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Old Friday, December 23, 2011
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Lightbulb CALIPHATE OF HAZRAT ABU BAkR SADEEQ (632 TO 634 C.E.)

Early Life:
Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) was born at Makkah some time in 573 C.E. His father was Hazrat Usman (Surnamed: Abu Qahafa) and his mother was Hazrat Salma (Umm-ul-Khair). They belonged to the Bani Taim section of the Quraish. The Genealogy of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) joined with the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H), eight generations back in their common ancestor Murrah.
As the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) announced his prophetic mission, Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) was the first person outside the family of Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) to accept Islam. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) was a rich merchant and he commanded great influence in the social circles of Makkah. Through his influence many distinguished persons among the Quraish were converted to Islam. Most of his wealth was used in the liberation of Muslim slaves. He was the first person to build a mosque. After conversion to Islam, he was a constant companion of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H). The Holy Prophet Conferred him on the title of sadeeq, the Veracious for his power to discern the truth.
On the occasion of the Hijrat, he was the companion of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), and was reffered to in the Holy Quran as “the Second of the Two”.
At Madina, his daughter Hazrat Ayesha Sadeeqa was married to the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H). That brought him still closer to the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H). He participated in all the battles fought by the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). He was the first person to be appointed as Amir-ul-Hajj in the history of Islam. When the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) fell sick, he was commissioned by the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) to lead the faithful in prayer.
On the death of Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) even men like Hazrat Umar-e-Farooq (R.A) said that the Holy Prophet was alive and had gone to meet God, And Hazrat Abu Bakr said, “Know that Muhammad being mortal is dead, but God of Muhammad being immortal is alive and will live forever.”

Caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A):

After the death of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H), Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) was elected as the Caliph. On assuming office, in his inaugural address, Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) said that he was not the best among them, and needed their advice and help. He held that to tell the truth to a person commissioned to the rule was faithful allegiance, and to conceal it was treason. He declared that in the sight the strong and a weak were to be alike, and he would render justice to all without a fear or favour. He laid down the following criterion for the obedience of the people:
“As I obey Allah and His Prophet obey me: if I neglect the laws of Allah and the prophet, I have no more right to your obedience.”

SITUATION AT THE TIME OF THE ACCESSION OF HAZARAT ABU BAKR(R.A):

The situation that Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) faced on assuming the caliphate was very grim. Many tribes apostatized from Islam and refused to pay Zakat. Many false prophets rose throughout the length and breadth of Arabia, and many people offered allegiance to them. The argument that weighed with them was that a living prophet was to be preferred to one who was dead.

Usamah’s Expedition:
Immediately before death, the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) had ordered that an expedition should be sent to Syria under command of Hazrat Usamah (R.A), the son of the Muslim commander Hazrat Zaid (R.A) who had been martyred in the battle of Mautah in 629 C.E. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) was advised that as Madina was by hostile tribes, the expedition should be abandoned. He repudiated the suggestion and said that he could withhold the expedition that the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) had ordered to proceed. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) was next asked that if the expedition was to be necessarily undertaken, the command should be entrusted to some veteran General instead of Hazrat Usamah (R.A) who was a mere boy. But Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) said that the Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) had appointed Usamah to the command, he could not as a representative of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) countermand such orders. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) accordingly sent the force under Hazrat Usamah to the Syrian front.

Confrontation with the tribes:
After Hazrat Usamah (R.A)’s army had left for the Syrian front, the tribes around Madina sent a deputation to wait on Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A). The tribes said that they were prepared to owe allegiance to Islam, but they were not prepared to pay Zakat. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) was advised that in view of the circumstances on the ground, the terms of the tribes should be accepted. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) held that as the payment of Zakat was a compulsory obligation under Islam, he had no authority to allow any relaxation. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) remained firm and told the tribes that if they withheld with regard to Zakat, even as much as string to tie a camel, he would fight against them for the vindication of the injunctions of Islam. Thus rebuffed recalcitrant tribes marched to Madina one night and launched the attack and these tribes met some initial success but the Muslims under the command of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) rallied and in a counter attack repulsed the tribes.

Battles of Dhu Qissa and Abraq:
Tribes gathered at the Dhu Qissa at some distance to Madina. Then Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) marched to Dhu Qissa as the head of Muslim forced launched the battle against the tribes. After some resistance the broke rank and retreaded to Abraq.
When the main Muslim army under the command of Hazrat Usamah (R.A) returned from the Syrian front after completing its job, Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) marched as the head of a large Muslim force and proceeded to Abraq. The tribes were routed, and their lands were confiscated by the Muslims.
Campaigns against the apostates:
After the battle of Abraq, Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) decided to take military action against the apostate tribes and he divided the Muslim force into eleven crops each under its own commander. These crops were to operate in various parts of the country. The commanders were instructed that before taking any action against an apostate tribe it should be called upon to return to Islam, and a punitive action should be taken if and if they refused to do so. If the call of "Adhan" rose from the quarters of tribes will indicate the tribe’s return to Islam.

The Battle of Buzakha

Banu Asad tribe held the region to the north of Madina. They were led by Taleaha, a false prophet. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) commissioned a column under Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed to lead the campaign against Taleaha. These two armies met at Buzakha, where after some hard fighting the Banu Asad was defeated. Taleaha escaped to Syria, and most of his followers submitted, and accepted Islam.

The Battle of Zafar:

After the battle of Buzakha some of the followers of Taleaha took refugee with Salma alias Umm Zummal, a firebrand woman leader of Bani Fazara. Salma mustered a considerable force at Zafar. From Buzakha Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed marched to Zafar. There was some hard fighting, but ultimately Salma was killed, and with her death the apostate tribes offered submission and were readmitted to the fold of Islam

The Battle of Naqra:

Bani Suleim had their concentration ar Naqra. After the battles of Buzakha and Zafar, the Muslim force under Hazrat Khalid Bin Walid (R.A) launched the attack against Bani Suaim at Naqra, the Bani Sulaim were defeated and their leader Abu Shajra was captured alive and sent to Madina where he accepted Islam.

Campaign against Bani Tamim:

After reducing the tribes tensions in North, Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed marched against the Bani Tamim who lived in a Plateau bordering the Persian Gulf. When the Muslim forces reached Butaha the Head Quarter of Bani Tamim, there was no force against Muslims, and neither they forward to offer their submission nor they come forward to oppose the Muslims. During night Malik, Chief of Bani Tamim was killed mysteriously. As Malik was killed entire tribe surrendered and Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (R.A) married with the beautiful widow of Malik, Laila.
This campaign led to considerable scandal. Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (R.A) was charged of murdering a Muslim (Malik), summoned to Madina and put to explanation. Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (R.A) defend was if according to Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), He was the Sword of Allah, how could such sword fall on the neck of a Muslim? Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) freed him from the charge and commissioned him to lead a force against a false prophet Musailma in Yamama valley.
Campaign against Musailma, the Liar and Battle of Gardens of Bloods:
Among all the false prophets who rose in Arabia after the death of Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H), the most notorious was Musailma who laid the Banu Hanifa in Yamama. Musailma further gained in strength when he made common cause with Sajjah a lady who claimed to be a prophetess and married her. Before that two Muslim forces have already fought with him but defeated. So Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed fought bravely against Musailma and due to an increase in pressure Musailma lost his nerves and retreated to a neighboring fortified garden.
With the withdrawal of Musailma his army lost the will to fight, and they too found safety in seeking refuge in the garden. Muslim Army broke the gates and Banu Hanifa were cut to pieces in a large numbers and the garden was virtually drenched with blood. So bloody was “Battle of Garden” that the Arab annals it came to be known as “The Battle of the Gardens of Death”. When Musailma fell dead, the Banu Hanifa surrendered and re-admitted in the Islam.

Campaign in Oman/Battle of Daba:

In Oman, a false prophet Laquit bin Malik rose to prominence and captured political power. A Muslim force under Hazrat Hudaifah (R.A) was sent to Oman and in the battle of Daba, Laquit and ten thousand of his followers were killed. The Oman forces surrendered, and the people of Oman were reconverted to Islam.

Campaign in Mahrah:

In Mahrah the people apostatized, but instead of fighting against the Muslims they began to fight among themselves for political power. The Muslims allied themselves with the minority section and fought against majority section which was led by Al-Musabbah. Al-Musabbah was defeated and after that people of Mahrah recovered to Islam.

Campaign in Yemen:

In Yemen, a false prophet Aswad Ansi came to power and won a considerable following. Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) ordered a two pronged attack on Yemen. Hazrat Ikramah (R.A) marched with a force from Mahrah to Yemen. Hazrat Muhajir bin Umayya marched with another force from Makkah to Yemen. In the battle that followed by a apostate tribes were over-powered, and were reconverted to Islam after Aswad Ansi had been killed.

Campaign in Hadramaut:

In Hadramaut there was a revolt led by Ash’as. When the Muslim forces marched against Ash’as he shut himself in the fort at Nujeir. The fort was carried by the Muslims by assault. Thereafter Ash’as and his people repented and were readmitted to the Islam.

End of the apostasy Campaigns:

The apostasy campaign began in August 632 C.E., and these operations were over by February 633 C.E. Within the short space of six months, Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) succeeded in exterminating apostasy and winning back all the tribes in Arabia to the fold of Islam.

The Battle of Kazima:

In March 633 C.E., a Muslim column under Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed (R.A) marched to Iraq and started operations in the region of Uballa on the Persian Gulf. The two forces met at kazima, in opening duel, Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed Killed the Persian commander Hormuz. The Muslims launched the attack which was withstood by the chain-linked Persian infantry. The Muslims increased the pressure and the Persians were forced to fall back. The Persians found their chains to be death trap and as they retreated held together in chains they were slaughtered in thousands. The battle of chains at Kazima unchained the gate of Iraq for the Muslims.

The Battle of Mazar:

The next confrontation with the Persians took place at Mazar on Tigris. The Persians forces were led by three Generals Qarin, Qabaz and Anushjan. All the three Generals died in fighting against Muslims and they were defeated badly with a death toll exceeding 30,000.

The Battle of Walaja:

The next encounter took place at Walaja. The Persian forces were led by Andarzaghar. The battle began with the a duel in which Hazrat Khalid (R.A) killed his adversary. The Persians gained some initial success, but the bulk of their army was annihilated.

The Battle of Ulleis:

The nest battle took place at ulleis ten miles from Walaja. It was a bloody battle in which over 70,000 Persians perished. So large were the killings that the river on the bank whereof the battle was fought virtually became a river of blood.

Conquest of Hirah:

From Ulleis the Muslim forces marched to Hirah. There was Persian force to resist Muslims. The citizerns of Hirah surrendered and agreed to pay “Jizya” to the Muslims.

The Battle of Anbar:

Towards the close of June 633 C.E. Hazrat Khalid marched with his army to Anbar. Here after a little resistance Persian army surrendered and agreed to Jizya.

The Battle of Ein-at-Tamr:

From Anbar the Muslim forces proceeded to Ain-at-Tamr. Here the Christian Arabs led by their chief Aqqa offered resistance. Aqqa was taken captive, and the citizens of Ein-at-Tamr offered submission on the usual terms.

The Battle of Daumatul Jandal:

When Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed began his operastions in southern Iraq, Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) sent another column under Hazrat Iyaz bin Ghanam to operate in Daumatul Jandal sector. But Hazrat Iyaz failed to capture ans at the last resort he wrote Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed for help. Then Hazrat Khalid Marched towards Daumatul Jandal in it fell in August 633 A.D.

The Battle of Firaz:

In December 633 A.D., Hazrat Khalid occupied Firaz at the outer most edge of Persian Empire in the Euphrates valley. By the end of 633 A.D., the Muslims were masters of Euphrates valley in Iraq.

Defeat of Khalid Bin Saeed:

During the active operations in Iraq, Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) stationed a garrison at Tayma to the east of Tabuk to protect the borders against any attack by Syrian. But here Hazrat Khalid bin Saeed suffered with a serious defeat.

Call of Jihad on Syrian Front:

In February 634 A.D., Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) issued a call for Jihad on the Syrian front. By March 634, a large force mustered at Madina ready to march to Syria. These warriors were formed into four corps of 7000 men each and sent to Syria under the command of Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (R.A).

Khalid Bin Waleed’s March from Iraq to Syria:

The Byzantine emperor Heraclius planned action on a large scale. He mustered forces of Ajnadein numbering over lac. The four small Muslim corps that were operating in Syria were no match for the large concentration of the Byzantine forces. Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) ordered Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (R.A) to march from Iraq to Syria and over the chief command on Syrian front.

The Battle of Busra:

The first encounter of Khalid bin Waleed (R.A) with the Byzantine army took place at Busra in July 634 C E. It was a hardly contested battle which was ultimately won by the Muslims.

Siege of Damascus:

From Busra, Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed marched towards northward to Damascus. The Byzantine emperor Hercalius garrisoned all forts in Syria and ordered a huge concentration of forces in the south at Ajnadein. The situation was critical for Muslims. If they pressed the siege of Damascus the danger was that the Byzantine army from Ajnadein might attack the Muslim army from the rear. The Muslims accordingly raised the siege of Damascus, and marched to Ajnadein.

The Battle of Ajnadein:

The total strength of Muslim forces assembled at Ajnadein was about 40,000, while the strength of the Byzantine forces was over one lac. It was hardly contested battle in which the Muslims won an astounding victory. As many as 50,000 Byzantine soldiers were killed while only 450 Muslims were martyred.

Damasus Again:

After winning the battle of Ajnadein, the Muslims marched to Damascus of Muslims. There was a confrontation at Yaqusa on the Yermuk in which the Byzantines were defeated and Muslims pushed forward to Damasus. There was another confrontation Marjus Saffar, 12 miles from Damascus. Here again the Byzantines were defeated and the siege of Damasus began on 21st August 634 C.E., and on 23rd August, Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) was dead. Before his death Abu Bakr nominated Hazrat umar at his successor.

Assessment:

Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) becomes the caliph on 6th June 632 C.E., and he died on 23rd August C.E., his period of caliphate extended over two years and two months. Judged by the usual standards this was certainty too short a period to make an impact on history. Surprisingly enough, the caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) not only made the impact on history; it changed the very course of history.
Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) came to power in the midest of crises-loaded situation. The crises which he was called upon to encounter were multidimensional, being physiological, political, religious and international in charter. At the time of his accession, Islam stood at the brink of precipice, and any wrong step on the part of Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) whould have led the disintegration of Islam. But Hazrat Abu Bakr Sadeeq (R.A) proved to be the savior of Islam, and he launched Islam on the course of its destiny.
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