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Old Tuesday, March 03, 2015
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Hazrat Abu Bakr

Name and parentage of Abu Bakr

Hadrat Abu Bakr, as-Siddiq, (R.A.) was born in 573 A.D. at Mecca.
Thus he was two years younger than the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
He belonged to a respectable and noble family, the Bani Tamim, a branch of Quraish Tribe.
His lineage joins with that of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) six generations before. His name was Abdullah.
After his conversion to Islam he received the title of "As-Siddiq" (The Truthful).

Life before Islam

Since his boyhood, Hadrat Abu Bakr was a quiet and sincere man.
He was very honest and truthful. Because of his sterling character
he was the closest friend of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) since his youth and,
the friendship proved to be life-long. He was a soft hearted man and keenly felt others sufferings and miseries.
He used to help the poor and the needy, the distressed and the downtrodden.

Even before embracing Islam he did not like most of the customs of the days of ignorance and never drank any liquor.

His main profession was trade.
He also accompanied the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in some of his trade missions.
Because of his honesty people trusted him and often kept their money as a trust with him.
His nobility and truthfulness soon made him a rich trader. Actually these qualities were soon to serve the noblest cause of Allah.

First man to accept Islam

Hadrat Abu Bakr was a firm friend of the Holy Prophet and knew him better than any other man.
His honesty, nobility, truthfulness and trustworthiness, had great attraction for Abu Bakr.
When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) disclosed to him secretly about the revelation of Allah,

Abu Bakr accepted it immediately without having the slightest doubt.
In this way he was the first adult free man to believe in the Holy Prophet's Mission, and became his confidant.

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) once spoke about this,
"When I invited people towards Allah, everybody thought over it and hesitated, at least for a while, except Abu Bakr
who accepted my call the moment I put it before him, and he did not hesitate even for a moment.
" When he accepted Islam, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) was very pleased.

Da'wat (Invitation) towards Allah

As soon as he had accepted Islam he started the work of Da'wat (Invitation towards Allah) first secretly and
then openly when it was so allowed by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
First he went to ‘Uthman, Talha, Zubair and Said.
Next day he went to 'Uthman bin Maz'un, Abu'Ubaidah, Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf and some other prominent Quraish.
They accepted Islam at his hands.
In the first instance eight prominent figures accepted Islam at the hands of Hadrat Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (R.A.).
Among them was Hadrat Uthman, the third Caliph of Islam.
In this way he was the first Muslim, after the Holy Prophet, to preach Islam and to invite people towards Allah in a very fruitful way.
The main reason for his success was his popularity among the Meccans because of his honesty, nobility, trustworthiness, good morals and fair dealings.

Hardships for Da'wat (Invitation) towards Allah

Even though he was so much respected yet he was not spared, and disbelievers of Mecca did their best to harass him.

When the number of Muslims reached 39, Abu Bakr (R.A.) asked the permission of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) to invite people openly.
On his persistent request the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) gave his consent and all of them went to Haram (the Holy Mosque or Ka ‘bah) for Tabligh (Preaching).
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) gave a Khutbah (Sermon) which was the first ever delivered in the annals of Islam.
Hadrat Hamzah accepted Islam the same day.
When disbelievers and idolators from amongst Quraish heard it they fell on the Muslims from all sides.

Miscellaneous services for the cause of Islam in Mecca

Hadrat Abu Bakr served Islam in numerous ways.
The Quraish cruelly persecuted a number of slaves who had accepted Islam and made life difficult for them.

Muslim slaves were the worst sufferers at the hands of non-Muslim masters.
Hadrat Bilal (a negro), one of the best known in the galaxy of Companions of the Holy Prophet, was one among such slaves.
His master Umayyah bin Khalf lashed him at night and made him lie on the burning sand during the day because of Bilal's conversion to Islam.
Hadrat Abu Bakr bought him freedom and Bilal became a free Muslim.

Other Muslim slaves who were bought by Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), and made free were,
‘Amir bin Fuhairah, Nazirah, Nahdiah, Jariah, Bani Momil and Bint Nahdiah etc. (R.A.).

Before Hijrah Hadrat Abu Bakr spent lot of money on new converts.

Abu Bakr gets the title of As-SIDDIQ

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) had Mi'raj (Ascension) in the IOth year of his Mission.
He narrated his Ascension to the people in the morning.
Some of them came to Abu Bakr and said, "Have you listened to your friend (the Holy Prophet)? He is claiming that he visited Jerusalem and the Sublime
Throne in the heavens last night and talked with Allah Almighty. Would you believe it?"
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) immediately replied. "If he said so then it is an absolute Truth".
They again said, "Do you believe that he visited all these places and came back within a small part of night?" He again replied.
"Of course I believe in it and I believe in the things which are farther than it, i.e., the news of Hell and Paradise".
For this the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) named him as-Siddiq i.e.,
the most Truthful and sincere person in Faith not having even slightest doubt. Of course Abu Bakr's faith was so

One of the Two in the Cave

When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam decided to migrate to Medina, Abu Bakr was the only companion with him.
He carried all his money, about five to six thousand Darhams, and started in the night with the Holy Prophet.
They lay hidden in the cave of Thaur for three days. The Holy Qur'an describes it as follows

"When the disbelievers drove him out; he had no more than one companion. They were two in the cave.
And he said to his companion: "Have no fear for Allah is with us". Then Allah sent down His peace upon him". (9:40)

Abu Bakr's slave 'Amir bin Fuhairah tended the flocks of goats near the cave during the day and supplied them fresh milk in the night.
After three days when Quraish stopped the search of the Holy Prophet, ‘Amir bin Fuhairah (Abu Bakr's slave) brought two she-camels and both started for Medina.
Thus, of all the companions, Abu Bakr (R.A.) had the honour of accompanying the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in the most critical days of his life.
He proved to be most trustworthy on all occasions.

Hadrat Abu Bakr at Medina

He reached Quba (a place near Medina) with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and stopped there.
The Medinites were anxiously waiting for the Holy Prophet. At Quba there was a warm welcome.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) stopped at the place of Bani 'Amr bin 'Auf at Quba.
Multitudes of people came there to see the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and most of them mistook Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Holy Prophet.
On seeing this Hadrat Abu Bakr stood up and spread a sheet over the head of the Holy Prophet to protect from him the scorching rays of the hot sun.
Then the Medinites recognised the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

On reaching Medina he fell ill because of the change of climate and got high fever.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) prayed for him and he was restored to health.
At the time of establishing brotherhood bond between an immigrant from Mecca and a Medinite Muslim the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam)
took into consideration the position in the society of the two persons.
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) became the brother of Hadrat Haritha bin Zubair, a noted and respected Medinite.

Participation in the Holy Wars

He fought in almost all the battles along with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
In the first battle of Islam at Badr he was with the Holy Prophet like a shadow.
His own son, who had not embraced Islam by that time, was fighting on the side of Quraish.
After he accepted Islam he said to Abu Bakr one day, "Dear father! I found you twice under my sword at Badr but I could not raise my hand because of my love for you".
"if I had got a chance", Abu Bakr replied, "I would have killed you".
It was Abu Bakr's suggestion on which the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) decided to release the prisoners of war after taking ransom.

In the battle of Uhud when some of the Muslims were running away,
Abu Bakr was firm and when the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam) was brought on the mountain after being injured, he was with him.

Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was the first companion to accept the peace plan of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) without any hesitation at Hudaibiyah
when all the Muslims insisted upon fighting. Even a Muslim like Umar (R.A.) hesitated to accept the treaty with the non-believers of Mecca
but Hadrat Abu Bakr fully supported the Holy Prophet's decision.

On the occasion of Tabuk expedition Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) brought everything that he possessed.

When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) asked him, "What did you leave for your family?" Abu Bakr (R.A.) said,
"I have left for them Allah and his Prophet".
Even Hadrat Umar (R.A.) admitted that he could never hope to surpass Abu Bakr (R.A.) in his sacrifice for the cause of Allah and Islam.

Amir (Chief) of Al-Hajjul-Akbar (9 A.H.)

It was the 9th year of Hijrah when the first Haj took place.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) had then returned from Tabuk expedition
but he was so busy that he could not himself attend the Hajj pilgrimage.
He sent Hadrat Abu Bakr as-Siddiq as his deputy to lead the Hajj caravan to Mecca.
Among others in the Hajj caravan were Hadrat Sa'd bin Abi-Waqqas, Jabir, and Hadrat Abu Hurairah (R.A.).

The Holy Qur'an calls this Hajj pilgrimage as "Al-Hajjul-Akbar" (The Great Hajj) because it was the first ever Hajj in the history of Islam and was the beginning of a new era of Islamic period and constitution.
Hadrat Abu Bakr taught the people the Hajj rites and rituals and gave a historic sermon (Khutbah) on the Sacrificial Day before the congregation.
Hadrat 'Ali followed him and proclaimed severance of all connections with the heathen world.


Imam of Holy Prophet's Mosque

Since his arrival at Medina the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) himself led the Salats at his mosque all the time.
This was really a high office and was not given to anybody in the presence of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
A few months after his return from the Farewell Pilgrimage (AI-Hujjatul-Wida’) in IO A.H., the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) fell ill.

A time came when he was unable to move and could not go to the Mosque to lead the Salat.
He had to appoint someone as the Imam and this honour fell to the lot of Abu Bakr.
Abu Bakr's daughter, lady 'A'isha (Radiallahu Anha) was one of the most beloved wives of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam).
She knew that Hadrat Abu Bakr was a soft hearted man and it would be rather hard for him to replace the Holy Prophet(Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in the Salat.
So she pleaded with the Holy Prophet (Sallailahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) to excuse Hadrat Abu Bakr from this duty
but the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) did not change his decision even though he was requested three times.

During those days once Abu Bakr was not present at the time of congregational Salat. Somebody asked Hadrat Umar to lead the Salat.

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) after hearing the voice of Hadrat Umar enquired about the Imam and when he found that Abu Bakr(R.A.) was not leading he was annoyed and said, "Nobody will lead the Salat besides Ibn Abu Qahafa (i.e. Hadrat Abu Bakr)".

Then Abu Bakr (R.A.) was called but by that time Hadrat Umar had completed the Salat. The Salat was repeated by the order of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and Abu Bakr (R.A.) led it.

During his sickness, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) once felt some relief and went for Zuhr Salat,
supported by Hadrat ‘Ali and Hadrat ‘Abbas (R.A.). His face beamed with joy and full satisfaction on seeing Abu Bakr leading the Salat.
Sensing the presence of the Holy Prophet, (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) Abu Bakr wanted to step back but the Holy Prophet stopped him and sat down by his side.

After the Salat the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) gave his last address:

"Allah offered one of His servants the choice of the life on this earth and a life with Him. But the servant accepted the latter".
Hearing this tears came out of Abu Bakr's eyes and rolled down to his beard.
He thought of the inevitable separation from his Beloved Master (the Holy Prophet).
Most of the people did not understand the meaning of Holy Prophet's address and they were surprised at Abu Bakr's crying.

Early in the morning of the last day of his life, the Holy Prophet's condition became suddenly better for a while.

As the apartment was just adjoining the Mosque, he raised the curtain and observed the Muslims busy in Salat under the Imamat (leadership) of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.).
A smile lit up the pale face of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
Seeing the sign of the Holy Prophet's recovery the people in the Mosque lost control over themselves in sheer delight.
They might have fallen out of the file but the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) asked Hadrat Abu Bakr to lead the Salat and he went inside and let the curtain fall

News of the Death of the Holy Prophet

When Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) found the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in a better condition in the morning of the last day of his life,
he went a few miles outside Medina to meet his wife Hadrat Kharjah bint Zuhair (Radiallahu anha).
After hearing the news of the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam),
he immediately returned and saw great rush at the gate of the Mosque.
He did not talk to anybody and went straight to Hadrat ‘ A’isha’s apartment where the Holy Corpse was lying.
After taking permission he entered the apartment and kissed the Holy Face, tears rolling out of his eyes.
Then he remarked, "May my parents be sacrificed for you. I swear by Allah that death will never come twice to you.
You have tasted the death which was destined for you and now you will get no other." He covered the Holy Body with a sheet and came to the Mosque.

A multitude of people was crying in the Mosque.
Hadrat Umar (R.A.) was in a strong emotional state and was shouting that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) had not died.
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) tried to calm him but Umar did not pay any attention to him.
Noting the delicacy of the situation, Hadrat Abu Bakr stood in another corner of the Mosque and gave his most effective and historical address.
All the people gathered around him. He said:

"O People! If any one of you worshipped Muhammad (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) he should bear in mind that Muhammad is dead.
But those who worshipped Allah should know that He is Alive and will never die.

Allah says in the Holy Qur'an: "Muhammad is only a Messenger of Allah.
There came down a number of Messengers before him.
Then would you turn back from Islam, if he dies or is killed?"

The address of Hadrat Abu Bakr touched the hearts of the people.
Hadrat Umar also cooled down.
Hadrat 'Abdullah says, "It seemed that the verse of the Holy Qur'an to which Abu Bakr referred was just revealed, although we had recited it several times in the past"

Abu Bakr chosen as the First Khalifah

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) did not nominate his successor and left the choice of his deputy or viceroy (Khalifah) to his Ummah (followers).

There were two groups of Muslims in Medina viz., Muhajirin (the Immigrants from Mecca), and Ansar (Helpers i.e., Medinites).

"Saqifah-i-Bani Sa'idah"

After the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam),
Ansar (Medinites) gathered in a big Hall of Medinah known as "Saqifah-i-Bani Sa'idah" to discuss the appointment of a Khalifah.

Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat Umar with other prominent Muhajirin (Immigrants) were in the Mosque.

When they were informed about the gathering of Ansar, Hadrat Abu Bakr and Umar also went there accompanied by a number of eminent Muhajirin like Hadrat Abu 'Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah.

Since Hadrat 'Ali and Hadrat Zubair (two prominent figures among Muhajirin) were not present at the spot, they could not go to the gathering.

Much discussion was going on in the gathering of the Ansar about the selection of a Khalifah.

Some of the leading Ansar wanted a Khalifah from amongst the Ansar.
When Hadrat Abu Bakr heard it, he said. "We acknowledge the sacrifices of Ansar for Islam.

You really deserve to have a Khalifah from amongst yourselves, but Arabs will not agree on any "Amir" (Chief of other than a person from the Quraish."
Hearing Hadrat Abu Bakr another Ansari, Khabab bin Mundhar stood up and said,

"Let there be two Amirs (Khalifahs) then, one from amongst Quraish and another from amongst Ansar."

On this Hadrat Umar stood up and said, "This is not at all possible. There would be great confusion because of two Amirs.
" Hadrat Khabbab bin Mundhar did not agree with Umar and there was a hot talk between them.

Hadrat Abu 'Ubaidah tried to cool them down.

Then another Ansari Hadrat Bashir bin an-Nu'man (R.A.) stood up and said, "The Holy Prophet belonged to the Quraish tribe.Quraishites have preference over others. All the Arabs would agree on them. Therefore a Khalifah must be from amongst them.

We do not want any dispute with Muhajirin in the matter of Khilafat.
We the Medinites are Ansar (Helpers) and we would prefer to remain Helpers of Allah and His Holy Prophet (Sallaliahu'alaihi wa Sallam).

" Another Ansari Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit (R.A.) also supported this view and said, "There should be a Khalifah from amongst Muhajirin (Quraishis).
We Medinites were Ansar (Helpers) of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and would remain Ansar (Helpers) of his Khalifah as well."
A number of Ansar then supported this view, and there was general satisfaction in the council over the selection of a Muhajir (Quraishi) Khalifah.

Seeing this Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) stood up and said, "I propose the name of Umar and Abu'Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah for this post.
Select anyone of these two men as your Khalifah.
" But both of them refused and Hadrat Umar said,
"Abu Bakr is the best of all of us because Allah has mentioned him in the Holy Qur'an saying:

"The one amongst two in the cave" (9:40).

He further said, Abu Bakr excelled at every occasion during the life of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

He deputised the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in leading Salats,

he was appointed the Chief of Haj caravan.

As such he is the fittest person to be the Khalifah.
" Hadrat Abu Bakr still hesitated but Umar (R.A.) and Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit Ansari held his hand and took pledge of loyalty (Bai'at).
Then Hadrat Abu 'Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah and Hadrat Bashir bin an-Nu'man Ansari also took pledge of loyalty at his hands.
Seeing this people from all the sides rushed to pledge loyalty to Abu Bakr (R.A.) as the first successor of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam).

Next day a general pledge of loyalty (Bai'at) was taken by the Muslims in the Mosque of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
Thus Hadrat Abu Bakr assumed the greatest office, after the office of prophethood, and became the first Khalifah of Islam.
He gave his first address as a Khalifah in the mosque after the general

"Bai'at""0 people! I have been selected as your Trustee although I am no better than anyone of you.
If I am right, obey me. If I am misguided, set me right. Of course truth is honesty and a lie is dishonesty.
The weakest among you is powerful in my eyes until I do not get him his due, Insha-Allah (If it should please Allah).

The most powerful among you is the weakest in my eyes until I do not make him pay due rights to others Insha Allah.

Allah sends down disgrace on those people who give up Jihad in the path of Allah.Allah surely sends down calamities on such people who indulge in evils.

"I ask you to obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Messenger (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam). If I disobey Allah and His Messenger you are free to disobey me. Now come and offer Salat."

In his short address, Hadrat Abu Bakr showed the role of an exemplary Khalifah of Islamic Government.
No doubt Islamic Government means: "Government of Allah and His Prophet, by His obedient servants for the benefit of the people in this world and in the Hereafter."

About thirty three thousand people took pledge of loyalty (Bai'at) at the hand of Hadrat Abu Bakr in the mosque.

The selection (or Election) of Hadrat Abu Bakr is a pointer towards Islamic Democracy and furnishes example for selection of a Leader for Ummat-i-Muslimah (Muslim Community) till the Day of Judgement.


Problems faced by Hadrat Abu Bakr As-Siddiq as a Caliph

After the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam), the Arabs were on all sides rising in rebellion.
Apostasy and disaffection raised their heads. Christians and Jews were filled with unrest.
Some Muslim tribes refused to pay Zakat to the Caliph for "Baitul Mal" (the Public Treasury).
Some disbelievers declared themselves to be prophets. There were many problems and much confusion.
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) faced all these with unparalleled courage and the highest degree of Iman (Faith)
which is the characteristic of a "SIDDIQ". At this place I would like to point out that "SIDDIQIAT" is the highest stage of Iman (Faith) and "Tawakkul" (Trust in Allah)
after prophethood as pointed out in the following verse of the Holy Qur'an

"All those who obey Allah and the Prophet are in the company of those upon whom Allah has shown favours - of the Prophets, "Siddiqin" (The Sincere), "Shuhada" (The Martyrs), and "Salihin"(The Righteous Muslims): Ah! What a beautiful company." (4:69).

In the following lines I would like to mention the main problems faced by Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (R.A.) in brief.

Usamah's Expedition

The freed slave of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and his adopted son, Hadrat Zaid bin Harith (R.A.) was martyred at the hands of Syrians (Romans) at Mautah in 8 A.H.
A few weeks before his death the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) appointed Hadrat Usamah (R.A.), the son of Zaid
to lead an expedition against Syrians in order to avenge the death of his father, Zaid.
When Hadrat Usamah was about to leave, the news of the demise of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) came and
the departure of the army was postponed.
After being chosen as Caliph, the first task before Abu Bakr (R.A.) was to send out this expedition.

As a matter of fact, it was the most critical time in the history of Islam.
The entire peninsula was in a state of unrest and disorder.
Some of the new converts thought Islam would come to an end with the Holy Prophet's life.
Many of the tribes had entered the fold of Islam only a short time before and were not firm in Islam.
About this the Holy Qur'an has already predicted

"The wandering Arabs (Bedouins) say: We have (firm) faith. Say (to them O Muhammad): You believe not (firmly),
but rather say "We submit", for the Faith has not entered into your hearts." (39:14).

At the same time news came to Medina that apostates under the command of some false prophet were planning to invade the town.
Hadrat Abu Bakr(R.A.) was really facing a difficult situation.
In the circumstances, the companions approached him to withdraw the expedition of Hadrat Usamah bin Zaid.
In their opinion it was unwise to send troops out of Medina because they were needed at home.
Here was the test of Abu Bakr's (R.A.) faith in following the ways of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
He got through in his test and proved to be the most firm among all of his companions including Hadrat Umar.
Abu Bakr (R.A.) said he could never alter the decision taken by his master (the Holy Prophet).
He firmly replied to his companions, "How can I fold up the flag which was unfurled by the Holy Prophet himself?
" When Muslims saw that Hadrat Abu Bakr was firm they requested him to change the command of Hadrat Usamah
because he was too young and inexperienced -- not yet twenty, thus was not fit to lead the expedition.
Hearing this Hadrat Abu Bakr was much annoyed and said, "Do you want me to dismiss a man appointed by the Messenger of Allah?"

At last the army led by Hadrat Usamah left after three weeks of Holy Prophet's death.
The young commander of the army was riding a horse and the great Caliph was walking by his side.
After forty days Hadrat Usamah returned to Medinah with a great victory, the victory of Abu Bakr's (R.A.) firm Faith.

The success of Usamah's expedition also opened the eyes of those who thought Islam was dying out after the demise of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
Some of the tribes again came back to Islam which they had left.


Abu Bakr, a Saviour of Islam

As-Siddiq al-Akbar took the office of Caliphate (Khilafat) at the most crucial and critical moment of Islamic history.
He gave Islam a new life after the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam). Islam, in its infant stage,
when he was entrusted with the responsibility to Caliphate, was threatened by rebellions, rise of false prophets and apostasy movements.
He crushed all the futile powers because of his unshakeable faith.
No amount of difficulties could make him deviate from the Sunnah (Path) of the Holy Master.
He brought unity among the Muslims and crushed all the rebellions.
In view of his great service for the cause of Islam at that critical moment when there was a lot of confusion,
Abu Bakr (R.A.) may rightly be called the Saviour of Islam.

It was in the time of Abu Bakr that Islam started to cross the Arabian borders.
A major part of Iraq came under his rule and Muslim armies had captured many important cities of Syria.
Thus Islam, the religion of whole mankind, started to be a world religion in his period.

Collection of the Holy Qur'an

One of the greatest services rendered to Islam by Abu Bakr (R.A.) was the collection of the Holy Qur'an.
There were hundreds of Huffaz (i.e., those who committed the whole Holy Qur'an to memory) among
the Companions during the life-time of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam)
but it had not been compiled in book form though its memorisation continued even after the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
In various battles which took place against rebels and false prophets, a number of Huffaz Companions were martyred.
In the battle against Musailimah al-Khad-dhab about seventy Huffaz had died.

It then occurred to HadratUmar (R.A.) that necessary steps should be taken
to preserve the Holy Qur'an intact in its original form against every kind of danger and it was not wise to depend exclusively upon those who had learnt it by heart.
Therefore, he urged Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) to put it in black and white in the form of a book.
Other Companions also agreed with Umar’s opinion but Hadrat Abu Bakr hesitated in the beginning
because it was not done by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
However after some discussion he agreed to it and appointed Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit (R.A.)
for this work who was hesitant at first but later, he changed his mind and started the work.
Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit was the best qualified person for this work because he had acted as an amanuensis to the Holy Prophet.,
and was one of the Companions who had learnt the Holy Qur'an directly from him.
Moreover, he was also present on the occasion when the Holy Prophet recited the whole of the completed Holy Qur'an to angel Gabriel.
Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit adopted the same order of the various chapters of the Holy Book as was revealed to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
In the compilation of the Holy Book a number of prominent Companions assisted him.
The compiled copy of the Qur'an was kept in the house of Umm ul-Mu'minin, Hadrat Hafsah (Radiallahu 'Anha) who was one of the wives of the Holy Prophet and daughter of Hadrat Umar.
It was proclaimed that anyone, who desired, might make a copy of it or compare with it the copy one already possessed.

The collection of the Holy Qur'an in a book form was not an act against the Sunnah (Ways) of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam),
because the Holy Qur'an declares itself "A BOOK" at a number of places e.g., in the very beginning it says
"This is the Book........." (2:2)
During his caliphate Hadrat 'Uthman sent copies of the same compilation of the Holy Qur'an, collected during the period of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), to various places of his caliphate.

In this way we see that Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) kept doing the great work of his Holy Master (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
With unshakeable faith and full courage he had struggled to the utmost.
Islam is for ever grateful to its greatest hero, the next to prophets, for the great services he rendered to it.
Hadrat Abu Bakr's caliphate lasted for only two years, three months and ten days (according to Islamic calendar).





Illness of Hadrat Abu Bakr and Umar's Nomination

It was the 7th Jamada-ul-Akhira, 13 A.H. that As-Siddiq al-Akbar fell ill. He had a severe fever.
When the illness took a serious turn he called the "Shura" (Advisory Council) to consult about his successor, the second Caliph.
Since he had seen some confusion after the demise of the Holy Prophet for the selection of a Caliph, he preferred to let the Muslims decide the matter in his presence.
Following were the leading figures present in the Shura:Umar, 'Uthman,'Ali, 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf, Mu'adh bin Jabal, Ubaiy bin Ka'b, Zaid bin Thabit (Ridwanullah 'alaihim Ajma'in) and other leading Muhajirin and Ansar. According to some historians he first consulted some of the most prominent Companions before calling the meeting of the General Shura about this.
Among these persons were 'Uthman,'Abdur rahman bin 'Auf and Usaid bin hadir etc. (R.A.) Hadrat Abu Bakr put his proposal for Hadrat Umar to be the second Caliph.
All of them agreed with the proposal except for an objection by some of the Companions about his strictness.
That was the only ground on which Hadrat'Ali and Talha (R.A.) also did not agree with Hadrat Abu Bakr.
But Abu Bakr(R.A.) rejected their plea on the ground that the burden of Caliphate would make him milder.
Since there was no opposition to Hadrat Abu Bakr's view, Hadrat Umar was declared to be the next Caliph and all the Companions,
including Hadrat'Ali and Hadrat Talha, agreed to it.

At this point I would like to point out that the decision of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) for the selection (or election) of Hadrat Umar
in his presence during his life was purely based on his "Ijtihad" (Personal Judgment of a Jurist) as explained by him after his nomination of Umar (R.A.) was recorded.
As a matter of fact it was the need of the time and Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was totally right in his "Ijtihad".
The proof of this is also the "Ijma’” (Agreement) of the Companions on his proposal to select a Caliph while he was still alive.

Although the appointment (election) of the Caliph did not take place in the same way as it happened with Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.),
it was not un-democratic in the sense that the nomination of Hadrat Umar took place after fair consultation with the "Shura".
Hadrat Abu Bakr never wanted anything which would make Islam weak after him.
He knew what had happened after the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) the repetition of which was to be avoided.
The strength of the Muslim community lay in unity and that had to be preserved at any cost.
For these reasons Hadrat Abu Bakr(R.A.) wanted an agreed person to be nominated as his successor in his presence.
Therefore he took a decision by "Ijtihad" for the nomination of a Caliph after due consultation.

After the "Shura" (Advisory Council) had agreed on Hadrat Umar, Hadrat Abu Bakr asked Hadrat 'Uthman (R.A.) to write the will

"Bismillah-irrahmanir-Rahim (In the name of Allah, most Gracious, most Merciful)-
This is the declaration which is made by Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah while he is about to leave for the next world.
At this time even a non-believer starts to believe, and even a great sinner returns to faith, and a disbeliever begins to trust in Allah.
I appoint Umar bin Khattab as the Caliph (Khalifah). You must follow his orders and obey him.
I have done everything good for the sake of Allah, for His Holy Prophet and for the welfare of His Religion and Muslims
and for myself in appointing him (Umar as the Caliph). I hope that he would be honest and just but if he changes his ways, and becomes unjust,
I would have no responsibility, as I do not have the knowledge of the unseen. Everybody is responsible for what he does."

Afterwards he went up to his balcony with the help of some persons and addressed a big gathering of Muslims:
"O my brothers! I have not appointed any of my relations or brothers as a Caliph,
I have chosen the best person among you. Do you agree on this'? All of them replied in the affirmative.
Then he called Umar (R.A.) and talked with him for a long time and gave him words of parting advice.
Some of them are as under

"O Umar always fear Allah. An optional deed is not accepted unless the obligatory deed is done.
The weight of your goodness would be heavy on the day of Judgement if you followed the Right Path in this world.
The deeds of the persons who followed wrong Path in this world be having no weight on the Day of Judgement.
They will have a terrible time. Make the Holy Qur'an and Truth your guide for success. Umar if you follow the path I propose for you, I will surely be by your side..........".

As-Siddiq al-Akbar passes away

After a fortnight's illness, As-Siddiq al-Akbar passed away at the age of 61 on Tuesday, the 22nd Jamadal-Akhira, 13 A.H. (23rd August 634 A.D.).
As-Siddiq al-Akbar left behind a noble example of selfless service.
He lived and worked for the sake of Islam to his last breath, but sought no reward.
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Default Hazrat Umer

Hazrat Umer


Hadrat Umar (R.A.) as the Second Caliph of Islam

As described in connection with the life of Hadrat Abu-Bakr, during his illness he consulted the "Shura" about the next "Khalifah"
and then gave his decision in favour of Hadrat Umar (R.A.) who took the charge of Caliphate after the death of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) on 22nd of Jamadi-uth-Thani 13 A.H. (23rd Aug. 634 A.C.).

Umar the pioneer of the Islamic democracy

The constitution of Islamic caliphate during the time of Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was based entirely on the Islamic democratic system.
All matters were decided after consultation with the "Shura"(The Council of Advisors).
He remarked, "It is essential for a "Khalifah" to consult his "Shura".

Muslims and non-Muslims were treated alike.

Islamic Republic based upon "Shura"

As stated before all matters were decided after consultations with the "Shura", the Advisory Council during his time.

There were three main types of "Shura".

The first "Shura" consisted of very prominent and popular Companions like:
Hadrat Uthman, Ali, 'Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Mu'adh bin Jabal, Ubayy bin Ka'b, Zaid bin Thabit, Talha and Zubair (Raziallah Anho).
They were permanent members of the "Shura".
All the important matters were decided in consultation with these persons. This "Shura" could be named as the Higher Advisory Council.

The second "Shura" was the General Advisory Council which consisted of many companions from amongst the Ansar and Muhajirin (Raziallah Anho).
The Companions who participated in the battle of Badr were given priority in this "Shura".
All matters of general interest were discussed with this "Shura".
In this "Shura" were also included the chiefs of various clans and tribes.

The third type of "Shura" ranked in between the Higher and the General Advisory Councils.
It consisted of some selected Companions among the Muhajirin and Ansar.
Matters of special interest were put before the "Shura"

Whenever a "Shura" was called everyone of its members was fully allowed to give his opinion without any fear or hesitation.


Provincial Administration

Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) divided the whole Islamic Khilafat (i.e. Islamic State into various provinces each with a capital.
The following were, the provinces and their governors in 23 A.H., i.e. near the end of Hadrat Umar's Caliphate.

1. Hijaz with Makkah as its capital; Governor -- Nafi' bin Abu Harith.
2. Syria with Damascus as its capital; Governor-- Mu'awiyah bin Abu Sufyan.
3. Iran with Basrah as its capital; Governor -- Abu Musa al-Ash'ari.
4. Iraq with Kufa as its capital; Governor -- Mughirah bin Shu'bah.
5. Egypt with Fustat as its capital; Governor -'Amr bin al-'As.
6. Palestine with Jerusalem as its capital; Governor -- 'Alqamah bin Majaz.
7. Jazirah (i.e. Mesopotamia) with Hims (Hems) as its controlling capital; Governor -- 'Umair bin Sa'd.
8. The central province of Arabia with Medina as its capital.

The title of a Provincial Governor was "Wali",
who was the chief administrator and generally the supreme commander of the armed forces of that province.

In each province there were usually following officers besides the Governor:

The Treasury Officer (Sahib-i-Baitul-Mal;
the Revenue Collector (Sahib-i-Kharaj);
the Chief Police Officer (Sahib-i-Ahdath);
the Judge (alQadi).
In those provinces where the governor was not holding the office of the commander of armed forces,
a separate commander was appointed.

Usually the officers were appointed after consultation with the "Shura" (the Advisory Council).

The provinces were divided into districts.
Each district was administered by an officer called 'Amil.


The Khalifah was the religious head of the State
Not only the Khalifah the Governors were also great scholars of Islam.


Judiciary

The judicial functions were entrusted to Qadis (Judges).
A Qadi was completely free of the executive administration.
On a number of occasions the Khalifah (Hadrat Umar) himself appeared before a Qadi to defend himself in some cases.

"Umar was the first ruler in Islam", says Amir Ali, "to fix salaries for judges and to make their offices distinct from the executive officers."

Department of Education

Hadrat Umar took special interest in imparting Islamic knowledge to the Muslims.
The Holy Qur'an was compiled in a Book form during the period of Hadrat Abu Bakr on Umar's (Raziallah Anho) insistence.
He established schools for teaching the Holy Qur'an in all the conquered territories.

Such schools were located in the Masjids.

A number of writers like Ibn-i-Jauzi (see "Sirat Umar") have mentioned that the teachers of such schools received good salaries.

It was compulsory for every Muslim to memorise sufficient part of the Holy Qur'an especially
Surahs al-Baqrah;an-Nisa,al-Ma’idah; an-Nisa, al-Ma'idah, al-Hajj and an-Nur (Chapters, 2, 4, 5, 22 and 24 of the Holy Qur'an).
In these Surahs Islamic laws and principles are described elaborately.
To know basic Islamic laws was compulsory.

Thus the concept of compulsory education was introduced at a time when nobody knew about it.

The students memorising whole of the Qur'an by heart were given scholarships and other facilities.

Introduction of Islamic Calendar

Construction of Masjids and establishment of Schools

He founded a number of schools.
Masjids were used for giving religious instructions.
A number of Masjids were built by Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho).
He asked the governors of various provinces, specially of Syria to build at least one Masjid in each city or town.
In Kufa a separate Masjid was built for every clan.
According to some historians he built four thousand Masjids.

The Haram (Masjid-ul-Haram) in Makkah was too small for the increasing Muslim population.
He extended it and built a wall around it in order to separate it from the township.

He covered the Ka'bah with very costly Egyptian cloth instead of ordinary cloth.

The Masjid of the Holy Prophet was also extended.


Police Department & institution of prisons

To keep order inside the State, a police force was necessary.
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was the first Muslim Head of State who established the Police Department.

There was no jail in Arabia before Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho).
He bought five houses in Makkah and used them as prisons.

The Bait-ul Maal (Public Treasury) and Revenue Administration

A Public Treasury (Bait-ul-Maal) was for the first time established by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam) in the form of a common fund for the benefit of the general public.
During the time of Hadrat Abu Bakr (Raziallah Anho), a house was purchased for the purpose.
During the caliphate of Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) the Bait-ul Mal was immensely enlarged.
He reorganised the entire system on a very sound and just basis.
In Medina there was the central Treasury and regular accounts were kept.

Following were the main sources of revenue

(i) Jizya (Indemnity or Defence Tax);
(ii) Zakat(Poor Tax);
(iii) Khiraj(Land Tax);
(iv) 'Ushr (Special land Tax);
(v) Booty(Income from the conquered places)
(vi) Tax on non-Muslim merchants or traders (because they did pay Zakat).


Public Works Department

Construction of office buildings and erection of new cities
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) built a number of offices for various needs.
The construction of prison in Makkah and Baitul-Mal in Medina has been mentioned before.
The Treasury houses were also built in various provinces.
The construction of the building of Treasury House (Bait-ul-Mal) was supervised by a Persian engineer Rozbah who used the same type of cement in the building as was used in the palaces of the Persian Emperors.

Rest-houses and police posts
A number of rest-houses for travellers were also built.
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) also built many new roads and bridges.
The road between Makkah and Medina was broadened and a number of rest-houses and police posts were built on this road.

canals were constructed

As described above a number of canals were constructed for irrigation and for supply of fresh water.
A nine mile long canal was constructed in Basrah which brought water from the river Tigris.
Hadrat Sa'd bin Waqqas built a canal in Kufa.
He constructed a number of canals for irrigation purposes.
120000 labourers were employed in Egypt alone.

Survey of Lands in Iraq

Special care of Agriculture

Agronomy was the main source of income during those days.
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) took special care of the welfare of agriculture and the farmers.
As stated before he dug a number of canals for irrigation.
A number of gardens were planted on his order.
He made a law under which no Muslim could acquire land from the natives of the soil in the conquered territories.
However land could be purchased. He supported both Muslim and non-Muslim farmers.

Personal care of the Public and stipends to disabled persons and the poor

A number of new cities were founded.

BASRAH :
KUFA:
FUSTAT:
Mosul and Jizah
Jizah was built after the victory of Alexandria in Egypt.


Military Reforms:

Regular Army

One of the biggest achievements of Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was to keep regular armies of the State.

For the first time in the history of Islam all irregular armies or mercenaries were divided into clear-cut classes of regular and irregular armies.

The army personnel was well paid and their families also got allowances.

Separate registers for regular and irregular armies were maintained.

In order to keep military tradition of the Muslims, Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) did not allow the army personnel to hold land in the conquered territories,
which might have impaired military prowess of Muslim soldiers.


Central cantonments were built in the following places:

Medina,
Kufa,
Basrah,
Mosul,
Fustat,
Damascus,
Hims (i.e. Hems),
Jordan, Palestine (Jerusalem), and
Ramla.

Besides the Commanding officer, the army had Translators, Doctors, Surgeons and Detectives.

No regular military personnel was allowed to do business or agriculture.

It was compulsory for every soldier to be trained in swimming, riding, and walking bare-footed besides other military training.


The army was generally divided into cavalry and infantry.

Each central cantonment had at least four thousand horses for the cavalry.

Stables were provided with big pastures.

Special care was taken of the horses.

There were big granaries in cantonments to supply food to the military personnel.

Special arrangements were made to protect the frontiers.

One million equipped soldiers were present in all the regular and irregular armies.

This was done after the Muslims had conquered the Persian Empire and a major part of Byzantium.


Review of Hadrat Umar's service to Islam

The period of Hadrat Umar's caliphate undoubtedly is the "Golden Age" of Islam in every respect.
It was Umar under whose rule Islam became a world power and the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine (Eastern Roman) crumbled before the arm of Islam.
Within ten years of his glorious rule, the whole of the Persian Empire, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and a part of Turkey came under the banner of Islam and the nations entered the fold of Islam.

He was not only a conqueror but also an exemplary administrator who originated an efficient system of administration,
and thus he was the real founder of political system of Islam .

He enforced Divine Law (Shari'ah) as the code of a newly formed International Islamic State;

he safeguarded the internal safety by introducing the police force:
he gave stipends to the poor;
he constructed cantonments and forts for the safety of Islamic armies;
he founded new cities for the growth of Islamic culture and civilisation;
he improved agriculture and economics of the Islamic State;
he founded the educational system in an Islamic State;
in brief he was the founder of a great Islamic State.



Hadrat Umar (R.A.) as a great scholar

He was a great Jurist and Theologian of Islam.
A full volume could be complied out of the verdicts and judgements given by Hadrat Umar (R.A.).
As a matter of fact he opened a new door of Ijtihad'
"(Disciplined judgement of a Jurist) in the history of Islamic Law and Jurisprudence,
and settled a number of disputable cases during his caliphate.


Freedom of Opinion

Actually Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was the founder of ISLAMIC DEMOCRACY based upon the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wassallam).

The words of the Holy Prophet are very true

"IF THERE WERE TO BE A PROPHET AFTER ME HE WOULD HAVE BEEN UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB." (Tirmidhi)

AND

"AMONG THE NATIONS BEFORE YOUR TIME THERE HAVE BEEN INSPIRED PEOPLE (WHO WERE NOT PROPHETS), AND IF THERE IS ONE AMONG MY PEOPLE HE IS UMAR". (Bukhari and Muslim)

Character

He was a very pious Muslim.
His success lay in two things-
fear of Allah and
his love for the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

He never used even oil from the Bait-ul-Mal (Public Treasury) to burn a lamp at night for his personal needs.

Whenever he finished the official work he put off the lamp.

He used to patrol in the city at night to find out the needs and requirements, and conditions of the people.

He did not hesitate to take his wife to work as a midwife for a poor woman.

The salary he got from the Bait-ul-Mal was so low that it was hardly enough for him and his family's needs.

Hadrat Umar was the most just ruler in the Islamic History.

All the citizens, including the Caliph himself, were equal before law.

In short he was the best example of an ideal character, and was the greatest "Khalifah" of Islam after Abu Bakr (R.A.).

He selflessly devoted his whole energy for the cause of Islam.

Muslims will always be indebted to him for his great achievements.

Martyrdom of Hadrat Umar (R.A.)

The glorious rule of Hadrat Umar (R.A.) came to an end with his death on Wednesday the 27th of Dhil Hijjah, the year 23 A.H. (643 A.C.) when he was 61 years old.
There was a Persian slave of Hadrat Mughirah bin Shu'bah, named Abu Lu' Lu' Firoze.
One day he complained about the burden his master had imposed upon him.
The complaint was not genuine, hence Hadrat Umar (R.A.) ignored it.
Next day, early in the morning when Hadrat Umar (R.A.) went to Masjid to perform Fajr Salat,
the slave who was hiding in a corner, attacked him with a dagger and stabbed him six times.
People overpowered the assassin but he slew himself with the same dagger.

The injuries were so serious that the Caliph died the next morning.

Before his death the Muslims asked him about his successor,
he appointed a panel of six persons, Hadrat 'Uthma Zubair, Talha, Sa'd bin Waqqas and 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf (R.A.) to select a "Khalifah" from amongst them within three days after him.

He requested Hadrat Aisha (R.A.) for permission for his burial by the side of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
Though she had reserved that place for herself but on Umar's request she gave it to him where he was buried.

Achievements:

Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was the pioneer of modern civilisation to form a state based upon the Islamic democratic system,
the system which was incorporated in the West as late as 19th and 20th centuries.

He was the greatest democratic administrator whose example is unparalleled not only in the history of Islam but also in the history of modern civilisation.

A vast part of the Middle East, Persian Empire and Byzantium, was conquered during the ten years of his "Khilafat" (Caliphate) which he consolidated into a state governed by Islam i.e. laws.
"As an administrator", says Prof. K. Ali, a Muslim writer, "he remained a model for all great Muslim rulers during the whole Islamic history".
Another famous historian, Amir Ali says, "During the thirty years that the Republic lasted, the policy derived its character chiefly from Umar both during his life-time and after his death."
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