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Philosophy Notes and Topics on Philosophy

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Old Sunday, June 07, 2015
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Default Revised Syllabus and Recommended Books of Philosophy


I. Introduction: Definition, Nature and Scope of Philosophy

II. Philosophical Methods: Socratic Method (Socrates); Inductive Method (Bacon, Mill); Deductive Method (Aristotle, Descartes); Dialectical Method (Hegel); Fallibilistic Method (Popper)

III. Epistemology: Rationalism (Plato, Descartes, Spinoza); Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume); Transcendentalism (Kant); Intuitionism (Bergsonl)

IV. Ontology: Idealism (Plato, Berkeley); Representative Realism (Locke); Materialism (Marx)

V. Muslim Thinkers: Allama Iqbal., Imam Ghazali, Al-Farabi, Ibn-e- Sina, Ibn-e- Khaldun, Ibn-e-Rushid, Shah Wali Ullah

VI. Ethics: What is morality? The challenge of cultural relativism: Does morality depend on religion. Psychological and ethical egoism: Virtue Ethics (Aristotle), Moral Absolutism (Kant), Utilitarianism (Mill), Social Contract Theory.

VII. Contemporary Philosophical Movements: Existentialism (Heidegger, Sartre); Pragmatism (Peirce, James, Dewey); Neo- pragmatism (Rorty); Postmodernism (Lyotard, Foucault, Derrida)


1. History of Western Philosophy------------------------------------------------------Bertrand Russell

2. Philosophy: The Power of Ideas----------------------------------------------------Brooke Noel Moore & Kenneth Bruder

3. Elements of Moral Philosophy-------------------------------------------------------James Rachels

4. Existentialism & Human Emotions. Philosophical Library---------------------
--------Jean Paul Sartre

5. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge--------------------------
------Jean-Francois Lyotard

6. Descartes to Derrida: An Introduction to European Philosophy-------------
--------Peter Sedgwick

7. Continental Philosophy in the 20th Century --------------------------------------Richard Kearney

8. A Short History of Modern Philosophy--------------------------------------------Roger Scruton

9. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( --------Internet Resources
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