Last edited by Amna; Friday, January 16, 2015 at 03:29 AM. Reason: Updated
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Wink Giving reasons for your answer based on the type of system being developed. Suggest t

Generic software process

Question 4.1

Giving reasons for your answer based on the type of system being developed, suggest the most appropriate generic software process model that might be used as a basis for managing the development of the following systems:

A system to control a car's anti-lock braking system

You could use Incremental or Spiral process models as safety is critical so you need a method that a lot of checks and balances at each stage.
Incremental development is broken down into increments with each increment delivering part of the required functionality, where the user requirements are prioritized and the highest priority requirements are included in early increments however once the development is started, the requirements are frozen but can be used in later increments.
Spiral process is represented as a spiral rather than as a sequence of activities with backtracking where each loop in the spiral represents a phase in the process. There are no fixed phases such as specification or design but loops in the spiral are chosen depending on what is required.
Both Incremental and Spiral would achieve the goal of managing development for the car's anti-lock braking system however incremental development would be the most suited since it takes the allows for checks and balances throughout the life of the development.

A virtual reality system to support software maintenance

An evolutionary model seems to be an ideal solution for a virtual reality system, as the development team has two methods first is the exploratory development which works well with customers and to evolve a final system from an initial outline specification. Second is the throw-away prototyping with this method the objective is to understand the system requirements if the requirements are not fully laid out.

A university accounting system that replaces an existing system

Waterfall has formal structure to manage the process however the drawback is that it is difficult to accommodate changes after starting. But in the waterfall model you would go through a series of step to manage the large requirements, design and implementation requirements.
  • Requirements analysis and definition
  • System and software design
  • Implementation and unit testing
  • Integration and system testing
  • Operation and maintenance
  • An interactive system, running in kiosks in train stations, for railway passengers that find train times

In this scenario the best approach would be evolutionary model using a throw away prototyping to find the requirements then switching to a waterfall model for a structured design and implementation.

Ian Sommerville, (2010) Software Engineering (8th edition), Chapter 4, 5 Pearson Education
Lecture Notes (2010) Laureate Online Education - University of Liverpool "Seminar 1 Introduction to Software Engineering Study Lecture 1" Software Engineering, � All right reserved, 2002-2010
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