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International Relations Notes on IR

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Old Saturday, September 08, 2018
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Default Comprehensive IR Notes

Definition and Scope of IR:
Introduction to IR
Till date, unfortunately, no universally accepted definition of international relations have been coined because of its continuous changing nature.
However, Goldstein and Pevehouse in his book “International Relations” write, “The field of international relations concerns the relationships among the world’s government. But these relationships cannot be understood in isolation. They are closely connected with other actors (such as intergovernmental org., multinational corporations, and individuals); with other social structures (including economics, culture, and domestic politics); and with geographical and historical influences. These elements together power the central trends in IR today-globalization.”
The discipline of international relations deals with the war, military alliance, diplomacy, trade, cooperation & peace.
People always confuse themselves among the terms ‘International Relations’, ‘International Politics’ and ‘Global Politics’. Sometimes, these term used interchangeably.
According to Hans Morgenthau – “the core of international relations is international politics”. However, he says, International Relations is much wider in scope than International Politics. Politics among nations is ‘struggle for power’ whereas international relations includes political, economic and cultural relations among nations.
International relations and international politics also differ in their aim. The ultimate aim of International Relations is the establishment of ‘International peace’ through cooperation & agreement among different nations promoting mutual interests. In comparison to it, International politics is ‘struggle for power’ through conflicts, wars, political maneuvers among different nations.
Trevor Taylor (1979) defines International Relations as "a discipline, which tries to explain political activities across state boundaries".
According to Ola, Joseph (1999), "International relations are the study of all forms of interactions
that exist between members of separate entities or nations within the international system".
Seymon Brown (1988) thus defines international relations as "the investigating and study of patterns of action and “reactions among sovereign states as represented by their governing elites.”
Jeremy Bentham was the first person to use the word ‘international’, in later 18th century, with regard to defining the relations between nation-states.
From broader view, IR may refer to all interactions between members of separate societies whether government sponsored or not.
Study of IR includes analysis of foreign policies or political process between nations and also focus on international trade and civil society interactions.
The way in which two or more nations interact with and regard each other, especially in the context of political, economic and cultural relationships is called IR.
Some scholars see power as the key to International politics. Thus, they define International relations as the subject that deals with those relations among nations, which involve power status.
As Stanley Hoffman writes “the discipline of international relations is concerned with the
factors and the activities which affect the external policies and power of the basic units into which the world is divided.”
Thus, international relations is concerned with all the exchange transactions, contacts, flow of information and the resulting behavioral responses between and among separate organized societies.
International relations could encompass many different activities social, economic, religious and so forth in so far as they have implications for international political relations.
In the words of Karl Wolfgang Deutsch (1968), “An introduction to the study of international relations in our time is an introduction to the art and science of the survival of mankind. If civilization is killed in the nearest future, it will not be killed by famine or plague, but by foreign policy and international relations.”
The point expressed here is that we can cope with hunger and pestilence, but we cannot deal with the power of our own weapons and our own behavior as nation states.
It is important to note that since the end of World War 1, nation states have possessed unprecedented instruments for national action in the form of ideologies and weapons, and they have become even more
dangerous vehicles of international conflict, carrying the potential for its escalation to mutual destruction and ultimate annihilation.
It is thus decisively important for the student of international relations to understand that the world of today is marked by two factors. One fact has to do with the nature of power in the age of the atom; the other concerns the interdependence of mankind in an age of the individual.


Nature of IR:
There are many factors which affects nature of international relations such as evolution of new nations, technological development, nuclear research, rise of multipolar world, emergence of new order, non-state organizations, global problems, so and so forth.
Following important points explaining the nature of international relations.
NO SINGLE DEFINITION. International relations has no single definition. Unfortunately, till date, no universally accepted definition of international relations have been coined because of its continuous changing nature.
OPERATES IN ANARCHICAL SYSTEM. International relations operates in an anarchical system. There is no single organization to regulate relations among states. Michael Nicholson writes “international relation is study of aspects of anarchy, though an anarchy which is not necessarily chaotic.
INTER-DISCIPLINARY SUBJECT.International relations is inter-disciplinary subject. In 1998, UNESCO mentioned international relations as a sub-field of political science because scholars of international relations analyse political relations, economic relations, social relations and cultural relations, etc. politically .
CONCERNS WITH GLOBAL ISSUES.International relations deals with key issues which concerns public global interest. Goldstein and Pevehouse in his book, “International Relations” write, International relations revolves around one key problem: how to balance interest of international states with the global interest?
For example – every country has an interest in stopping global warming, a goal that can be achieved only by many countries acting together. Yet each country also has an individual interest in burning fossil fuels to keep its economy going.


Scope of IR:
International relations compose our largest society. Since the Age of Colonization in the eighteenth century, international relations have encompassed the globe. The scope of international relations is not yet well settle. It is continuously expending & becoming very complex due to many factors such as LPG (globalization, privatization, & liberalization), advancement in technology (communication, transportation, & media), global issues (Terrorism, poverty, global warming, etc.), so on & so forth. Now, world has become a global village.
Michael Nicholson writes in his book “international relations a concise introduction” – that – scholars of international relations study, peace and war; imperialism and nationalism; the wealth of some societies and the poverty of others; nuclear weapons and the possibility of extinction; the environment and global warming; human rights across the world; the merging of states and the splitting up of states; the European Union; international organizations; religions and their political impact; trade and the development of the multinational corporation; race and gender around the globe; globalization and the information revolution.
The scope of international relations can be discussed.
Establishment of League of Nations. In modern time the field. of the study was widened with the establishment of the League of Nations in 1920, after the First World War due to the sincere efforts of Woodrow Wilson of USA. The establishment of the League of Nations contributed to the study of international relations. Therefore, the study of international organizations and international institutions was also included in its preview.
Emergence of USA and USSR as a Super Powers. Emergence of USA and USSR as superpowers further widened the scope of international relations. After the second World War the world transformed into bipolarity from multi-polarity with USA and USSR flourishing in international affairs. Both the superpowers conducted international relations according to their own interests.
Establishment of United Nations. After the end of World War II various international conferences were held. Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Tehran and Yalta. They agreed in principle to form a worldwide international organization for peace loving states. Therefore, an acceptable charter was signed on 26th June 1945. United Nations is a global organization of independent and sovereign states and its main aim is "to maintain international peace and security." The establishment of the UN also contributed to the study of international relations to great extent.
Emergence of USA as a Superpower (New World Order). l'he end of USSR as a superpower in Dec, 1990 changed the whole world and USA emerged as a superpower that adopted international politics in such a way that majority of the nations of the world visualized themselves as the subjected mission of the single power. The Gulf War of 1991 paved the way for USA to emerge as a superpower that resulted in the USA's N.W.O under that USA became the master of the world politics. Emergence of USA as a superpower also extended the scope of international relations.
Technological Development. Technology exercises profound influence on the power base of a state as well as the course of international relations. Technology at least in three spheres, industrial, communication and military, has greatly influenced the power of the state. Due to technological development the world has become a global village. Technological development also extended the scope and value of international relations.
Globalization. Due to certain reasons the scattered world is going towards integration. The world is now a single village and states are incomplete with one another. This situation increased the scope of international relations.
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Old Sunday, September 09, 2018
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Default Nation State System Definition Characteristics and Historical Background

Nation State System:

Nation state system is as old as the human history. It will be more correct to say that the history of nation state system starts with the political consciousness of man. In this modern age, no one can satisfy its all needs alone and due to this lie has to make relations with other states in order to satisfy his desires, interests and goals. In the field of international politics these states are called sovereign states or nation state system. It plays a dominant role in international relations. The people all over the world are divided into a number of groups that lie in sovereign nation state. These states maintain relations with each other under the pressure of sheer necessity. If people are not organized into states or nations, no international relations would have been possible. Some scholars reduce the role of state in the nuclear and space age. However, the role of nation-state cannot be reduced in the present age.

The terms "nation" and "state" are quite different yet they are often used interchangeably. The nation is a concept denoting a common ethnic and cultural identity shared by single people, while the state is a political unit define in term of territory, population, organized government, exercising affective control over its territory and inhabitants. The nation promotes emotional relationship among its members, while state provides political and legal foundation for the identity of its citizens.


What is State
The term "State" can be defined as, "A territorial Society divided into government and subjects claiming with in its allotted physical territory, supremacy over all other institutions." (Laski).

"State is the political organization of the ruling class that was its power for the purpose of suppressing the resistance of its class enemies. The state arose as a result of the division of the society into integrated class and therefore for the purpose of curbing the exploited majority in the interest of exploiting minority. It shall exist so long as there is the need for class domination and shall whether away." (Karl Marx).

What is Nation
The nation is a concept denoting a common ethnic and cultural identity shared by a single people. The terms state, government and nation differ in meaning.

A government is the established for of political administration of a state.

A nation may be a body inhabitant in a country united under a single independent government. And in this sense the world is virtually synonymous with state but a nation may also be any aggregation of people having like institutions and customs and sense of social homogeneity and mutual interest. Thus, we can say that several nations may be present in one state or a nation may extend beyond the borders of a single state.

Nation State System
According to Palmer and Perkins, "The nation state system is the pattern of life in that the people are separately organized that interact with one another in varying ways and various degrees." In International law nation state means "Legitimacy, sovereignty and duty." The state will have to recognize the legitimacy of other states. The state should be sovereign both externally and internally and its people must observe their duties.

History, Background, Origin or Evaluation of Nation State System
To understand the origin of nation state system it is necessary to fall light on past history. Before 17th century, nation states were existed but under the control of Roman Catholic Church headed by pope and the nation state had no sovereign status.

Treaty of Westphalia The treaty of Westphalia is considered by occasion, on that the modern state system took place. In 1648 treaty of Westphalia was signed due to that, the 30 years’ war came into an end. The Treaty of Westphalia was concluded on two key principles:

The principle of internal sovereignty that is the pre-eminence of the rulers against the claims of other centers of power within the state.
The associated principle of external sovereignty, in other words, independence from power centers outside the states.


So, after the treaty few sovereign nation states i.e. England, France and Spain came into being without Church control and the church supremacy was abolished. Machiavelli. Badin and Grotious and some other prominent theorists had together provided defense and justification for the independent secular states.

According to William Adult, "By the Year 1648, Treaty of Westphalia, the state system was fully established in Europe."

Westphalia to Utrecht (1648-1713) The second stage of the development of the state-system has between 1648-1713, during that conflict among UK. France, Holland and Spain were raised on colonial supremacy. But France had to face heavy loss due to coalition of UK and Austria on the question of Spanish succession. France suffered heavy loss by the treaty of Westphalia.

Utrecht to Vienna (1713- 1815) During this period conflict between Austria and France had taken place. Fredrick the great of Persia enforced, France, Austria and Russia to form an alliance ill order to maintain balance of power. UK made alliance with Prussia. Due to these alliances and counter alliances seven years war took place from 1756-63. Later on, France under Napoleon became dominant in European affairs. but soon defeated by the combined effort of UK. Russia. Prussia, Austria and Sweden. The result was the Vienna meeting in 1915 in that balance of power was again restored in Europe with certain check on France.

Vienna to Versailles (1815-1914) During this period i.e. from 1815 to 1914, various nation states were emerged on the map of the.

This period in the history of the world is known as period of Pax*-Britannica, because during this period Britain had full autonomy and had maintained Balance of power to greater extant in Europe only two time her supremacy was threatened. In 1854-56, Russia threatened her supremacy to dominate the region during the Crimean war. Secondly in 1870-71. Germany displaced France and established her own supremacy in the continent during the Franco-Prussian war. During this period, i.e. in 1913 the decline of Turkey (Caliphate) and Spanish power led to the rise of several independent states on the map of the world. And also during this period China emerged as a super power by defeating Japan. This period of world history especially from 1882-1907 was the period of mutual fear and suspicion among states.

Versailles to the Present The treaty of Versailles in 1914 brought great changes in the map of the world and also brought great disturbance because due to the harsh treatment with Germany in this treaty caused Nazism in Germany and Fascism in Italy and also Russia emerged as one of the disturbing factor in the world and due to all these the treaty of Versailles brought a gift of 2nd world war for the humanity and due to this several UK colonies i.e. in Africa and in Asia got independence.

Modern State System
This system similar to that of Westphalia. It is a pattern in that the independent community of the world by organizing themselves into independent sovereign political entity and to act and react with one another.

Nation State System in 20th Century
The 20th century is known as the century of Nation-State System. But during this modern period the problem with Nation state system is that on one hand it is legally. sovereign but on the other hand it has to give some concession and to accept some limitations. The Nation State System in 20th Century can be discussed under the following points.

Challenges to Nation State System in 20th Century

MNCs
International Organizations
Regional Organizations
Terrorist groups
Military technology.
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Old Sunday, September 09, 2018
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Lets prepare a strategy to obtain 160 + marks in IR Paper.

All aspirants need to cooperate in this threade.


Some one post the notes on "Evolution of International Society" then we proceed to IR Theories.
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Evolution of International Society.



Wars played role to formulation of International Society:
Wars led to the formulation of International Society and International Law:
After woldwar Legue of Nation emerged.
After second world war UN established:
International trade and globalization led to form many trade agreements like GAAT.
Many regional groups evolved to maintain the influence over world affairs
What is international Society:
Any assocition of distinct political communities that accept common rules, values and institutins.
International Society is founded on the principles of (Soveriegn Eqaulity and Non-Intervention).
Three key institutions of IS are I. Diplomacy, II. International Law, III. Balance of Power.
Ancient World:
Lacked emphasis on soveriegn equality.
Various forms:
Superanational (Caliphate, Paapcy)
Sub and trans national mosaic.
Still regulated by Teaty, Diplomacy and some norms of conduct.
Examples.
Greece: City-state relations(Arbitration, Melian dialogue)
Ancient China, India, Rome all had distinctive forms of Political organizations.
Christian and Islamic Order:
Medival Europe’s International society had a complex mis.
Supranational, transnational, sub-national, national.
Catholic Church helped elaborate normative basis of society (canon law, just war).
Islam: Community of believers and treaty law with others.
Emergence of Modern International Society:
Key elements:
Domination of Europe by larger states.
Protestant Reformation diminshed Church authority—Strengthened soveriegn equality.
Exploration of new world.
Attempts to develop ordering mechanism.
Modern International Society:
Codified in peace of Wesphalia (1848).
American and French Revolution.
Nepoleanic wars.
After Second World War—League of Nations.
Globalization of International Society:
UN intended as improved UN but largely blocked by cold war.
Decolonization—Spread of Eurapean model of international society.
Accelerated by collapse of USSR.
Globalization poses challenges for soverign based internatioal society
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