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Old Monday, December 14, 2009
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Post Notes of psychology

WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
Beginning with the first psychological laboratory, founded in 1879 by German philosopher and physiologist Wilhelm Wundt, modern psychology’s can be traced in many disciplines and countries. Psychology’s historical perspectives and current activities lead us to define the field as the science of behavior and mental processes.
Theoretical perspectives of psychology
There are many disciplines that study human nature. Psychology is one. Within psychology, the biological, behavioral, psychoanalytic, cognitive and social- cultural perspectives are complementary. Each has its own purposes, questions, and limits; together they provide a fuller understanding of mind and behavior.
Why do we study psychology?
Scientific inquiry begins with an attitude of eagerness to skeptically investigate competing ideas, with an open- minded approach. Putting ideas to the test helps us in fully understanding them. The curiosity that drives us to test ideas, and to expose their underlying assumptions, can be experienced in every day life as critical thinking.
DEFINITION
“Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Human or Animal”
Behavior is overt, manifest, obvious, and easy to study; the mental processes that help carryout these behaviors are covert, underlying, hidden, and not easy to study. Besides behavior, what causes these behaviors to occur and the mental processes involved in it is an important area of interest for a psychologist.
Psychologists study animals’ behavior too; to better understand and predict human behavior, the study of animal behavior becomes essential at times, especially because some researches cannot be carried out with humans due to safety reasons or ethical issues
GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY
Main and important goals of psychology, or in other words of understanding human behavior and mental processes, are;
• To understand the nature and mechanisms of behavior and mental processes
• To develop an understanding of the relationship between behavior and mental processes
• To apply this understanding to real life situations and, on the basis of this understanding, predict for the future
• To employ the scientific approach for developing this understanding
In short, the main goals of psychology are:
a) Observation,
b) Description,
c) Understanding,
d) Explanation,
e) Prediction, and
f) Control of human behavior and mental processes.
SCIENTIFIC NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGY
Psychology is a science
It employs the scientific method for gathering knowledge and information. It uses scientific procedure that is essential to be adopted in order to carry out psychological research; otherwise the research will not be Considered authentic, reliable, or scientifically valuable.
“Scientific method is a systematic and organized series of steps that scientists adopt for exploring any phenomenon in order to obtain accurate and consistent results. These steps involve observation, description, control, and replication”.
These are the main components of any science or scientific discipline. The methods of how to gather, process, and analyze information properly and accurately are very important in psychology as well.
Remember! Science does not deal with the supernatural
A number of people commonly believe, and they did more so in olden times, that the evil spirits, demons, or ghosts are the root cause of mental illness. Therefore, for them, psychology may be the approach that can free man of the supernatural possessions, which is a wrong belief. Psychology does not deal with the supernatural phenomena like any other science; it deals with only those behaviors that are overt can be experienced by our senses, that can be understood in psychological/scientific terms, and that can be dealt with through psychology interventions.
SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY
After doing a degree course in psychology one may join a variety of work settings, the most common being:
• Education/teaching
• Research
• Hospitals/clinics
• Recruiting/screening agencies
• Specialized professional settings e.g. armed forces, social welfare etc.
POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
A branch of psychology concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of abnormal behavior. It is the oldest as well as the most well known branch of psychology. Clinical psychologists are trained to diagnose and treat problems ranging from the every day crises of life such as grief due to the death of a loved one, to more extreme conditions, such as a loss of touch with reality. Some clinical psychologists also conduct research, investigating issues that range from identifying the early signs of psychological disturbance, and studying the relationship between how family members communicate with one another, to the understanding of a wide variety of psychological disorders.
INDUSTRIAL / ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
A branch of psychology that studies the psychology in action at the workplace, including productivity, job satisfaction, and decision-making.
HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
The branch of psychology that explores the relationship of psychological factors and physical ailments or disease e.g. Health psychologists are interested in how the long- term stress (a psychological factor) can affect physical health. They are also concerned with identifying ways of promoting behaviors related to good health (such as exercise) or discouraging unhealthy behaviors (such as smoking, drinking etc).
CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
A branch of psychology that studies and explains our buying habits and our effects of advertising a buying behavior. Mainly dealt with the likes and dislikes and preferences of people.
FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY
The branch of psychology that investigates legal issues and psychological variables involved in criminal behavior ; e.g. what factors determine criminal tendencies, how criminals be reformed, deciding what criteria indicate that a person is legally insane, and whether larger and smaller juries make fairer decisions.
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Old Monday, December 14, 2009
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Post Schools of thought

SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT

Wilhelm Wundt, in Germany, established the foundations of modern psychology in 1879. He wanted to study, experimentally, the conscious experience of individuals. As discussed earlier, the different schools of thought gradually emerged after psychology took this scientific turn. These schools were basically different ways of observation, description, understanding, and prediction of psychological phenomena; in the present context, mental processes and behavior
EARLIER SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT
The earlier schools that paved the way for further developments in modern psychology were
STRUCTURALISM: focused on studying the conscious experience by looking into its individual parts or elements.
FUNCTIONALISM: focused on what the mind does and how it does.
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY: focused on studying the whole experience of a person rather than breaking it into individual components.
PSYCHODYNAMIC SCHOOL: focuses on the unconscious forces that drive/ motivate human behavior.
BEHAVIORIST / BEHAVIORAL SCHOOL: focuses on studying the behavior that is observable and overt.
PREVALENT APPROACHES / MODELS / PERSPECTIVES
At present some of the earlier approaches still exist. Psychologists belonging to these sets of theories have contributed a lot to the body of psychological knowledge and practice. Today, we can see at least six approaches or models of dealing with the psychological phenomena.
BIOLOGICAL APPROACH
The psychological model that views behavior from the perspective of biological functioning. The role of brain, genes, neurotransmitters, endocrine glands etc. How the individual nerve cells are joined together, how the inheritance of certain characteristics from parents and other ancestors influences behavior, how the functioning of the body affects hopes and fears, what behaviors are due to instincts, and so on.
Psychologists using the biological model view even more complex kinds of behaviors such as emotional responses e.g. anxiety, as having critical biological components.
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH
The approach that concentrates on the belief that behavior is motivated by the inner forces, over which individuals have little control. Founded by the Viennese physician Sigmund Freud in early 1900s, proponents of psychodynamic perspective give importance to the inner unconscious experiences and the forces that led that behavior. Freud believed that unconscious determinants of behavior had a revolutionary effect on 20th century thinking, not just in psychology but also in related fields a well. Although many of the basic principles of psychodynamic thinking have been highly criticized, the model grown out of Freud’s work has provided a way not only for treating mental disorders but also for understanding everyday phenomena such a prejudice and aggression.
BEHAVIORIST / BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
The psychological model that focuses on the overt observable behavior. The model emerged as a reaction to the earlier approaches that emphasized the significance of hidden, underlying, predetermined forces. The behaviorists suggest that observable behavior alone should be the main area of interest to psychology.
HUMANISTIC APPROACH
The psychological model, that suggests that people are in control of their lives. It is considered as one of the most recent approaches to psychology. This approach rejected the view that predetermined, automatic, biological forces, unconscious processes or the environment determines behavior. On the contrary, it proposes that people themselves decide about their lives. A failure in being capable of doing so leads to psychological problems. It also stresses the idea that people, by nature, tend to move towards higher levels of maturity and maximum potential.
COGNITIVE APPROACH
The psychological model that focuses on how people know, understands, and thinks about the world. Main emphasis is on how people understand of the world, and their thinking, affects their responses; how it may lead to positive or negative psychological consequences, and even health-related outcomes.

SUBJECT MATTER OF PSYCHOLOGY
According to Wundt, the subject matter of psychology is to be immediate experience, as contrasted to mediate experience. By mediate experience Wundt meant experiences used as a way to find out about something other than the experience itself. This is the way in which we use experience in gaining knowledge about the world. Immediate experience is the experience as such, and the task of psychology is to study this immediate experience. The physicists are, on the other hand, interested in studying only the mediate experience, but the Wundtian psychologists study immediate experience.
Main Presumption
• All human mental experience could be understood as the combination of simple events or elements. By analyzing the basic elements of sensations and other mental experiences, the underlying structure of the mind could be unveiled
• Task of psychology is to identify the basic elements of consciousness just like physicists could break down the basic particles of matter At Wundt’s Laboratory
• Studies and experiments were conducted on the fundamental elements that form the foundation of thinking, consciousness, emotions and other mental states
• Systematic, organized and objective procedures were used so that replication was possible
• The procedure used for studying the “structure of mind” was called “Introspection”; a method used to study the structure of the mind, in which subjects were asked to describe in detail what they were experiencing when exposed to a stimulus.
James Mckeen Cattell
Known for his work on individual differences and “Mental Tests”.
Edward Bradford Tichener
• American psychologist, who was English by birth, but German in professional and personal temperament, who spent his most productive years in Cornell University, New York.
• He was solely concerned with studying the brain, and the unconscious, and for this he believed, we should break it down into basic elements. After that, we can construct the separate elements into a whole and understand what it does.
• He believed that we can study perception, emotions and ideas through introspection, by reducing them to their elementary parts
• There are four elements in the sensation of taste: sweet, sour, salty and bitter
• Ideas and images are related: ideas were always accompanied by images
• The underlying process in emotions was affection Criticism
• Known as the formal founder of Structuralism
This school of thought has been criticized on various grounds i.e.
It was Reductionism
It reduced all complex human experience to simple sensations
It was Elementalistic
The structuraralists sought to look at individual elements first, and then combine parts into a whole, rather than study the variety of behavior directly.
It was Mentalistic
Structuralism studied only verbal reports of human conscious experience and awareness, ignoring the study of subjects who could not report their introspection.
FUNCTIONALISM
An approach that concentrated on what the mind does, in other words the functions of mental activity, and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments. The functionalist psychologists start with the fact that objects are perceived and “how” they are perceived. They asked “why” as well. This school became prominent in the1900s. It emerged as a reaction to Structuralism.
• Founded by William James, also known as the founder of American Psychology.
• Emphasized “function” rather than “Structure” of human consciousness i.e., what the mind does
• Focused upon the way humans adapt to their environment; what roles behavior played in allowing people to better adapt to their environment
Examined the ways in which behavior allows people to satisfy their needs
• Functionalists were especially interested in education and applied psychology
William James
He was the leading precursor of functionalist psychology. James was a Harvard University professor, primarily trained in physiology and medicine. Psychology and philosophy fascinated him, and he treated psychology as a natural science. In 1875 he offered his first course in psychology. In 1890 he published “Principles of Psychology”, a two-volume book, which became a leading psychology text in the U.S.
James wrote about the stream of consciousness, emotions, the self, habit formation, mind-body link and much more. He was also interested in will, values, religious and mystical experiences. James said: “We should study consciousness but should not reduce it into elements, content and structure”. Acts and functions of mental processes need to be focused upon, rather than contents of the mind. Consciousness was an ongoing stream, and was in continual interaction with the environment. Careful observation is important; Wundt’s rigorous laboratory methods are of little value. James believed that each individual has a uniqueness that could not be reduced to formulas or numbers
John Dewey
• Famous American educator
• One of the key founders of “Functionalism”
• Stimulus– Response phenomenon is not an automatic behavior, the goal of the person performing it has the main role in it; the stimulus and the response determine each other
• It is the function, or the goal, of the whole action that elicits response
• Dewey developed the field of ‘School Psychology’ and recommended ways for meeting student’s needs
• Teachers are strongly influenced by their psychological assumptions about children and the educational process Teachers need to understand two issues:
i. Children and adults are different; teaching/education should be in accordance with children’s developmental readiness
ii. Children are similar to adults in the sense that they perform better when they have some control over what they are to accomplish; the curriculum should be designed accordingly
Applied psychology flourished following the emergence of functionalism
i. James Mckeen Cattell began studying ways to measure intelligence
ii. Psychology entered the world of business; Frederick Taylor developed ‘scientific management’
iii. Other functionalists: James Rowland Angell, Harvey A.Carr
James Rowland Angell
• Founded the psychology department in Chicago, the most influential of its time.
• Believed that the function of consciousness is to improve the adaptive abilities of the organism and that psychology must study how mind did these kinds of adjustments with respect to the environment.

GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY
An approach that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a ‘‘whole” sense rather than on the individual elements of perception. Instead of considering the individual parts that make up thinking, gestalt psychologists concentrated on how people consider individual elements as units or wholes. They made great contributions to the understanding of the perceptual phenomena.
• This school developed as a reaction to structuralism in the early 1900s
• In contrast to the structuralist approach of breaking down conscious experience into elements, or focusing upon the structure, the Gestalt school emphasized the significance of studying any phenomenon in its overall form.
• The word gestalt means “Configuration”
• The main concept that the Gestaltists posed was that the “WHOLE” is more than the sum of its parts, and it is different from it too.
• They concentrated on how people consider individual elements together as units or wholes
• The concept of Gestalt applies to everything, objects, ideas, thinking processes and human relationships
• Any phenomenon in its entirety may be much greater than when it is seen in a disintegrated form
• Three German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler were regarded as the founders of gestalt school as each one of them had done significant work in his respective field.
Max Wertheimer
• The founder of Gestalt psychology, born in Prague in 1880
• Studying at the University of Frankfurt he became aware of a form of apparent motion that was called “Phi phenomenon”
• Phi phenomenon = when two lights are in close proximity to each other, flashing alternately they appear to be one light moving back and forth; therefore the whole was different from the separate parts; movement perceived whereas it never occurred
• We perceive experiences in a way that calls for the simplest explanation, even though reality may be entirely different; this is Gestalt Law of Minimum Principle. We tend to organize our experience so that it is as simple as possible.
• Explanation of phi phenomenon led to a separate school of thought i.e., Gestalt school, that had deep rooted impact on learning, ethics, and social psychology
Gestalt Laws of Organization
We organize our experiences according to certain rules, in a simple way:
Proximity: Close or nearer objects are perceived as coherent and related.
Similarity: Tendency to perceive objects, patterns or stimuli as groups, which are similar in appearance__parts of the visual field that are similar in color, lightness, texture, shape, or any other quality
Good Continuation: Tendency to group the stimuli into smooth and continuous patterns or parts
Closure: It is the perceptual tendency to fill in the gaps and completing the contours; enables us to perceive the disconnected parts as the whole object.
Figure and Ground: Our perceptual tendency to see objects with the foreground as well as the background___ the object is being recognized with respect to its background. E.g. black board and chalk. (These will be discussed in detail in the section of perception).
Kurt Koffka
• Wrote the famous “Principles of Gestalt Psychology” (1935)
• Talked about geographical versus behavioral environment: people’s behavior is determined by how they perceive the environment rather than by the nature of the environment.
Wolfgang Kohler
• Gave the concept of “insight” and “transposition”, as a result of his observations of a caged chimpanzee and experiments with chickens
• Insight = spontaneous restructuring of the situation
• Transposition = generalization of knowledge from one situation to another
• Kohler also talked about Isomorphism; changes in the brain structure yield changes in experiences
Other major contributions
• Gestalt approach to ethics: Truth is truth when it is complete and corresponds fully to the facts of the situation
• Zeigarnik’s Effect: Bluma Zeigarnik’s experiments; we remember interrupted tasks better. The tension caused by unfinished tasks helps us in remembering
• Group Dynamics: Instead of focusing on people’s individual attributes we should see them as whole persons
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Old Monday, December 14, 2009
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Post Perspective/model/approach

PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH

A paradigm in psychology is a distinct way of describing, observing, understanding, and predicting any given psychological phenomena. The professionals, as well as students, in order to conceptualize and organize the available information, need a model or paradigm. Also, it is required because it is used to test hypotheses and for conducting research work in order to testify the validity of assumptions.
• Includes assumptions about what drives human behavior, how disorders develop, and treatment prescriptions
Biological /Medical Perspective
Based on the assumption of Materialism i.e., all behavior has a physiological basis
• An understanding of biochemical processes will give an understanding of psychological and social phenomena
• Physical structures and hereditary processes determine behavior or behavior potential
• Physical/physiological interventions can alter mental processes and behavior
• Root cause of abnormalities and disorders lies in biology and requires medical intervention
Historical Background
The historical roots of biological model are very old, dating back to at least the time of Hippocrates. There are a number of great names that contributed to this approach, of which the more important ones will be discussed.
Hippocrates (460-377 B.C)
• Greek physician/philosopher
• Regarded as the “Father of Medicine”
• Talked about basis for medical problems
• Believed that rational knowledge could serve a path for understanding psychological problems.
Galen (129-199 A.D)
• Born to Greek parents in Asia Minor
• Great physician with an empirical approach who rejected the old doctrine and relied on his observation and research.
• Correctly identified various parts of the nervous system and had an accurate grasp of how nervous system functions.
• Known for anatomical studies on animals and observations of human body functions
Charles Darwin: (1809-1882 Ad)
• British scientist
• Author of the revolutionary “The Origin of Species” (1859)
• According to Darwin, variations among individuals of a species would occur by chance, but could in turn be passed on to the future generations
• Gave the concept of “Survival of the Fittest” ;only those variations which helped the individuals survive long enough to breed would sustain, and be passed on
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
The synapse of the neuron releases special chemicals called
“Neurotransmitters”
• Existence of neurotransmitters has been known since 1920’s; but the evidence of their relationship with psychological disorders has been found and known since 1950s
• More than 50 neurotransmitters exist in human body
Neurotransmitters and Their Role
• Acetylcholine: Learning, Memory and Muscle control
• Dopamine: Motor activity, Coordination, Emotion and Memory
• Epinephrine: Emotion, Stress
• GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid): Anxiety, Arousal, Learning
• Serotonin: Sensory Processing, Sleep, Arousal
• Glutamate: Anxiety, Mood
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
These glands form the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of ductless glands that secrete hormones (special chemicals) into the bloodstream
Endocrine Glands and Abnormality
• Low secretions of the thyroid produce anxiety like symptoms such as irritability and tension
• Low level of pituitary secretions produces depression like symptoms—Fatigue, apathy etc.
• Abnormal secretions of hormones may cause major depression
Assumptions of Biological/Medical Model
• Abnormality is caused by some disease in the “Central Nervous System”(C.N.S).
• Disease in the C.N.S.has some biological or physical origin.
• Physicians are best able to treat diseases of the C.N.S.
• Diseases in the C.N.S. are not currently specific.

THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL
The approach that concentrated on the unconscious forces that drive our behavior; belief that the inner forces over which individuals have little control motivate behavior.
• Founded by Sigmund Freud, the most influential figure in the history of psychology.
• The basis of motivation and behavior lies in inner forces; forces that are predetermined, and forces over which humans have little control, which the person is not aware of i.e., unconscious determinants of behavior
• It maintained that instincts are the driving force behind individual’s personality; there are life instincts as well as death instincts that play a role in human life.
Significance of Psychodynamic Approach
• The most influential theory of the 20th century, that affected psychology and related disciplines in a revolutionary manner
• Gave an entirely new perspective to the understanding of behavior and mental processes as well as mental illness
• The first theory to raise the awareness that not all behavior is rational
• Gave an impressive, broad based, therapeutic approach
• Provided a basis to understand everyday life phenomena e.g. interpersonal relationships, aggression, prejudice
• Many other, later, approaches built their paradigms on this approach - some by refining it, some by deviating from it
• One of the main ideas is that there is an inner tension for the fulfillment of instincts, the tension leads to action for fulfillment, the fulfillment leads to reduced tension.
SIGMUND FREUD: 1856-1939• Founder of psychoanalysis
• Austrian physician, neurologist, psychologist
• Born in Moravia (Czech Republic) in a middle class family
• Studied at Vienna University where he became interested in neurological research
• Spent three years at General Hospital Vienna and worked in nervous diseases, psychiatry, and dermatology
• 1885: Became professor of neuropathology at Vienna University
• 1885: Following a government grant went to Paris as a student of French neurologist Jean Charcot, who was treating nervous diseases through hypnotic suggestion
• Freud's interest in psychopathology was heightened as a result of his studies of hysteria, under Charcot
• 1886: Established private practice in Vienna specializing in nervous disease. His interest shifted from physiological to psychological explanation of psychopathology
• Started collaborative work with Josef Breuer
• 1895: wrote “Studies on Hysteria”; main emphasis was that uncharged emotional energy associated with forgotten psychic traumas resulted into hysterical symptoms
• Therapy, at that stage, involved putting the patient in a hypnotic state, where he recalled and reenacted the traumatic experience = Catharsis
• Hence the formal beginning of Psychoanalysis
Foundations of Psychodynamic Approach
Psychic Determinism
All behavior is determined i.e., has a cause that lies in the mind/psyche
Role of Consciousness
A significant part of our behavior is generated by unconscious forces
Continuity of Normal and Abnormal Behavior
Normal and abnormal behavior are different only in terms of degree and not in kind
Emphasis on Clinical Observation
Clinical observation/ case studies were the main source of data
Structure of Consciousness
Conscious
Contains thoughts and feelings of which one is immediately aware
Subconscious
Mind level below the level of conscious awareness
Preconscious
Part of the sub conscious that can be accessed by deliberate choice
Unconscious
Part of the sub conscious that cannot be accessed directly although impulses, ideas, and feelings may permeate out through other sources e.g. dreams, slips of tongue etc.
Dreams in Freudian Approach
• Dreams reflect unconscious needs, desires, and impulses.
• Dreams have two levels of dream content: manifest and latent.
Manifest content
The obvious, apparent part: what a dream appears to be to the dreamer.
Latent content
The dream’s true meaning, which is usually disguised or distorted by dream work.
Symbolism
• The manifest content is in a symbolic form
• The latent content is converted into this form by the ‘dream censor, a mechanism that ensures that sleep is not disturbed by unconscious desires, and those desires are presented in a socially acceptable form. The manifest content is in the symbolic form of the latent content. Only the psychoanalyst can interpret it.
Psychodynamic Model of Personality
Is a three-part structure of the mind; containing id, ego and super ego.
Id
At birth, the entire mind consists of only id. It consists of pure, unadulterated,
instinctual energy and exists entirely on the unconscious level. It is the source of
basic drives; operates under the ‘pleasure principle’ i.e., it wants immediate
gratification of needs. The id has two means of satisfying bodily needs, reflex
action and wish fulfillment.
Reflex action is responding automatically to a source of irritation .e.g. an infant
may sneeze in response to an irritant in the nose or reflexively move a confined limb, thereby freeing it. In both cases, reflex action is effective in reducing tension. Coughing and blinking are other examples of reflex action.
Wish- fulfillment is more complicated. It is the conjuring up of an image of an object or event that is capable of satisfying a biological need e.g. a hungry person thinks of food- related objects.
Ego
Mediates the link of the self with the outside world, “Real World”, as well as between the id and superego; operates under the demands of the environment. It operates under the reality principle and operates in the services of id. In other words, the ego comes into existence in order to bring the person into contact with experiences that will truly satisfy his/ her needs. When the person is hungry, the ego finds food; when the person is sexually aroused, the persons finds an appropriate sex object; and when the person is thirsty, the ego finds liquid. The ego goes through reality testing to find appropriate objects.
Super Ego
There is a third component of personality that makes things much more complicated, i.e. super ego. It is governed by the moral constraints. It develops from the internalized patterns of reward and punishment that the young child experiences i.e. Depending on the values of the parents, certain things the child does or says are rewarded and encouraged and others not liked are punished or discouraged. Opposes the id and represents the moral demands of the family and society; it is the ‘moral self’ or the ‘conscience’ of the person
Development of Personality: A Stage Approach
Psychodynamic approach proposed a stage- theory of the development of personality:
Oral stage occurs during the first year of life and the erogenous zone during this stage is the mouth. At this stage, pleasures mainly come from mouth. According to Freud, an adult who is fixated at the early oral stage will engage in abundance of oral activities such as eating, drinking, or smoking. This person also will engage in activities that are symbolically equivalent to those oral activities such as collecting things, being a good listener etc.
Anal stage starts during the second year of life, and the erogenous zone is the anus buttocks region. It is the stage when the child has to gain control over his physiological processes so that they function in accordance with the demands of the society. i.e the child must be toilet trained. Fixation at this stage may result in physical problems.
Phallic stage starts from the third year of life to about fifth year, and the erogenous area are the genital area. This is one of the most complicated and controversial of Freud’s stages. It is the stage of Oedipus and Electra complexes, the resolution of which has profound influence on an adult’s life. The male child experiences the Oedipus complex, which is named after an ancient play by Sophocles, entitled Oedipus Tyrannus, in which King Oedipus killed his father and married his mother. The male child resents the father, because he is regarded as a rival for the mother’s attention and affection. The female counter part of the Oedipus complex is Electra complex, named after another play by Sophocles entitled “Electra”, in which Electra causes her brother to kill her mother who had killed Electra’s father.
Latency stage lasts from about sixth year to about twelfth year. Here the sexual interests are displaced to substitute activities such as learning, athletics, and peer group activities.
Genital stage is the final stage of development that occurs following puberty. It is the time at which the person emerges from pre genital stages as the adults as he/ she destined to become. Now the child has become a socialized adult with heterosexual interests leading to marriage and child- rearing. If, however, the experiences during the pregenital stages cause fixation, they will manifests themselves throughout one’s adult life.
Anxiety
• An emotional state experienced as a result of felt threat to the self
• Anxiety arises when ego cannot cope too much of:
i. Demands of the id
ii. Demands of the ego
iii. External danger
• In order to protect itself against anxiety and threat, ego uses defense mechanism
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
Ego defense system, which may be distorting reality
i. Repression: Blocking unpleasant/ unacceptable thoughts by pushing them into the unconscious e.g. forgetting events of the painful childhood.
ii. Regression: Reverting back to a stage that was satisfying e.g. a boss showing temper tantrums like a child; or acting like a baby.
iii. Displacement: Redirecting the expression of unwanted desires or impulses to a substitute rather than the actual target e.g. beating children when a wife cannot express anger toward husband.
iv. Rationalization: In order to justify one’s behavior, one develops a socially acceptable explanation or reasoning e.g. going for a second marriage saying that the first wife was quarrelsome.
v. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge or accept anxiety provoking thoughts or impulses e.g. being a heavy smoker but saying ‘I am an occasional smoker’.
vi. Projection: Attributing unwanted thoughts and impulses to others e.g. a person takes bribe and blames the organization for paying him not enough salary.
vii. Sublimation: Converting unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings and actions e.g. disliking the in-laws but behaving in a very friendly manner, or becoming a stamp collector to overcome the impulse to steal

PSYCHOTHERAPY:
Psychoanalysis
• An intensive, long-term psychotherapeutic procedure.
• Requires long sessions over extended periods----- may be years.
• Better suited to intelligent individuals.
• Involves a special relationship between the therapist and the patient.
• Target: To explore unconscious motivation, conflicts, desires.
• Goal: Establishing intra psychic harmony by developing awareness of the role of the id, reducing over compliance with super ego, and by strengthening the ego.
• Understanding of ‘repression’: The therapy gives central importance to the understanding of the manner in which the person uses repression for handling conflict. Interventions used in Psychotherapy
1. Free association• Kept in a comfortable position, the patient is asked to talk aloud and say whatever comes to his mind without considering whether or not it is relevant, rational, or sensible.
• The patient is asked to reveal even the most undesirable and strong thoughts that have been repressed. This leads to emotional release, called ‘catharsis’.
2. Analysis of Resistance
At times patient feels inhibitions, and is unable or unwilling to express some thought or feeling i.e., barriers between conscious and unconscious. The psychoanalyst aims to break down such resistances so that the patient is enabled to face the unpleasant thoughts, impulses, events.
3. Dream Analysis
The therapist tries to uncover the latent content of dreams and decipher the symbolism involved.
4. Analysis of Transference & Counter Transference• Transference: The patient’s emotional response toward the therapist is often an indication of the patient’s relationship with a person who had been the center of the conflict. It may be negative or positive.
• Counter Transference: The therapists’ emotional reaction toward the patient is also important. He may also start having positive or negative feelings for the patient.
• Transference is analyzed and understood as part of the therapeutic process.
Criticism against Freudian Psychodynamic Theory
• There is no scientific proof that many psychodynamic constructs, e.g. unconscious, exist
• Psychic Determinism: Freudian approach is deterministic and leaves not much room for conscious, rational, decision making or personal will to act
• It ignores the external variables and the environment
• It emphasizes the early childhood experiences too much
• Mostly criticized for its interpretation of the relationship between the genders
• The therapy is too time consuming and therefore expensive

THE NEO FREUDIAN• The theorists who belonged to the Freudian school and supported it, but later digressed on some issues and differed from Freud
• They emphasized, more than Freud, the following:
i. Current social environment play an important role in one’s life.
ii. Life experiences have a continuing influence and childhood alone should not be of prime importance.
iii. Positive interpersonal relations of love and social motivation have a significant role.
iv. Ego functioning is significant rather than id.
v. Development of self-concept is important.
vi. Self-esteem is important.

ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937)
His theory is known as “individual psychology” which in many ways is the opposite of Freud’s theory. For Freud, individuals are constantly in conflict with one another and with society; Adler saw them seeking relationships and harmony, he looked upon mind as an integrated whole working to help to attain the future goals.
• Initially he was Freud’s closest friend.
• 1911: Diverted and launched his version of psychoanalytic approach.
• Differed from Freud in:
i. Freud’s negativity (e.g. Thanatos instincts)
ii. Freud’s idea that libido is the prime impulse
Adler’s Approach
Main concepts: Esteem, inferiority complex, birth order, will to power and style of life
i. We are a product of the social influences on our personality
ii. Goals and incentives drive us more than drives and instincts
iii. Our goal in life is to achieve success and superiority
Inferiority complex: the feeling of being less able than others. It affects one’s relationship with others and his achievement in many ways.
Motivating Forces of Human Life
i. Feeling of inferiority
ii. People are primarily motivated to overcome inherent feelings of inferiority
Birth Order: has effect on personality. The first- born is different from the last one, and so is the middle- born different from others.
Sibling Rivalry: Siblings feel a kind of rivalry toward each other.
Psychopathology: Compensation: i.e., Compensatory defense mechanism combined with conscious or unconscious feelings of inferiority is the main cause of psychopathological behavior.
Function of the Psychoanalyst: To discover and rationalize such feelings and break down the compensatory, neurotic will for power.

CARL GUSTAV JUNG (1875-1961)
A Swiss psychiatrist, founder of the analytical school of psychology, Jung presented a complex theory of personality.
• 1913: left the inner circle of Freud's students and colleagues, although he had chosen Jung as his successor.
• Was mystical in his understanding and description of personality.
• Had a positive approach toward one’s ability to control one’s destiny.
• His view of human nature is among the most complex ever portrayed. The human psyche is embedded in past, present, and future; it consists of conscious and unconscious elements, rational and irrational impulses, masculine and feminine tendencies, and a tendency to bring all these contradictory tendencies into harmony with each other. Self- actualization is achieved when such harmony exists, but self- actualization must be sought; it does not occur automatically.
• Believed that the spiritual side must be satisfied, which usually happens in middle age when many of the components of psyche have been discovered.
• Religion to him is the major vehicle in the journey towards self- actualization.

Jung’s disagreements with Freud
• The understanding and description of the genders.
• The nature of unconscious.
The main Jungian concepts
Major goal of life: Unification of all aspect of our personality:
• Conscious and Unconscious
• Introversion (Inner Directed), Extroverted (Outer Directed)
Libido
• Energy for personal growth and development
Types of Unconscious
• Personal unconscious: Similar to Freudian view
• Collective unconscious: ideas beyond personal experience, inherited from ancestors’ all generations, and common to all of humanity.
Archetypes
• Part of collected unconscious, universal forms and patterns of thought: These include themes that can be seen in myths e.g. masculinity, femininity, good, evil opposites, motherhood.

KAREN HORNEY (1885-1952)• German- American psychologist
• Trained as a psychoanalyst in Germany who later shifted to the US.
• She agreed with Freud on the levels of unconscious, anxiety, and repression.
• She emphasized childhood experiences, social interaction and personal growth.
Disagreement with Freud
• Differed from Freud on primary impulses; impulses are not the main motivating force.
• Disagreed on Freudian position regarding the biological basis of differences between genders.
Main Concepts in Horney’s Theory:
Basic Anxiety
• A Major Concept: If The Environment Is Hostile And The Child Feels Lonely And Isolated, Then This Anxiety Develops. It Can Be Overcome By Proper Parental Nurturing
Basic Hostility
• Children develop such hostility if parents are over strict, punishing, indifferent, or inconsistent.
• Children feel very aggressive and hostile but cannot express it. Repressed hostility leads to anxiety.
Social Interaction and Interpersonal Styles
She talked about the ways in which people interact with each other, and these were thought to have an impact upon the personality of an n individual:
• Moving away from others: seeking self sufficiency and independence
• Moving toward others: being compliant and dependant
• Moving against others: trying to gain control, power, and independence
Neuroses
Arise from emotional conflicts that arise from childhood experiences, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships in later life
Relationship with the real self and the ideal self
Horney maintained that the real self includes those things that are true about us at any particular time. The ideal self reflects what we would like to become. For normal people, the ideal self is the goal that they would like to reach in the future; it is something around which they can organize their lives and to which they can aspire. For the neurotic person, according to her, the relationship between the real and the ideal self is a problem. In the first place, the neurotic’s impression of the real self is distorted. For him, the ideal self is a wish instead of reality and idealized self is an unrealistic, immutable dream
Goal of the therapy
For her, the goal is to create a realistic relationship between the real self and the ideal self. Horney was optimistic about human nature and the ability to change. Human interactions caused problem and human interactions solved problems also.

BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
The psychological model that focuses on the overt, observable, behavior. The model grew out of the rejection of psychology’s early emphasis on the inner working of the mind, suggesting instead that observable behavior should be the focus of the field. John B. Watson was the first person that advocated the behavioral approach. This is a psychological approach that considers the relationship between behavior and environmental stimuli as the focus of study; observable behavior is what psychology should be studying, understanding, and explaining.
This approach dominated psychology for most of the 20th century What do the Behaviorists Study?
They specifically study:
• Observable/ overt behavior
• Specific measurable responses
• How particular types of behaviors are controlled by particular types of environmental stimuli
Method of investigation: Data are typically collected under controlled laboratory conditions, employing technological assistance
What the Behaviorists Are Not Interested in:
They are not interested in:
• Unconscious
• Inner motivation
• Biochemical processes
• These and all other states, which are not being observed with the naked eye or cannot be evaluated.
Behaviorist Analysis
Behaviorist Analysis is done for seeing and establishing the relationship between the stimulus and response/ behavior.
Three step approach
• The antecedent environmental conditions: are analyzed. i.e., the conditions preceding the action/ response/ behavior, and that lay a ground for it.
• The behavioral response is studied: study of the action or behavior that is to be understood, described, predicted, and controlled.
• Observable consequences are explored: the impact resulting from the target behavior i.e. how it affects the environment or other people.
Basic Terminology
• Stimulus: A physical energy source that has an effect on a sense organ, thus producing a response.
• Response: The action, behavior, or reaction triggered by a stimulus.
• Environment: External factors, variables, conditions, influences, or circumstance affecting one’s development or behavior.
• Variable: A behavior, factor, setting, or event that can change / vary in amount or kind.
• Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior that takes place as a result of practice and/ or experience.

EDWIN L.THORNDIKE: (1874- 1949)
Edwin L.Thorndike, was an American psychologist, who’s thinking is thoroughly associationistic. He was a functionalist in his emphasis on the utilitarian aspect of psychology. According to him, psychology is about the stimulus- response connections. He was of the view that behavior can be analyzed into associations. He said that the behavioral processes are quantifiable. Believed that behavior was explicable on the basis of nothing but stimulus- response connections inherited and acquired.
Initial work: in1898 (published dissertation) studied problem solving in animals. Tried to analyze the conditions under which animals learn.
Focus of the study: the relationship between the animals’ response and their consequences.
Main finding: The consequence of any response determines if the response will be repeated in future or not: “The Law of Effect”
The Law of Effect: Any response that leads to an outcome that is satisfying for the organism is likely to be repeated; a response leading to an outcome that is not satisfying is not likely to be repeated
Association by Contiguity
• The organism forms an association or connection between the response and its consequences. For it to be effective, the response and the outcome have to be closely linked -- both in time and space
• The theory drew attention towards the significance of reward and punishment in learning new behaviors

EARLY BEHAVIORISM
JOHN.B.WATSON: (1878- 1958):
The founder of the behavioristic school of thought.
• American psychologist with a remarkable career.
• Initially trained in introspection at the University of Chicago but found it extremely vague and mentalistic.
• He became interested in experimental research with animals.
• He completed his Ph.D. on that in three years, being the youngest such graduate.
• Taught at the University of Chicago for four years, joined John Hopkins as full professor and soon became chairperson of the psychology department.
• Gave a revolutionary, pragmatic approach often known as ‘Radical Behaviorism’.
• He and his followers believed and advocated that psychology should depart from the study of unconscious and the mind because they could not be verified or tested scientifically.
• Observable behavior is all that psychology should be looking at.
• Environment and external world (environmental stimuli) is what shapes and determines behavior.
• Learning is what matters in what a person is, and not the inborn instincts, impulses, drive, id, or unconscious motivation. An understanding of learning will encompass all aspects of personality.
• Mentalist concepts, not grounded in reality, should be rejected.
Impact of Learning Experience
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors”. (Watson, 1924)
Learned Fear: The Case of “Little Albert”
1920: Developing Fear; Watson and Rosalie Rayne Eleven month old Albert who enjoyed playing with a cute white rat was made afraid of it by linking a loud frightening sound with the appearance of the rat. The experiment was further expanded and Watson and Rayner demonstrated that the fear of the rat could be generalized to all sorts of stimuli: a dog, a cotton ball and a Santa Clause.
Watson and Rayner could not get a chance to undo the learning as the child’s mother removed him from the hospital.
Issues stemming from little Albert’s Experiment
• Unethical treatment of Albert, that too without the advised consent of his mother.
• Watson contradicted his own earlier assertion that early childhood emotional experiences can affect a person for a lifetime.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Why are children scared of darkness?
Why some children jump with joy at the sight of a bear and some start screaming in fright? Why does one coming from abroad start feeling happy at the very sight of his parents’ home? Why does one start feeling bad at the thought of going to a dentist?
The answers to all these questions can be found in the classical conditioning approach
Classical Conditioning: The History
• Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936: Russian physiologist and pioneer of classical conditioning.
• In the later years of the 19th century studied the basic process of digestion and won Nobel Prize for that in 1904.
• The focal point was the salivation reflex in dogs.
• It was already known that the dogs would salivate if food powder were led into their mouths, as it was a ‘reflex’.
• The dogs salivated every time the food powder was presented.
• He observed that after some time, the dogs at times salivated just before food was put into their mouths. They also salivated at the sight of the food, and even at the sight of the lab assistant who brought food for them.
• This is where the concept of classical conditioning emerged. Classical Conditioning: The Theory
Is a type of learning in which a previously neutral stimulus starts eliciting a response that was originally attached to a natural stimulus, because the neutral stimulus has been closely associated with the other stimulus.
Basic Terminology in Classical Conditioning
• Reflex
An automatic, unlearned response resulting from a specific stimulus.
• Un-Conditioned Stimulus (UCS)
A stimulus that elicits a response reflexively and reliably.
• Un-Conditioned Response (UCR)
A natural, reflexive, reliable, response of the UCS.
• Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A primarily neutral stimulus which, when paired with the UCS, starts evoking a response (different from its natural response) and the same as UCR.
• Conditioned Response (CR)
After conditioning, the CS begins to elicit a new, learned response. i.e. CR.

Pavlovian Classical Conditioning
The following diagram explains the classical conditioning model:
Extensions of the Main Classical Conditioning Model
There are a number of other variations and extensions of this model, which will be discussed in detail in the section on learning. Here, we will just name them:
• Extinction
• Spontaneous recovery
• Stimulus generalization
• Stimulus discrimination
Applications of Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life
• Negative emotional responses: fears, phobias-----fear of lizards, dark places, school phobia
• Positive emotional responses: Feelings of relaxation, and happiness --- thinking of going on a holiday
• Advertising: Associating model with the product
• Psychotherapy: Systematic desensitization, aversive therapy
Operant Conditioning
• Why do teachers give stars on children’s workbooks?
• Why do parents clap happily when their child utters the first words that nobody else can decipher?
• Why do manufacturers of products announce prize schemes for the consumers of their products?
The answers to all these questions can be found in the “Operant Conditioning” approach.

OPERANT CONDITIONING
• Type of learning in which a voluntary response becomes stronger or weaker, depending on its positive or negative consequences
• The organism plays an active role and “Operates” on environment to produce the desired outcome
BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER (1904-1990)
• American Psychologist and the founder of Operant Conditioning.
• 1931: Received his Ph.D. from Harvard.
• During World War II, he conducted research on teaching pigeons to direct missiles to targets while flying in nose- cone. However the idea did not materialize.
• 1947: Went back to Harvard to deliver ‘William James’ lectures.
• 1948: Appointed as full professor at Harvard.
• While a graduate student at Harvard he started thinking on Operant Conditioning lines.
• His theory is somewhat similar to Thorndike’s, but it was actually Watson who impressed him.
The Typical Skinnerian procedure
• A special apparatus usually known as skinner’s box is used.
• Laboratory animals learn to press a lever so that food is delivered to them.
• The environment is controlled.
• The animal operates on the environment and as a result of its behavior it may be rewarded or punished. Food is the reward
• The consequence determines if the response will be repeated or not.
Shaping:
Successive approximations of a required / desired response are reinforced until that response is fully learnt:
• In the beginning each and every success is reinforced with a reward, no matter how small the success.
• Once the desired response is learnt the rein forcer immediately follows it, every time it happens.
• Once learnt the behavior, in many cases, the organism may not need reinforcement any more, since many behaviors are self-reinforcing e.g. learning to play a musical instrument.
Acquisition: Initially the response rate following reinforcement may be slow but at one stage it increases to the maximum. This is acquisition.
Extinction: If reinforcement is withheld the response rate decreases and finally no response is shown. This is extinction.

Reinforcement
Increasing the probability that preceding behavior will be repeated through a stimulus.
Positive Reinforcer: A stimulus whose introduction brings about an increase in the preceding response.
Negative Reinforcer: A stimulus whose removal reinforces and leads to a higher likelihood that the response bringing about this removal will be repeated.
Punishment: An unpleasant or painful stimulus whose introduction following a certain behavior decreases likelihood that the behavior will occur again.
Applications of Operant Conditioning in Everyday Life
• Child rearing
• Classroom management
• Teaching of skills
• Animal taming
• Advertising
• Psychological intervention and Psycho- therapy: behavior modification, assertiveness training, token economy

COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO LEARNING
The approaches that focus upon the thought processes underlying learning. Latent Learning and cognitive maps (Edward Tolman); Tolman talked about the ‘cognitive maps’; it is not necessary to have an association between stimulus and response, a person can learn without showing any apparent response; in other words learning and performance are not the same
Social learning / Observational learning and Modeling (Albert Bandura): a major portion of our learning is based upon learning by observation.
THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH AND THE COGNITIVE APPROACH
Faced with a choice between psychoanalysis and behaviorism, many psychologists in the 1950s and 1960s sensed a void in psychology’s conception of human nature. Freud had drawn attention to the darker forces of the unconscious, and Skinner was interested only in the effects of reinforcement on observable behavior.
Humanistic psychology emerged out of a desire to understand the conscious mind, free will, human dignity, and the capacity for self-reflection and growth. An alternative to psychoanalysis and behaviorism, humanistic psychology became known as “the third force.”
It is the approach that focused on:
• The idea that people are in control of their life.
• The person or the self and personal growth and development are to be emphasized.
The humanistic approach includes a number of other theories with the same or similar orientation e.g., ‘existential’ and ‘phenomenological’ psychology.
Basic Assumptions of the Humanistic Approach
i. In order to understand behavior we must consider the subjective experience of the person.
ii. Neither past experience nor current circumstances constrain the behavior of the person.
Humanistic Vs Psychodynamic & behaviorist Approaches
• Humanistic approach emphasizes the person, the psychodynamic stresses unconscious determinants, and the behaviorists focus upon external determinants.
• Humanistic approach is more optimistic than the other two in the sense that it believes in the person’s ability and will.
• According to the humanistic thinkers, limiting ourselves to observable behavior and external stimuli alone is ignoring the thinking-feeling person, and that is dehumanizing.
Free will: Humans possess the ability to make decisions about their life
Central Themes of Humanistic Approach
• Human beings are capable of shaping their own destiny.
• They can think and design their course of action and can follow it in the way they like.
• People can overcome or minimize the environmental and intrinsic influences
• “Here and now” is important.
• “Wholeness” or “completeness” of the personality is important rather than its separate, disintegrated, structural parts.
Humanistic approach emphasizes:
• Individual’s freedom in directing his future
• Capacity for personal growth
• Intrinsic worth
• Potential for self-fulfillment
Emergence of the Humanistic Approach
Emerged in reaction to the perceived limitations of psychodynamic theories, especially
Psychoanalysis, as well as the staunch behaviorist way of understanding and interpreting behavior. Individuals like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow strongly felt that the approaches prevalent at that time could not adequately address issues like the meaning of behavior, and the nature of healthy growth. The founders of humanistic psychology asserted that people need a value system----a system of understanding, or frame of orientation----due to which life gets a meaning and purpose

CARL ROGERS: (1902 – 1987)• Born in 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, he underwent a strict upbringing as a child who later turned out to be rather isolated, independent, and self disciplined.
• Initially went to the University of Wisconsin for Agriculture major but later became interested in the study of religion. From there he switched on to the clinical psychology program of Columbia University, and received his Ph.D. in 1931.
• One of the founders of the humanistic approach, Rogers was one of the most influential therapists in the 20th century.
• Research, even that conducted after his death, revealed that Rogers was cited by more therapists as a major influence on their thinking and clinical practice than any other person in psychology -----including Freud.
Rogers’ Approach
• Primarily a clinical theory, based on years of Rogers’ experience dealing with his clients
• In its richness and maturity his theory matches that of Freud; a theory well thought-out and logical having broad application.
• The theory emphasizes on a single factor “force of life” which he calls the actualizing tendency i.e. built-in motivation present in every life form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible.
• Rogers had the person-centered approach since the ‘person’ was the main figure of importance,
• He believed that the most powerful human drive is the one to become “fully functioning”,
• Fully functioning = a person becomes all that he or she is capable of
To be fully functioning means experiencing:
i. Optimal psychological adjustment
ii. Optimal psychological maturity
iii. Complete congruence (a feeling of integration when the self and the ideal self match; incongruence is a feeling of conflict or unease experienced in case of a mismatch between the two)
iv. Complete openness to experience
Main Concepts
i. Self: a fluid perceptual structure based on one’s experience of one‘s own being,
ii. Ideal self: an Individual’s goals and aspirations,
iii. Phenomenal field: an Individual’s unique perception of the world,
iv. Actualizing tendency: an innate drive reflecting the desire to grow, to develop, and to enhance one’s capacities,
v. Need for positive regard: a need for positive social contacts like love,
vi. Conditions of worth: restrictions imposed on self –expression in order to earn positive regard,
Defenses: In case of an incongruity between one's the ideal and the real self-defenses develop. Rogers’s talks about only two defenses: Denial and Perceptual Distortion
i. Denial: Blocking out the threatening situation altogether. Denial also includes what Freud called repression.
ii. Perceptual distortion: Reinterpreting the situation so that it appears less threatening, just like Freud's rationalization.
Neurotics: are apart from the real and the ideal. Becoming more incongruous, they find themselves in more and more threatening situations, levels of anxiety become greater, and they use more and more defenses.... It becomes a vicious cycle that the person eventually is unable to get out of, at least on his own
Psychosis: Psychosis occurs when a person's defenses are overwhelmed, and their sense of self becomes "shattered" into little disconnected pieces. His behavior lacks consistency.
Carl Roger’s Psychotherapy
• Carl Rogers is best known for his contributions to therapy known as “person centered/ Client- centered therapy/ Non- directive therapy. Also known as the Rogerian Therapy”.
• His main technique is “Reflection”__ mirroring of emotional experiences.
• Aim of the therapy: to help a person grow and self-actualize.
• Rogers maintained that the therapist must possess the following qualities:
i. Congruence -- genuineness, honesty, with the client
ii. Empathy -- the ability to feel what the client feels.
iii. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client.

ABRAHAM HAROLD MASLOW (1908-1970)• American psychologist, and leading exponent of humanistic approach.
• Gave comprehensive theory of motivation.
• Found the prevalent psychology to be too pessimistic and negatively oriented.
Key Points of Maslow’s Theory
• Psychology and the psychologist should look at the positive side of the human beings.
• There must be more to living than just being battered by a hostile environment, or by depraved instincts----which may actually be leading to self-destruction.
• People’s needs are not low level and base. We have positive needs that may become neutral in the worst cases, but will not turn negative or base.
• Human behavior does respond to needs but we will be wrong in saying that all our needs are only physiological in nature
• Needs motivate human action; such needs are very few in number.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Basically a stage theory.
• The needs at one level have to be met in order for one to move on to higher order.
• The needs at the lowest/primary/base level are the physiological needs, whereas the highest order needs are the self-actualization needs.
Interactions and needs of Behavior
• Physiological needs: Fulfilled through = hunger/food: Pathology associated = Over-eating, Anorexia.
• Safety needs: Fulfilled through = profession, job; Pathology associated = Phobias.
• Love and belongingness: Fulfilled through = Marriage, Friendship: Pathology associated = Antisocial personality.
• Esteem needs: Fulfilled through = Awards, Honors, Scholarships; Pathology associated = Depression.
• Self-actualization needs: Fulfilled through = Painting, writing, singing: Pathology associated = Isolation, Alienation, Cynicism.
Criticism against Maslow’s theory
• Although a comprehensive and well formed theory, it has been criticized at some points
• Can we actually, for all case, distribute and neatly order these needs? There is little empirical evidence to support Maslow’s way of ranking needs
Extensions of Humanistic Approach
• Existential Psychology (Jean Paul Sartre, Rollo May)
• Frankl’s Logotherapy
• Positive Psychology (Martin Seligman)

COGNITIVE APPROACH
From the 1920s through the 1960s, behaviorism dominated psychology in the United States. Eventually, however, psychologists began to move away from strict behaviorism. Many became increasingly interested in cognition, a term used to describe all the mental processes involved in acquiring, storing, and using knowledge. Such processes include perception, memory, thinking, problem solving, imagining, and language. This shift in emphasis toward cognition had such a profound influence on psychology that it has often been called the cognitive revolution. The psychological study of cognition became known as cognitive psychology.
Cognitive processes vs. computer
One reason for psychologists’ renewed interest in mental processes was the invention of the computer, which provided an intriguing metaphor for the human mind. The hardware of the computer was likened to the brain, and computer programs provided a step-by-step model of how information from the environment is put in, stored, and retrieved to produce a response. Based on the computer metaphor, psychologists began to formulate information-processing models of human thought and behavior.
The pioneering work of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget also inspired psychologists to study cognition. During the 1920s, while administering intelligence tests in schools, Piaget became interested in how children think. He designed various tasks and interview questions to reveal how children of different ages reason
about time, nature, numbers, causality, morality, and other concepts. Based on his many studies, Piaget theorized that from infancy to adolescence, children advance through a predictable series of cognitive stages.
The cognitive revolution also gained momentum from developments in the study of language. Behaviorist B. F. Skinner had claimed that language is acquired according to the laws of operant conditioning, in much the same way that rats learn to press a bar for food pellets. In 1959, however, American linguist Noam Chomsky charged that Skinner's account of language development was wrong. Chomsky noted that children all over the world start to speak at roughly the same age and proceed through roughly the same stages without being explicitly taught or rewarded for the effort. According to Chomsky, the human capacity for learning language is innate. He theorized that the human brain is “hardwired” for language as a product of evolution. By pointing to the primary importance of biological dispositions in the development of language, Chomsky’s theory dealt a serious blow to the behaviorist assumption that all human behaviors are formed
and maintained by reinforcement.
Cognition means “the known”, “knowledge”, or “the process of knowing”
Cognitive approach emphasizes on:
• Thoughts
• Feelings
• Thinking
• Values
• Expectations etc; factors that determine the personality of the individual
Main Emphasis
• For a proper understanding of behavior, the cognitive approach emphasizes the role of mediating processes in human behavior i.e., the processes that lie between the Environmental stimuli and the behavioral response
• Focused on how we ‘remember’, how information processing takes place, how decision making appraisals are done
• Unlike the behaviorist approach, this theory gives same importance to both the internal state of the person as well as the environmental events
• Internal events are referred as “Mediators” or “Meditation Processes”
Areas of Special Interest
Cognitive approach mainly focuses on:
• Emotions
• Social behavior
• Behavior modification
Cognitive approach includes the elements of psychology, linguistics, computer science and physiology-- thus called a ‘hybrid science’.
Experiments on apes by German scientist Wolfgang Kohler, discovered the use of insight by them in problem situations.
Tolman talked about the ‘cognitive maps’ (relationship between stimulus) __it is not necessary to have an association between stimulus and response, a person can learn without showing any apparent response
o Both Kohler and Tolman played a vital role in laying the foundation of cognitive approach
Emotions and Cognitive Approach
• Pioneer: Stanley Schacter (1971)• According to him, emotions result from the physiological arousal as well as the cognitive appraisal (evaluation) of the situation
• Arousal comes first and is general in nature
• In order to understand what one is feeling i.e., the title/label of the emotion, and the meaning of one’s reaction in a particular setting the arousal is appraised cognitively Richard Lazarus (1984) maintains that emotional experience cannot be understood unless we understand how what goes on in the environment is be evaluated. Emotion leads to cognition and cognition in turn leads to emotional experience.
Cognitive Approach to Social Behavior
John Dollard and Neal Miller (1950) first ever emphasized the importance of cognitive processes in determining behavior
Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory
• Developed by George Kelly (1955.)
• Emphasis on how a person cognitively constructs his world
• Persons develop their behavior cognitively towards their world and develop attitudes and opinions accordingly known as’ personal constructs’.
• The constructs then develop into a ‘belief system’ of a person.
Mischel’s Cognitive Social personality Theory
• Walter Mischel was a student of George Kelly.
• According to him, how a person responds to the environmental stimulus depends on the following variables:
i. Competencies
• What the person knows
• What the person can do
• How well the person generate the cognitive/ behavioral outcome
ii. Encoding Strategies: Ways of processing information
iii. Expectations: Anticipating the likely outcome (mainly positive)
iv. Personal Values: Importance of one’s belief, also stimulus, people, events etc
v. Self regulatory system: maintaining rules for better performance
• Setting goals
• Evaluating performances
Bandura’s Cognitive-Social Learning Theory• Given by Albert Bandura (1986).
• By combining the rules of learning, it emphasizes the complex human interactions in social settings.
Observational Learning
• Main component of social-learning theory in which the person makes changes in his own behavior by watching/or imitating others i.e., a model/ a super star/favorite personality or cartoon character.
• Effective in acquiring skills, attitudes, beliefs simply by watching others.
Cantor’s Social Intelligence Theory
• Given by Nancy Cantor and her colleagues (1987).
• Refers to the expertise, which a person uses in different life situations/ tasks.
• The theory explains several types of individual differences.
i. Choice of Life Goal: Giving priority/ importance to the most important goal at a particular point of life. i.e., student -- ’Good grades’
ii. Use of ‘knowledge’ in social interactions.
Use of life experiences and expertise in problem solving.
Cognitive Approach in Behavior Modification
• Negative and unacceptable behavior is modified through constructive strategies.
• According to this approach, person’s beliefs and attitudes effect the motivation and behavior of a person
• In order to modify the behavior, reinforcement techniques are used.
• For attaining the desired goal, realistic strategies are used with continuous feedback.
Altering the Belief System
• Psychologists are of the view that psychological problems arise due to the way people perceive themselves in relation with the people they interact with.
• Main focus of the therapist is to alter the irrational belief system of a person.
Cognitive Theory for Depression
• Aaron Beck formulated the therapy for depression patients.
• Therapist helps the depressive person to change the faulty patterns of thinking through problem- solving techniques
• Believed that depression reoccurs in depressive patients because the negative thoughts occur automatically of which they are not aware.
The therapist uses four tactics
• Challenging the patient’s ill beliefs
• Evaluating the cause of depression
• Attributing the cause to the environmental situation/ event not to the person’s in competencies
• Finding the alternative and effective solutions for the complex problems

RATIONAL-EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY• Developed by Albert Ellis (1962, 1977).
• Focused on altering the irrational beliefs into more acceptable ways.
• Clients are forbidden to use “should”, “must”,” ought” etc.
• Confrontation techniques are used which focus on changing the attitudes through rational reasoning.
• Task is to protect the self worth, potential to be self-actualized, by blocking the irrational thinking patterns.
In short, in the last few decades, researchers have made significant breakthroughs in understanding the
brain, nervous system, mental processes such as the nature of consciousness, memory distortions, competence and rationality, genetic influences on behavior, infancy, the nature of intelligence, human motivation, prejudice and discrimination, the benefits of psychotherapy, and the psychological influences on the immune system.
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Post Research methods in psychology

RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY
SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN PSYCHOLOGY[/B]
The scientific method is an approach that practitioners of psychology are interested in for assessing, measuring, and predicting behavior. It is the process of appropriately framing and properly answering questions. It is used by psychologists and those engaged in other scientific disciplines, to come to an understanding about the world.

Scientific Nature of Psychology• Psychology is a science• Science: An approach using the scientific method for the observation, description, understanding, and prediction of any phenomenon.
• Scientific method: The procedure employing a systematic, pre defined, series of steps for attaining optimal efficiency, accuracy, and objectivity in investigating the problem of interest
• Systematic: it follows a specified system, an organized ways of collecting and tabulating information.
• Pre defined series of steps: certain steps following a specific sequence that is not to be altered; disruption of the sequence will ruin the essence of the approach
• Objectivity: It is unbiased; the researcher’s likes and dislikes do not interfere with the study or its findings

Steps of Scientific Method
1. Identifying the research problem
The most important step while conducting research is identify and specify the area of interest in which one is going to conduct a research. The research problem can be identified in many ways, including personal interest, brainstorming, scientific developments, knowledge etc.
2. Review of the related literature
Searching the research findings in relation with the research one is going to conduct, in order to see how others approached the same or similar issues. Also, it can give some idea as to what would be the probable outcome of one’s research.
3. Formulation of hypotheses
A hypothesis is a speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. By reviewing the related literature, one is able to formulate the hypotheses pertaining to the variables of interest.
Reviewing the related research articles helps one formulate various hypotheses.
4. Designing and conducting the research
After reviewing the related literature and making hypotheses, the research is conducted by using different strategies such as Questionnaires, mail interviews, telephonic interviews, face to face interviews etc. A variety of research designs is available to the researchers, who can choose the one that best suits their study.
5. Analysis of data
After collecting information, the data will be tabulated with the help of statistical methods and computation in order to see whether the finding prove or disprove the hypotheses.
6. Drawing conclusions
Conclusions are drawn after the statistical analysis of data. On the basis of this, a decision is made about the rejection or acceptance of the hypothesis.
Non-manipulative/descriptive Methods
The methods in which the phenomenon of interest is studied the way it exists in nature. The researcher does not interfere with the events, and acts as a passive recorder.
Manipulative/Experimental Methods
The methods that is responsible for the scientific nature of psychology. In these methods the researcher exercises control over the variables and events. He may introduce variables of interest, or may withhold them. These methods are used for determining cause and effect relationships.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH METHODS
a) Observation• Systematic observation is used; one of the methods most frequently employed by anthropologists, sociologists and ethnologists.
• Phenomenon of interest is observed, studied, and the observations are recorded.
• The recorded observations are analyzed.
• Conclusions are drawn on the basis of analysis.
Types of observation
1. Observation without Intervention
2. Observation with Intervention
1-Observation without intervention
Naturalistic Observation
Type of observation in which the phenomenon of interest is studied/observed in the natural setting without any interference by the observer; The observer may make narrative records, take field notes, use audio or video equipment, or may use a combination of some or all strategies.
2-Observation with Intervention
The observer intervenes, and manipulates the situation, events and/or variables in order to:
• Create a situation which does not occur frequently
• Test the impact of variables on behavior
• Gain access to a situation that is otherwise not accessible or open to observation
Types of “Observation with Intervention”
1. Participant Observation
2. Structured Observation
3. Field experiments
1. Participant Observation
The observer becomes a part of the situation and plays an active and significant role in the situation, event, or context under study. It can be of two types:
• Disguised Participant Observation
• Undisguised Participant Observation
2. Structured Observation
• Employed when the researcher intends to study a situation, which occurs infrequently or is inaccessible otherwise.
• The observer may “create” a situation or initiate it.
• The control exercised by the observer is less than that in many other techniques.
• Mostly employed by clinical and developmental psychologists

3. Field Experiments• Experiments in the natural setting; the degree of control is far less than that in laboratory experiments.
• One or more independent variables are manipulated in the natural setting in order to see their impact on behavior.
• Confederate: the researcher is assisted by one or more confederates who behave in a preplanned manner so as to initiate an experimental condition.
b) Correlation Research
A method used for identifying predictive relationships among naturally occurring variables
Correlation
Can be said to exist when two different measures of the same individuals, objects, or events vary together e.g. Relationship between I.Q. score & academic achievement or entry test marks & academic achievement. Correlation is a statistical concept.
Nature of Correlation
• Positive Correlation
• Negative Correlation
• Zero Correlation
Measures in Correlation Research
Questionnaires: can be used in- person, can be mailed, or used via Internet.
Interviews: can be personal and face-to-face, or telephonic.
Official Record: Official statistics, raw data, crime records etc.
Remember!!! Correlation is not causation
C. Surveys
Most frequently used method for obtaining information quickly and evaluating people’s interest, liking, disliking and opinions without indulging in long- term procedures and techniques. It is also easily used because it is a cheap method and information is gathered without much difficulty.
• Surveys consist of presenting a series of questions or statements to the participants, and asking them to respond.
• Surveys are used when quick information is required in limited time e.g. opinion polls, product preference.
• Also useful when information is required from a large number of people e.g. population census
• More suitable when the goal of the study is to find out about public opinion, attitudes, preferences, likes and dislikes etc
Sources of data/information in Surveys
• Questionnaires: in person, mailed, internet
• Interviews: personal, telephonic
• Newspaper Surveys

STEPS INVOLVE IN CONDUCTING THE RESEARCH:
There are mainly five steps, which are essential while conducting surveys i.e.,
i. Conceiving the problem: The purpose of the study must be carefully thought out and precisely defined. How is the information to be used? From whom it is obtained? What kind of information to be gathered etc.
ii. Designing the instrument: There are numerous ways by which information can be gathered form the general public such as mailed questionnaires, telephonic interviews, through internet etc. It must be carefully thought that which procedure is most effective in obtaining the needed information.
iii. Sampling the population: The problem of obtaining a representative sample of the population is one of the most difficult as well as significant in the field of measuring popular reactions. The sample to be studied must be drawn in such a manner the each individual has an equal chance of being selected, and that the drawing of one does not influence the chances of any other being drawn. With this procedure, each age, sex, income, religious and ethnic group in the population will be proportionately represented in the sample. Off course there are a number of ways of properly drawing a sample.
iv. Conducting interviews: Even when the questions are carefully worded and carefully designed, a poor interviewer can bias the results. Experiments have shown that females are the best interviewers: at least 21 years of age, who like people, who are unbiased, who are good listeners, who have some college education, and who are fairly familiar with the section they are working in.
v. Interpreting the results: Even when all the findings are carried out properly, there is always a chance of misinterpreting the results. Errors in questionnaires, statistical methods, and investigator’s own subjectivity can easily bias the results
D. Unobtrusive Measures of Behavior
• Indirect ways of data collection
• The person/s who are the focus of interest may not be present at the time of investigation
• May be used for supplementing information collected through observation
• May be used as a replacement of observation
• In situations where direct observation is not possible
Unobtrusive measures of behavior include:
i. Archival data
ii. Physical Traces
i. Archival data
Already existing records, documents, different forms of literature, newspaper items, photographs, movies, documentaries, biographies, autobiographies etc are used as evidence/ information e.g. using newspaper records to study the rate of crime during the past 20 years. May be used to supplement data gathered through other sources
ii. Physical Traces
Remains, remnants, fragments, objects and products of past behavior are used as evidence; usually employed to supplement data from other sources.
Physical traces can be of two types
i. Use traces
ii. Products
Use traces
Cues to the use or nonuse of objects and items provide significant evidence e.g. wall chalking, graffiti on walls of public places, milk cartons or tissue boxes in the garbage bags
Products
Study of products, tools, weapons, sculpture etc used less frequently than physical traces
E. Content Analysis
• Part of archival research: An approach for systematically categorizing and analyzing the content of the behavior or its related aspects/ variables being studied.
• The analysis may cover contents of live human behavior, books, journals, magazines, poetry, drama, movies, folktales, TV programs, school textbooks and curricula, advertisements etc.
• Inferences are made and conclusions are drawn after objective identification of specific characteristics of contents.
• Content analysis is done keeping specific goals, objectives, themes and constructs in mind.
• Example: Content analysis of textbooks with reference to gender equity and equality; analysis of TV programs with reference to portrayal of women.
F. Focus Groups
• A variety of interviews conducted in a group setting.
• The researcher talks to the participants in order to learn about their opinions, attitudes, preferences, likes/dislikes and tries to find out their reasons/cause.
• Used as a source of data collection in surveys but also used otherwise as well.
G. Meta Analysis
• A statistics based method
• A way of reviewing existing research literature in the same field, about the same phenomena
• The analysis covers the results of several independent experiments within the same field
• Computer aided statistical analysis yields overall conclusions
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH• Experimental method: the use of experimentation for studying a phenomenon.
• Experimental design: the plan/structure/lay out of an experiment.
• Experiment: the variable of interest (independent variable) is manipulated/ altered and the effect of this manipulation is studied.
Why experiments are conducted?
• For testing hypotheses
• To test the impact of a treatment or a program on behavior
• The main feature of experimentation is CONTROL; keeping all those variables and conditions under control, that can have an impact on the findings of the study i.e., variables that can interfere with the impact of the independent variable.
Variables
i. Independent Variable
ii. Dependent Variable
iii. Control Variable
Independent Variable (IV): The variable whose impact is being studied; that is manipulated…in terms of kind or level
Dependent Variable (DV): The measure of behavior on which the impact of independent variable is being studied
Control variable (CV): A potential independent variable that can have an impact upon dependent variable; it has to be controlled
Groups in a Typical Experiment
I. Experimental Group: This is treated with the independent variable.
ii. Control Group; the no-treatment group that is kept under controlled conditions.
Experimental Designs
i. Within- Subjects Design
ii. Between- Subjects Design
Within Subject Design
The experimental design in which the subjects’ performance is compared with their own performance i.e., only one group of subjects is used.
Before-After No Control Group Design:
Varieties of Before-after no control group designs: ABABA and ABABABBA designs
Between Subjects Experimental Design
The experimental design in which two or more groups of subjects are used and their performance is compared with each other:
i. Classical Experimental Design
ii. After- Only Experimental Design
Problems associated with experimental research:
• Artificiality of behavior is a possibility
• Subjects may be under stress or pressure
• Time consuming and expensive
• Ethical issues: can we tell all about the nature of experiment to the subjects???

APPLIED RESEARCH: QUASI EXPERIMENTATION• Kind of research that fits into the experimental framework, although it is not planned, initiated or controlled by the experimenter: it is “sort of experimentation”.
• It is the experimentation in which the independent variable occurs, or has occurred, naturally and the researcher studies its impact the way it is done in a laboratory experiment
Groups in a Quasi- Experiment
i. Exposure Group
ii. Comparison Group
Quasi- experimental Design
i. Retrospective/Ex Post Facto Design: Ex post facto means “after the fact”. There are two groups, the exposure group and the comparison group. The process of “constructing” comparable exposure and comparison groups is called “matching”. The subjects are already naturally divided like that. However, the experimenter selects the relevant subjects according to the nature of the research.
ii. Prospective Design: This design is similar to the retrospective design, except that in a prospective design, variations in the independent variable are measured as they occur, rather than retrospectively. Researchers are equally careful in interpreting the prospective and retrospective quasi- experiments. In neither case, the subjects are randomly assigned to the exposure and the control groups. Generally, prospective designs are more persuasive than retrospective designs, especially when the independent variable occurred long ago
iii. Time series Design: This design is mainly concerned with observing whether the values of the dependent variable change in apparent response to changes in an independent variable.
Examples of Quasi Experimentation
i. Twin Studies
Twin studies investigate different aspects of behavior and mental processes of twins, whether identical or fraternal. The studies on identical twins reared apart have generated very significant results. They have shown amazing similarities as well as differences among such twins.
ii. Adoption Studies
Most people have one set of parents. However 1% of the infants born in western countries every year are adopted at or near by persons unrelated to them. Such children have two sets of parents: parents who rear them and those who give them their genes. Social scientists have used this to help determine, with fascinating results, how much influence genetic factors and family environment have over behavior. Like twin studies, adoption studies suggested that many human behaviors are genetically influenced. That is why the nature- nurture issue is always remaining controversial.
Applied Research: Single- Case Research Designs
• A type of research in which a single case is focused upon and studied.
• This approach is employed in rarely occurring cases.
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Old Tuesday, December 15, 2009
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Post Super Notes of Psychology By Sarfraz Mayo

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

The branch of psychology that studies how growth and physiological/ psychological/ social changes take place over the life span also called Life-span Psychology; it is concerned with the changes in cognitive, motivational, and psycho physiological, and social functioning that occur throughout the human life span. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, developmental psychologists were concerned primarily with child psychology.
DEVELOPMENT“The process of growth and differentiation”
Development refers to the progressive changes in size, shape, and function during the life of an organism by which its genetic potentials (genotype) are translated into functioning mature systems (phenotype). Most modern philosophical outlooks would consider that development of some kind or other characterizes all things, in both the physical and biological worlds.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT• Biological sense: progressive change in size, shape, and function, of the body during the life span; the genetic potentials are translated into functioning adult systems
• Psychological sense: the ways by which physical, cognitive and psychosocial characteristics change over life span; such development is complex, systematic, and age- related
• Developmental changes can be quantitative and easy to measure such as height and weight and the expansion of vocabulary
• Developmental changes can be qualitative i.e., changes in kinds that are more complex and involve “leaps” in functioning. these distinguish a crawling baby from a walking child, a nonverbal child from a talking child, self- absorbed adolescent from a mature adult Psychological changes include the growth of:
• Learning
• Cognition
• Intelligence
• Emotional maturity
• Creativity
• Sociability
• Morality…and much more
These small leaps are based upon small series of steps that we continue to take throughout our life span
Issues of Interest to Developmental Psychologists
Is development continuous or discontinuous?
Some psychologists believed that human functioning does not undergo fundamental changes but instead changes gradually in its efficiency and working capacity; initially a child spoke a few words but gradually these words become longer and more complicated, increasing the child’s ability to remember and use them in sentences.
Other psychologists maintain that changes in development reflect psychological processes that mediate human functioning. These are qualitatively unique stages, in which the evolution of one stage may depend on the traits of the preceding stages. e.g. Roger Brown, psychologist, maintains that in the process of language acquisition, a child progresses systematically in five steps or stages. Each stage has its own set of rules and skills from which a higher level of language acquisition takes place. Jean Piaget maintained that cognitive development occurs in a series of steps in which the child acquires and uses unique sets of cognitive processes that allow the child to think in identifiable ways.
Is development general or specific?
• Many aspects of functioning show simultaneous changes; a co-occurrence of change in different situations.
• Changes occur in specific areas of functioning that do not occur in other level of functioning.
• Development may remain isolated in specific domains. e.g. Video game mastery in young boys
Is development stable or changing?
In some respects development is stable and stays there for very long, whereas in some ways it keeps moving.
Temporal aspect: degree of stability or change across the lifespan
Situational aspect: degree of stability or change across a wide variety of experiences. e.g. Aggressive behavior in children
Human’s active or passive beings?
Psychologists maintain that humans are active recipients as well as participants in their course of development. Man seeks to understand the strategies that he can adopt in order to influence development Jean Piaget emphasized the active participation of the child in acquiring cognitive skills__ acquisition of knowledge and ability to use it effectively. Some philosophers believed that humans are passive beings whose development is entirely dependent on the environmental stimuli/ forces. These conditions may be internal i.e. food, water, companionship etc or external i.e. previously experienced reward or punishment. These psychologists tend to view differences in the patterns of development in which an individual is exposed to different environmental situations

NATURE VERSUS NURTURE• Nature means hereditary influences.
• Nurture refers to environmental influences, in child development.
• Once, it was assumed that these were significant forces that operated independently of each other.
• In the 17th century the French philosopher René Descartes set out views which held that people possess certain inborn ideas that are long lasting and color people's approach to the world.
• The British philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, on the other hand, took a more empirical approach and emphasized the role of experience as fully contributing to behavioral development.
• Since the days of Descates, Hobbes, and Locke, the empirical "nature" approach has led to a lot of debate; many followers and many opponents.
• Mid to late 1800's, through to the early 1900's the nature approach was the sole standpoint; consistent with the scientific discoveries of the role of inheritance and natural selection by
Mendel and Darwin
• The psychological argument developed later; Francis Galton "Hereditary Genius” (1869); “gifted individuals” tended to come from families, which had other gifted individuals. He went on to analyze biographical dictionaries and encyclopedias, and became convinced that talent in science, professions, and the arts, ran in families.
• Galton went even further arguing that it would be "quite practicable to produce a high gifted race of men by judicious marriages during several consecutive generations".
• Eugenics: "the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or repair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally."
Studies to Determine the Relative Importance of Nature or Nurture
i. Twin Studies
• Studies making use of twins, identical or fraternal…reared apart and reared together
• The case of Gerald Levey and Mark Newman, twins reared apart, who had not seen each other before: When method, both were bald, 6 and a half feet tall, volunteer fire fighters, 250 pounds in weight, had droopy moustaches, wearing key rings on right side of their belts, liked to wear aviator style dark glasses; both had interest in similar subjects, had jobs in the supermarket, and liked tall, slender women with long hair; had similar hobbies, liked Chinese food and same drinks; showed similar mannerism, laugh similarly, and loved to fight fire
Research on Nature- Nurture, Focusing on Environmental Issues
• Research looking for possible environmental causes for certain traits/ behaviors
• These include prenatal studies, and studies involving manipulation of the environmental factors e.g. nutrition, exercise, drugs, pollution etc
• These involve comparing actual history: surveys etc.
Limitations of Nature-Nurture Research
o Ethical considerations in research with humans
o Not all animal research can be applied to humans

HEREDITY AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
Researchers believe that although environment exerts an important influence on human development, physical traits are the ones more evidently influenced by heredity. Personality and intellectual characteristics are also affected by it
Mechanism of Heredity: Transmission of Genetic Characteristics
The process begins from the moment of conception; a sperm from the father unites with the ovum/egg of the mother to form zygote, a single-cell/one-celled product, containing the complete genetic package for the one to be born much later.
The zygote contains 23 pairs of chromosomes

Chromosomes
• Each sperm and ovum contains 23 chromosomes that are tiny rod- shaped particles containing genetic/ heredity information.
• Genetic/ heredity information is packed in the genes.
• Genes: parts of chromosome that are the transmitters of inheritance.
• Genes produce particular characteristics of the new being, either individually or in combination
Genes may be dominant or recessive;
A dominant gene means that its characteristics will dominate those of the recessive one e.g. if father has brown eyes and mother has black eyes, and if the father’s genes dominate then the baby will have brown eyes.
o Each zygote’s 46 chromosomes contain about 30,000 segments strung along its beads i.e., “genes”
Genes, made up of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA,) determine all our heredity
Prenatal Stages
EMBRYO: A developed zygote with a heart, a brain and other organs.
Fetus: A developing child; 9 weeks after conception till birth.
Determination of the Sex of the Embryo
• A combination of chromosomes from the parents determines sex.
• An XX pair means a female will be born An XY pair means a male will be born.
• The mother’s sex chromosome is always and ‘X’ but the father may be either ‘X’ or ‘Y’. If X chromosome is being contributed by the father’s side then the new being has to be a female; and if the father is contributing a ‘Y’ chromosome then the new being is going to be a male
Genotype and Phenotype
• Genotype: genetic composition of a person.
• Phenotype: observable characteristics.
• The characteristics that can be observed and seen, make up our “phenotype”. They may not always be the same e.g. person may have brown eyes (phenotype) but carry genes for both brown and blue eyes (genotype) __ dominant gene is brown
Alleles
This difference in color is due to the fact that genes come in alternative forms called “Alleles” (alternative forms of a gene). When alleles are identical, a person is homozygous for a trait; when alleles are dissimilar the person is heterozygous
Patterns of Transmission of Characteristics
i. Homozygous and Heterozygous
When the person inherits identical alleles he is said to be “homozygous” (possessing two identical alleles for a trait). When he inherits two different alleles then the person is “heterozygous” (possessing two different alleles for a trait).
Example: when a person is homozygous for brown eyes then he will transmit only genes for brown eyes to his offspring and if heterozygous for blue and brown eyes then although dominant one is brown, but he will transfer his both alleles to his offspring.
a. Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
• Patterns of inheritance in which a specific gene is dominant; if it is inherited; it manifests itself in the person.
b. Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
• Patterns of inheritance in which trait appears only if a person inherits two genes for it, one from each parent. If the person inherits only one gene for a trait, it will not appear in a person but may be passed on to his children.
ii. Multi- Factorial Inheritance
• Patterns of inheritance in which a trait is expressed either by a combination of several genes or through the interaction of genes with environmental factors.
• More complicated combination of genes or an interaction between genetic predispositions and environmental factors that bring them out.
• Some characteristics follows one of these patterns, other genes another.
Hair type (curly or straight) is either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive, baldness is sex-linked; height and weight are probably multi- factorial.
Some diseases and birth defect are inherited according to these patterns. Most prominent examples are:
Achondroplasia: a kind of dwarfism that is inherited by autosomal dominance.
Tay- Sachs disease: body’s inability to break down fat; results into death by 3-4 years of age
Huntington’s disease: 99.9% correlation between having the identified gene and the disease.
The blood- clotting disorder hemophilia is a sex- linked condition.
Spina bifida: a defect in the closure of the vertebral canal, that is believed to be the condition transmitted by sex- linked inheritance
The process of development continues throughout the life span
While considering aspects of development, individuality and interactions are the key terms in understanding it. All beings bring their unique genetic package into this world and have unique sets of experiences too. An individual’s strengths, abilities, and predispositions are affected by the influence of environment. These influences make a person act in ways that elicit new experiences

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Cognitive development is the process of the development of children understanding of the world as a function of age and experience.
Development of Cognition and Cognitive Ability
Cognition is the process of knowing as well as what is known. It includes "knowledge" which is innate/ inborn and present in the form of brain structures and functions. We ‘remember’ the physical environment in which we were brought up and develop perceptual constructs or knowledge accordingly (seeing, hearing, sounds etc
Disciplines Interested in the Study and Use of Cognition
The interest in human cognition and its development has been developed and applied in a variety of scientific disciplines:
• Anthropologists focus on, and measure, how cognition develops in different cultures.
• Sociologists study how cognitions are acquired and used in various groups and institutional settings.
• Computer scientists target to create ‘artificial intelligence’.
Psychologists are interested in a better understanding of the human cognitive ability and potentials, how it is utilized in different situations and at different stages.
Nature of Cognition
The very word cognitive refers to the process of knowing as well as the known. Cognition thus, has at least two main aspects/ features i.e.,
i. Cognition means ‘mental processes’ that people use to gather/ acquire knowledge, and
ii. Cognition refers to the knowledge that has been gathered/ acquired subsequently used in mental processes
Cognition and Knowledge
• There is probably no aspect of human life and behavior that is void of all sorts of cognition…not even sleep
• All human intellectual activities and potentials, i.e. thinking, communicating, problem solving, and learning require mental processes and knowledge
Factors Influencing the Cognitive Development
• Long term memory and information processing or working memory are traits of the human infant which exist and operate much earlier than when one is aware of it; these are intact even before birth but these contents of memory are unknown to consciousness.
• The ability to control ‘mental processes’ and ‘innate/ inborn knowledge’ develops after birth and this may occur largely due to the interaction of the child with the physical environment
• The child’s interaction and bonding with the people around has a deep impact. Most often parents especially the mother, also including the caregivers/caretakers, are the most significant connections for the development of cognition.
Significant Influences on Cognition
Socio- Cultural Factor
• Given and debated in the early 1900s socio-cultural approach has now regained interest among cognitive scientists
• It states that cognitive ability does not start with the anatomy/ biology of the individual or only with the environment: the culture and society into which the individual is born provide the most important resources/ clues for human cognitive development.
• They provide the context into which the individual begins his experience of the world.
• Social groups help in person's cognitive development by placing value/ importance on learning certain skills, thereby providing all important motivation that the person needs and requires in order to learn and exhibit those skills or behaviors. This results in cognitive development
• One perspective about cognitive ability suggest that there is some sort of innate potential existing within an individual
Another suggests that there is potential within the socio- cultural context for development of the individual.
The individual is born into a society of potential intellect. Knowledge will develop largely based on the evolution of intellect within the society and culture.
Social Nature of Mind• Beside other psychological functions, the most important and influential is the interaction between individuals.
• In the beginning, the child has no means of understanding/ expressing or communicating his experiences. But as time passes, the teachings of parents and other family members enable a child to understand the world in which he lives. Knowledge is considered to be the experiences and the values that parents/ caregivers pass on to their off springs. It reflects their particular social and cultural norms and standards, which are incorporated in their understanding of their culture.
Language and Cognitive Ability
• The main and most important tool in acquiring cognitions in any culture is its language through which an organized body of knowledge is transmitted as “cognitive abilities”. By learning the language, the child is able to share knowledge and experiences with the people he interacts with.
• Early learning takes place through internalizing and interpreting the world.
• Afterwards, the child is able to use those internalized skills such as language that have been taught to him by his parents, culture, or society. It further on helps him to think and function independently
• Language, including its written form, is the unifying tool for any culture. As language starts to develops, so do the social norms, cultural beliefs, and values
Motivation, Cognition and Learning• It is believed that cognitive ability alone cannot account for achievement; motivation is also important in acquiring/ attaining cognitive skills and abilities.
• People learn information that corresponds to, and is in accordance with, their view of the world. They learn skills that are meaningful to them. e.g. children who are born in a poor family may not give any attention or importance to the formal education and as adults, they may pass on similar beliefs and attitudes to their off springs.
• Motivation determines whether or not one is capable of learning. Whether one learns well or not, depends on one’s own view and that affects the ability to learn. The motivational condition largely depends on the way the culture responds to achievements and failures. There are culturally developed attitudes about the probability of learning successfully after one has initially failed to learn. These attitudes can greatly affect future learning.
The Individual and the Group
• These factors also influence the extent or direction of development.
• The culture of the individual, the community, the neighborhood, social organizations, and the family, all influence the experience of the individual. But these experiences have a certain uniqueness of their own and they may be perceived and viewed differently by different people.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT• Cognitive development is the development of the ‘thinking’ and ‘organizing systems’ of the brain. It involves
• Language,
• Mental imagery,
• Thinking,
• Reasoning,
• Problem solving and
• Memory development
Jean Piaget’s (1896-1980) Theory of Cognitive Development
• Piaget was a Swiss psychologist. He was a very keen observer from the very beginning; got published his first research paper at age 15.
• As a result of his study of philosophy and logic, he became interested in epistemology i.e., knowledge and knowing; the interest in observation and epistemology made a foundation of his theory of cognitive development.
• Piaget was influenced by Henri Bergson’s Creative Evolution, unlike most of the other psychologists who were impressed by Darwin’s theory of evolution. Bergson believed in divine agency instead of chance as the force behind evolution: life possesses an inherent creative impulse.
• Piaget did his doctorate in Biological Science, but later became interested in psychology especially abnormal psychology.
• He secured a position in Alfred Binet’s laboratory In Paris where he got a chance to observe children’s performance, their right and wrong answers.
• Piaget’s work and observation generated an interest in children’s mental processes.
• The real shift took place when he started observing his own children from birth onwards. He kept records of their behavior and used them to trace the origins of children’s thoughts to their behavior as babies; later on he became interested in the thought of adolescents as well
Piagetian Method of Investigation
• Known as the Clinical Approach; a form of a structured observation.
• Piaget used to present problems/tasks to children of different ages, asked them to explain their answers. Their explanations were further probed through carefully phrased question.
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
• Sensorimotor stage
• Preoperational stage
• Concrete operational stage
• Formal operational stage
Sensorimotor stage
Age: Infancy; Birth-2 years
Major Characteristic:
• Thought confined to action schemes.
• Development of object permanence.
• Development of motor skills.
• Little or no capacity for symbolic representation.
Preoperational Stage
Age: Preschool; 2-7 years
Major characteristics:• Representational thought.
• Thought is intuitive not logical.
• Development of language and symbolic thinking takes place.
• Thinking is egocentric.
Concrete Operational Stage
Age: Childhood; 7-11 years
Major Characteristics
• Thought is systematic and logical, but only with regard to concrete objects.
• Development of conservation, and mastery of concept of reversibility.
Formal Operational Stage
Age: Adolescence and adulthood; 11 years onward
Major Characteristics:
• Abstract and logical thought develops.
• The person can deal with the abstract and the absent.

ERIK ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT• Student and follower of Sigmund Freud.
• Left his native land, Germany, in 1930's and immigrated to America, where he studied Native
American traditions of human development, and continued his work as a psychoanalyst.
• Broke with his teacher over the fundamental view about what motivates/ drives human behavior. For Freud, it was ‘biology’ or more specifically the biological instincts of life and aggression (Eros and Thanatos). For Erikson, the most important force that drives human behavior and which helps in the development of personality was “social interaction”.
• His developmental theory of the "Eight Stages of Man" (Erikson, 1950) was unique and different in the sense that it covered the entire lifespan rather than ‘childhood’ and ‘adolescent development’.
• He believed that social environment combined with biological maturation results in a set of "crises" that must be resolved.
• The individual passes through the "sensitive period” and crisis at different stages, which has to be resolved successfully before a new crisis is presented. The results of the resolution, whether successful or not, are passed on to the next crisis and provide the foundation for its resolution
Erickson’s Psychosocial Developmental Stages
1-Trust vs. Mistrust (Oral-Sensory Stage): Birth –18months: Infancy
• The infant develops a sense of who and when to trust.
• He learns when to protect oneself and be cautious.
2-Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: 18 months to 3 years: Early Childhood
• The child develops a sense of independence and is able to understand and recognize his limitations. If independence is encouraged, he develops a sense of autonomy.
• If the child is overly restricted, over-protected, or criticized it may result into self-doubt and shame. Shame occurs when child is overly self-conscious when negatively exposed. Self-doubt occurs when parents overly shame the child, e.g. about elimination.
3-Initiative vs. Guilt: 3 to 6 years: late Childhood
• The child is able to tryout and explore various things.
• Indulges in various activities, both motor and intellectual.
• Guilt arises after doing the negative acts e.g. aggression.
4-Industry vs. Inferiority: 6 to 11 years: School Age
o Child is busy in
• Building,
• Creating, and
• Accomplishing
o Receives systematic instruction as well as fundamentals of technology.
o Learns norms and standards of the society in which he lives.
o Socially decisive age. The child gains self- esteem.
5-Identity vs. Role confusion: Adolescence
• The person has a coherent sense of self.
• Plans to actualize one’s abilities or becomes confused when unable to accomplish task.
• Problems may result in impulsive attitude or extended immaturity.
• Indecisiveness may occur.
• In extreme cases there can be a possibility of antisocial behavior.
6-Intimacy vs. Isolation: 18 to 25 years:
Young adulthood (beginning in the early 20s and may extend to the 40s)
Young adults focus on
• Maintaining one’s individuality
• Making friends
• Relationships and intimacy
7-Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation: Middle adulthood (40-60 years)
o Age of;
• Creativity
• Productivity
• Concern about guiding and helping the next generation
• Concern for others or self-indulgence
• Impoverishment of self
8-Ego Integrity vs. despair: Old age
• The person develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived.
• Importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan
• Comes to terms with approaching death.
• Some sort of despair is inevitable.

LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT• A psychologist __ born in Bronxville New York.
• Served as a professor at Harvard University.
• Started as a developmental psychologist in the early 1970s and became famous for his later ork in moral education and moral reasoning.
• His theory emphasizes on how moral reasoning develops in stages___ similar with the theory of piaget's cognitive development.
• Like Piaget, Kohlberg believed that development is flourished by social interaction.
• Moral education can be taught in formal education by confronting people with moral dilemmas that evoke/ arise cognitive conflicts.
• According to Kohlberg, discussion over these dilemmas promotes development, which further helps in higher stages of moral reasoning __ showing benefits of the higher stages of reasoning.
He and others formulated dilemmas for this purpose.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Moral reasoning, which Kohlberg thought is the basis for ethical behavior, has developmental stages. There are six identifiable stages of moral development. These stages can be classified into three levels.
Stages of Moral Development
Level 1
i. Obedience and Punishment Orientation
ii. Self- interest orientation
Level 2
i. Interpersonal accords
ii. Conformity (good boy/Good girl attitude)
iii. Authority
iv. Social order orientation (law and order morality)
Level 3
i. Social contract orientation
ii. Universal ethical principles (principled conscience)
Levels of Moral Development
a. Pre-Conventional
o Common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning.
o Judging the morality of an action by its direct consequences.
o Pre-conventional level is divided into two stages:
• Stage One: Obedience and punishment orientation
• Stage two: self-interest orientation
o In stage one, individuals focus on the direct consequences that their actions will result into. They see and analyze as to what actions are morally wrong and, if the person commits them, gets punishment for it.
o In stage two, right behavior is what is defined as, ‘what is in one's own best interest’. Limited or little interest is shown about other’s needs.
o Concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect.
b. Conventional
o Can easily be seen in adults and older children.
o Persons, who reason in a conventional way, judge the morality of actions by comparing these actions to social rules norms, standards, and expectations.
o The conventional level is divided into two further stages:
• Stage three: conformity orientation
• Stage four: law-and-order morality
o Individual, whose moral reasoning is in stage three, seeks approval from others. Tries to be a ‘good boy’ or ‘good girl’, having learned that there is inherent value in doing so.
o Judging the morality of an action by evaluating its consequences.
o In stage four, individual thinks that it is important to obey the laws and social conventions because it is important in maintaining society and thus does not require approval which is important in stage three.
c. Post-Conventional
o The post-conventional level is divided into two stages;
• Stage five: social contract orientation
• Stage six: principled conscience
o In stage five, people have certain principles or beliefs to which they may attach more value than laws e.g. human rights or social justice.
o In the sixth and final stage, moral reasoning is based on the use of ‘abstract reasoning’ using ‘universal ethical principles’.
o Although Kohlberg insisted that sixth stage exists but he had difficulty finding people who used it. It appears that people rarely use it, if, ever they reach this sixth stage of Kohlberg's model.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM

Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The brain and its constituent parts are the most complex system ever known. With one trillion separate cells, each one in a continuous process of changing in response to chemical signals. From the moment of conception to the moment of death, the biology of the individual is changing. It is in this complexity that our species has found the capability to store the accumulated experience of thousands of generations – to create human culture. Our language, religions, governments, childrearing practices, technologies, economies are all man-made; yet all depend upon the remarkable capacity of the brain to make internal representations of the external world.
Biological Bases of Behavior• The Nervous System
• Endocrine Glands
The Nervous system
• The system that controls and regulates the structure and function of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and the nerve cells; it maintains coordination between the nervous system and the rest of the bodily systems.
• It is responsible for the internal communication system that ensures the integrated functioning of the various systems.
Some Interesting Facts about the Nervous system
• The nervous system consists of billions of highly specialized nerve cells called neurons.
• Nerve impulse is an electrical impulse that travels along the nerves at a speed of around 400km/ hour.
• Every second, a number of these impulses can pass along nerves.
• Brain cells never re grow; once destroyed or dead, they can not be replaced.
• Nerve fibers are very thin and fine in size; a hundred of them lying side by side would fit into just 1mm.
• The brain is divided into two visible parts or hemispheres; the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body, and the right controls the left side.
• The total surface area of the cerebral cortex is approximately 2.5sq.ft. if you spread it flat.
NEURON
A nervous system cell is constituted in such a way that it is specialized in receiving, processing, and/or transmitting information to other cells.
Structure of a Neuron• Dendrites: Receivers of incoming signals; branch fibers extending outward from the cell body.
• Soma: The cell body containing the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the cell; cytoplasm keeps it alive.
• Axon: The nerve impulses travel from the soma to the terminal buttons through the extended fiber of a neuron i.e., axon.
• Terminal Buttons: Swollen, bulblike structures at one end of the axon; the neuron stimulates the nearby glands, muscles, or other neurons Connection between nerve cells
• Synapse: the gap between one neuron and the other.
• Synaptic Transmission: the procedure through which information is relayed from one neuron to another across the synaptic gap.
• Neurotransmitters: The post synaptic neuron is stimulated by the chemical messages released from neurons; they cross the synapse from one neuron to another.
The Chemical Messages• The neurons follow an all-or-none law…. either a neuron will be firing or resting /off.
• Excitatory Message: The chemical message that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will fire and the action potential will travel down its axon.
• Inhibitory Message: The chemical message that inhibits a receiving neuron from firing so that the action potential does not travel down its axon.
Major Varieties of Neurons
• Sensory Neurons (afferent): they carry messages toward the Central Nervous System from the sensory receptor cells.
• Motor Neurons (efferent): they carry messages away from the Central Nervous System toward the muscles and glands.
• Inter-Neurons: they relay messages from sensory neurons to other inter-neurons and/or to motor neurons.

MAIN PARTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM• The Peripheral Nervous System
• The Central Nervous System
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
• Brain receives the information from all over the body (primarily in terms of stimulation via sensation), interprets it, and decides how to respond.
• The brain’s function is similar to that of a computer; there is a central processing unit (CPU), the output comes in, and the CPU analyses it and responds to it.
The Brain
• The center of the nervous system.
• The vital organ that is responsible for the functions of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, thinking, feeling, remembering, speaking, dreaming, information processing, and a lot more.
• The regulator of basic survival functions such as breathing, resting and feeding.
• It is responsible for abstract level functions such as decision making, foresight, and problem solving.
• The spinal cord is an information highway connecting the PNS to the brain.
• Information travels to and from the brain by way of spinal cord.
Functions of the Various Structures of the Brain
• Regulation of the internal systems
• Reproduction
• Sensation
• Motion
• Adaptation to the varying environmental demands
Structure of Brain• The deeply grooved structure lies safely and securely in our skull.
• The average adult human brain weighs 1.3 to 1.4 kg (approx. 3 pounds).
• If you look at it from the outside the brain is pinkish gray in color; soft, spongy, and mottled.
• The brain contains billions of nerve cells (neurons) and trillions of "support cells".
Parts of the Brain
The brain is made of three main parts:
a. Fore brain
b. Mid brain
c. Hind brain
Fore Brain
i. Cerebrum
ii. Thalamus
iii. Hypothalamus
iv. Limbic system
Mid Brain
i. Tectum
ii. Tegmentum
iii. Reticular formation
iv. Substantia nigra
Hind Brain
i. Cerebellum
ii. Pons
iii. Medulla oblongata
Brain Stem and Cerebellum
Located underneath the limbic system the brain stem, containing four structures, is found in all vertebrates.
It contains four structures:
1. Medulla
2. Pons
3. Reticular formation
4. Thalamus
o Responsible for basic survival functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure.
1. Medulla/ Medulla Oblongata• Located at the top of the spinal cord and continuous with it.
• Damage to Medulla can be fatal as it is the center responsible for vital functions i.e., respiration, heart beat, and blood pressure.
• Contains ascending & descending tracts that communicate between the spinal cord & various parts of the brain.
• At medulla, nerves ascending from the body and descending from the brain cross over; hence the left side of the body is connected to the right side of the brain and vice versa.
• Contains 3 vital centers:
1-Cardio inhibitory center: regulates heart rate.
2-Respiratory center: regulates the basic rhythm of breathing.
3-Vasomotor center: regulates the diameter of blood vessels.
2. Pons
Pons = Latin word for bridge
• Bridge connecting spinal cord with brain and parts of brain with each other.
• The pons seems to serve as a relay station carrying signals from various parts of the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum.
• Nerve impulses coming from the eyes, ears and touch receptors are sent on the cerebellum.
• The pons also participates in the reflexes that regulate breathing.
• It has parts that are important for the level of consciousness and for sleep.
3. Reticular Formation• The reticular formation is a region running through the middle of the hindbrain and into the midbrain.
• A dense network of nerve cells.
• It keeps the brain alert even during sleep.
• It makes the cerebral cortex attend to new stimulation by arousing it.
• Long fibrous tracts of reticular formation run into the thalamus.
• Needed for arousal from sleep & to maintain consciousness.
• Serious damage to reticular formation may result into a coma.
4. Thalamus
The pair of egg-shaped structures located at the top of the brainstem.
• Incoming sensory information is channeled to the appropriate area of the cerebral cortex by thalamus, so that it is processed there.
• Thalamus acts like a relay station…. the brain’s sensory switchboard; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
• It receives information from the sensory neurons and routes it to the higher brain regions that deal with vision, audition, taste and touch.
Cerebellum
• "Cerebellum" comes from the Latin word for "little brain”. The cerebellum is located behind the brain stem.
• Cerebellum is somehow similar to the cerebral cortex: the cerebellum is divided into hemispheres and has a cortex that surrounds these hemispheres.
• It carries 10% of the weight of the brain.
• It contains as many neurons as in the rest of the brain.
• Its function is to coordinate body movements i.e. coordination, maintenance of posture & balance.
• Damage to cerebellum results into jerky and uncoordinated body movements.
LIMBIC SYSTEM• Evolutionarily the structure of limbic system is rather old.
• The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum.
• At the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres it is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures; associated with emotions e.g. fear and aggression, and drives like hunger and sex; regulates body temperature, blood sugar level and blood pressure.
Structures within the Limbic System
i. Hippocampus
ii. Amygdala
iii. Hypothalamus
Amygdala• Two almond-shaped neural clusters in the limbic system that are linked with emotions.
• They are related with aggression and fear.
Hippocampus• The hippocampus is the part of the limbic system that is important for memory and learning.
Hypothalamus• One of the smallest structures in the brain.
• The neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; Composed of several nuclei. Small bundles of neurons that regulate physiological processes involved in motivated behavior e.g. hunger, thirst, regulation of body temperature.
• Hypothalamus acts as the body’s Thermostat.
• Helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
• Is linked to emotions.
Homeostasis
Hypothalamus maintains the body’s internal equilibrium e.g. looking for food when energy levels are low, causing constriction of the blood vessels when body temperature falls.
Cerebrum• Largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain functions such as thought and action..
• Occupies 2/3 of the brain’s total mass
• Consists of two symmetrical halves or hemispheres; The right cerebral hemisphere controls the left side of the body and vice versa.
• The hemispheres are connected by Corpus Callosum, a thick mass of nerve fibers.
• Cerebrum regulates the brain’s higher cognitive and emotional functions.
Cerebral Cortex
o Coming from the Latin word for "bark”, cortex means covering, or sheath; the cortex is a sheet of tissue making up the outer layer of the brain.
o About 1/10 of an inch in thickness, the cortex is composed of some 30 billion nerve cells and 300 trillion synaptic connections.
o It is the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center.
o The cerebral cortex is greatly convoluted in humans. These convolutions include:
1. Sulci (singular Sulcus) i.e. small grooves.
2. Gyri (singular Gyrus) i.e. large grooves also called “Fissures”.
Grey matter
• Cerebral cortex mostly consists of glia (glial cells), cell bodies, dendrites and
interconnecting neurons; they give the cerebral cortex a grayish brown appearance, commonly known as ‘Grey Matter”.
White Matter
• Beneath the cerebral cortex lie millions of axons that connect the neurons of the cerebral cortex to those located elsewhere in the brain.
• The large myelin gives tissue an opaque white appearance known as “White Matter”.
Cerebral Lobes
a. Frontal lobe
b. Parietal lobe
c. Temporal lobe
d. Occipital lobe
• Each lobe controls a different range of activities.
• Each hemisphere is vertically divided by the central sulcus, a groove.
• The lateral fissure, another groove divides each hemisphere horizontally.
a. Frontal lobe
Associated with motor control and cognitive activities; reasoning, planning, decision making, problem solving, movement and speech (Broca’s Area).
b. Parietal lobe
Associated with controlling incoming sensory information; thus affecting movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli.
c. Temporal lobe
Associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory & speech.
Wernicke’s area: concerned with the understanding of language is located here
d. Occipital lobe
Associated with visual processing.
Cranium
The brain is enclosed in the cavity of skull or cranium consisting of eight hard bones; One frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, one occipital bone, one sphenoid bone, and one ethmoid bone.
Membranes of the Brain
• Between the surfaces of the brain and the skull, there are three layers of membrane called the meanings, which completely cover the brain and spinal cord.
• These three membranes are:
1. Dura Matter
2. Arachnoid
3. Pia Matter
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)• The subarachnoid space contains a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear, colorless fluid covering the entire surface of central nervous system.
• The total volume of CSF is 125-150 ml.
• Total production of CSF is about 400-500 ml/day (about 0.36ml/min).
Association Areas
• Areas in the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor and sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking.
• Association areas in the Frontal Lobes are concerned with judging and planning;
• Damage may lead to intact memory but inability to plan out something. Personality
• may also be affected.
• Association areas of other lobes are related to other mental functions; i.e. Temporal Lobe enables us to recognize faces; damage to this area causes inability to identify people (although facial features can be described), and gender and approximate age too.
• Association areas in the posterior lobes are involved in perception and memory. Damage leads to difficulty in perceiving speech.
Spinal Cord
• Continuation of the Medulla Oblongata.
• The spinal cord is about 45 cm long in men and 43 cm long in women and weighs about 35-40 grams.
• The vertebral column (back bone), encapsulating the spinal cord, is about 70 cm long comprising vertebra in the vertebral column.
• The spinal cord is much shorter than the vertebral column.
• Signals arising in the motor areas of the brain travel back down the cord and leave in the motor neurons.
• The spinal cord also acts as a minor coordinating center responsible for some simple reflexes like the withdrawal reflex.
Reflex - rapid (and unconscious) response to changes in the internal or external environment, needed to maintain homeostasis
Reflex arc: the neural pathway over which impulses travel during a reflex. The components of a reflex arc include:
1. Receptor - responds to the stimulus
2. Afferent pathway -- sensory neuron
3. Central Nervous System

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
Consists of the spinal and cranial nerves; these connect the CNS to the rest of the body. PNS connects the body’s sensory receptors to the CNS, and the CNS to the muscles and glands.
The part of the nervous system that includes all parts of the nervous system except the brain and the spinal cord
• Includes:
i. Somatic Division / Somatic Nervous System/ SNS
ii. Autonomic division / Autonomic Nervous System/ ANS
Parts of Peripheral Nervous System
PNS has two important parts
1. Skeletal/Somatic Nervous System
• Controls the voluntary movements of our skeletal muscles.
• It reports the current state of skeletal muscles and carries instructions back.
• Controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.
• Controls the involuntary movements all over the body; movements of the heart, lungs, stomach, glands and other organs.
2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
• Considered as the “self governing or self-regulatory mechanism” because of its involuntary operation.
• Controls the glands and muscles of internal organs e.g. heart, stomach, and glandular activity.
• A.N.S. has a dual function; i.e. both arousing and calming.
• Comprises two sub systems; Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
a. Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
• This part of ANS arouses us for defensive action…. fight or flight.
• If something alarms, endangers, excites, or enrages a person, the sympathetic nervous system accelerates heart beat, slows digestion, raises the sugar level in blood, dilates the arteries and cools the body through perspiration; makes one alert and ready for action.
b. Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)
When the stressful situation subsides, parasympathetic nervous system begins its activity.
• It produces an effect opposite to that of sympathetic nervous system.
• It conserves energy by decreasing heart beat, lowering blood pressure, lowering blood sugar and so on. In daily life situations, both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work together to keep us in steady internal state maintaining the homeostasis.
Studying the Structure and Function of the Brain
• Electroencephalogram (EEG): recording of the electrical signals being transmitted within the brain, through electrodes attached to the skull.
• Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT): a computer constructs an image of the brain by combining thousands of separate X-rays taken from slightly different angles.
• Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): the scan produces a powerful magnetic field to provide a computer generated, detailed image of the structure of the brain.
• Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID): a scan sensitive to minute changes in the magnetic field occurring when neurons are firing.
• Positron Emission Tomography (PET): a scan showing biochemical activity within the brain at any given moment.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Endocrine system is a collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate body's growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function. The hormones are released into the bloodstream and transported to tissues and organs throughout the body.
Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered throughout the body, they are still considered to be one system because they have similar functions, similar mechanisms of influence, and many important interrelationships.
• Endocrine glands are known as the “Managers of Human Body”.
• Endocrine system is the system in which a number of glands secrets numerous hormones directly into the blood stream which regulate:
o Body’s growth
o Metabolism
o Sexual development and functions, and
o Other vital functions of the body
o Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream.
o Hormones act as chemical messenger controlling various functions, reaching to the tissues and other vital organs of the body.
Pineal Gland
• The pineal gland, also known as pineal body, is found in the brain stem.
• It is small and cone-shaped in structure
Main function:
O Affects reproductive development
O Daily physiologic/ biological cycles
Pituitary Gland
Size and shape
It is a small gland__ diameter of about 1 centimeter or size of a pea.
Location
• It is connected with the hypothalamus by a slender stalk and also surrounded by bone.
• Secretes a number of different hormones that influence/affect various other endocrine glands.
• There are two distinguishable regions in the gland that have different secretions and functions:
a. The anterior lobe
b. The posterior lobe
a. Hormones of Anterior Lobe
Growth Hormone: Protein that regulates and also stimulates the:
• Growth of bones,
• Muscles, and other organs of the body by promoting protein synthesis.
The effect of this hormone is important and very much apparent because it affects height.
Growth Hormonal Problems
Dwarfism
If there is very little or no secretion of this hormone in a child, then the child may become a pituitary dwarf__ small in stature.
Gigantism
• If there is too much secretion of this hormone in the body, then there is exaggerated bone growth in a person and the person become exceptionally tall or a giant.
• This rare condition is usually caused by a pituitary tumor and can be treated by removing the tumor.
• When the pituitary gland fails to produce adequate amounts of growth hormone, a child's growth in height is impaired/ disturbed.
• Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) may also occur in children who have deficiency of this growth hormone __ affects particularly infants and young children with this condition.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone: Affects the glandular cells of the thyroid so that it secretes thyroid hormone. The thyroid gland become enlarged and secretes too much thyroid hormone if there is hyper secretion of thyroid- stimulating hormone.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone: Cortical hormones especially cortisol are secreted when it reacts with the receptor cells in the cortex of the adrenal gland.
Gonadotropic hormones: Regulate the development, growth, and function of gonads and ovaries by reacting along with receptor cells present in these organs.
Prolactin Hormone: Helps in promoting the development of glandular tissues in the female breasts during pregnancy and as a result stimulates milk production after the birth of the infant.
b. Hormones of the Posterior Lobe
These hormones are:
i. Antidiuretic hormone
• Helps in the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules__ as a result of which less amount of water is lost from the body as urine.
• This system/ mechanism conserve water for the body.
ii. Oxytocin
• Helps in the contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the uterus.
• It also stimulates the ejection of milk from the lactating breast.
3. Hypothalamus
• Part of the central nervous system that is involved in controlling and activating involuntary functions of the body such as,
• Hormonal system
• Other body functions as well__ regulating sleep and stimulating appetite

THYROID GLAND
Type, Location and Lobes• Very vascular organ and is located in the neck.
• Consists of two parts/ lobes, one on each side of the trachea, just below the larynx or voice box.
• These two lobes are connected by a narrow band of tissue, called the ‘isthmus’.
• This gland consists of follicles, which produce thyroxin and triiodothyronine hormones.
• These hormones contain iodine--- about 95% of most functioning hormone is thyroxin and the remaining 5% is triiodothyronine__ both require iodine for their synthesis.
• Secretion is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism.
Calcitonin
• Secreted by Para follicular cells of the thyroid gland.
• Opposes the action of the parathyroid glands by reducing the calcium level in the blood.
• If calcium level in the blood becomes too high, calcitonin is secreted until calcium ion levels decreases to normal.
Iodine Deficiency
• Thyroid enlargement is called “goiter” or “iodine deficiency goiter”.
• If there is a deficiency of iodine in the body, then thyroid produce insufficient hormones required by the body__ causing the thyroid- stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland (anterior lobe) to secrete its hormone. This results in the increase in size of the thyroid gland but it is unable to make enough hormones, because it is lacking the raw material for production i.e. iodine.
Parathyroid Gland
Location, Type, Amount, Hormone
• Parathyroid gland consists of four small masses of epithelial tissue that are embedded in the connective tissue capsule, on the posterior side of the thyroid glands.
• Secretes ‘parathyroid hormone’ or ‘parathormone’.
• Most important regulator of blood calcium levels, secreted in response to low blood calcium levels, and its function is to increase calcium levels in the body.
Deficiency/ insufficient secretion of parathyroid gland
• Insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone ‘hypoparathyroidisms’, leads to increased nerve excitability.
• Low blood calcium level in the body triggers spontaneous and continuous nerve impulses, which in turn stimulate muscle contraction.

Pancreas--- Islets of Langerhans• A long, soft organ that lies transversely along the posterior abdominal wall, posterior to the stomach, and extends from the region of the duodenum to the spleen. a. Exocrine portion of this hormone secretes digestive enzymes that are carried by a duct to the duodenum
B. The endocrine portion consists of the pancreatic islets, and
C. secretes glucagons and insulin.
Alpha Cells in Pancreatic Islets
Secrete hormone called ‘glucagons’ when there is a low concentration of glucose in the blood.
Beta Cells in the Pancreatic Islets
After the alpha cells, beta cells secrete hormone called ‘insulin’ as a result of high concentration of glucose in the blood.

ADRENAL GLAND

Synthesis and Location
• Developed from different embryonic tissues, it secretes various hormones.
• The adrenal/ suprarenal is a paired gland and located near the upper portion of each kidney.
Division of Adrenal Gland
Each gland is divided into two parts
a. An outer cortex and
b. An inner medulla
• The cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland are just like the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland.
• The adrenal cortex is essential to life because it has very important functions to perform, but the medulla may be removed with no life-threatening effects.
• Hypothalamus effects and influences both portions of the adrenal gland but it involves different mechanisms i.e. adrenal cortex is regulated by negative feedback which involves hypothalamus and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
• Medulla is regulated by nerve impulses of hypothalamus.
Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
• The adrenal cortex consists of three different portions/ regions, each region produce different type of hormones.
• Chemically, all these cortical hormones are steroid.
a. Mineral corticoids
• Secreted by the outermost region of the adrenal cortex.
• The main/ principal hormone of mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, which acts to store/ conserve sodium ions and water in the body.
b. Glucocorticoids
• Secreted by the middle region of the adrenal cortex.
• The main/ principal hormone of glucocorticoid is cortisol, which increases blood glucose/ sugar level in the body.
c. Gonadocorticoids
• Also known as the sex hormones.
• These are secreted by the innermost region of the adrenal cortex.
• Adrenal cortex hormones, androgens (male hormones) and estrogens (female hormones), are secreted in minimal amounts in both sexes, but their effect is usually influenced by the hormones from the testes and ovaries.
• In females, the masculinization effect may become more evident after menopause. This occurs because the estrogen levels from the ovaries decrease.
Hormones of Adrenal Medulla
• Develops from neural tissues.
• Secretes two types of hormones,
o Epinephrine and
o Nor epinephrine
• These are secreted in response to stimulation by sympathetic nerve, especially during stressful situations.
• Lack of hormones from the adrenal medulla produces no significant effects,
• Hyper secretion, e.g., in case of a tumor, results in prolonged or continual sympathetic responses.
Gonads• Primary reproductive organs are testes in the male and the ovaries in the female.
• These organs are responsible for producing the sperm and ova, but they also secrete other hormones, and that is why they are considered to be endocrine glands.
Testes• Male sex hormones (as groups) are called androgens of which the most important and influential is ‘testosterone’; secreted by the testes.
• Small amount is also produced by the adrenal cortex.
• Production of testosterone begins before birth. i.e. during fetal development that continues for a short time after birth, nearly ceases during childhood, and then resumes at puberty.
• This steroid hormone is responsible for:
O The growth and development of the male reproductive organs.
O Increase in the size of skeleton and muscular growth.
O Larynx enlargement, accompanied by voice changes.
O Growth and distribution of body hair.
O Increased male sexual drive.
O It’s secretion is controlled and regulated by a negative feedback system and involves release of hormones from the hypothalamus and gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary.
Ovaries• Two groups of female sex hormones are produced in the ovaries i.e.
o Estrogens and
o Progesterone
Contribute to the development and function of the female reproductive organs and sex characteristics
i. Estrogen
Estrogen (on the onset of puberty) activates/ promotes:
o Development of female bodily characteristics.
o Distribution of fats in the body.
o Maturation of reproductive organs .
ii. Progesterone: causes the uterine lining to become thick, preparing uterus for pregnancy.
• Together both progesterone and estrogen are responsible for a number of changes occurring in the uterus.
Other Endocrine Glands
• In addition to the major endocrine glands and their system, there are various other organs, which are involved, in some hormonal activity or function. These include:
i. Thymus
ii. Stomach
iii. Small intestines
iv. Heart, and
v. Placenta
i. Thymosin
Hormone produced by the thymus gland, which has an important role in the development of the body's immune system.
ii. Gastrin
• Gastric mucosa (lining of the stomach) produces a hormone, called gastrin that is secreted when the food is present in the stomach.
• Stimulates the production of ‘hydrochloric acid’ and the enzyme ‘pepsin’, which are involved in the digestion of food.
iii. Secretin and Cholecystokinin: The mucosa of the small intestine secretes these hormones.
• Secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce a neutralizing agent__ bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes the stomach acid.
Cholecystokinin
• Stimulates contraction of the gallbladder, which result in the releases of bile.
• Also activate the pancreas to secrete digestive enzyme.
• Atrial Natriiuretic Hormone, or Atriopeptin
• Heart also function as an endocrine organ
• In addition to its major role of pumping blood, has special cells in the wall of the upper chambers of the heart ‘atria’, secretes hormone called atrial natriiuretic hormone, or atriopeptin.
Placenta
Develops in the pregnant female
It is a source of nourishment and gaseous exchange for the developing fetus
Also serves as a temporary endocrine gland
Chorionic gonadotropin: One hormone that placenta secretes in human beings.
DISEASES RESULTING FROM ABNORMAL SECRETION OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS• Too much or too less secretions of endocrine glands can be harmful for the body.
• These secretions can be treated by controlling the over production, providing the essentials for production, or replacing hormones.
• Some of such abnormalities are:
DIABETES
Type 1 Diabetes
• Develops when pancreas fails to produce enough insulin.
• Symptoms include excessive:
O Thirst
O Hunger
O Urination, and
O weight loss
• In children and teens, the condition is usually an ‘autoimmune disorder”___ specific immune system cells and antibodies produced by the child's immune system that attack and destroy the cells of the pancreas that produces insulin.
• Can cause long-term complications such as:
O Kidney problems
O Nerve damage
O Blindness
O And early coronary heart disease and stroke
Treatment
In order to control blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of developing diabetes complications, children with this condition need regular injections of insulin
Type 2 diabetes
In this, the body is unable to respond to insulin normally, like in type 1 diabetes
• Children and teens with this condition are overweight.
• It is also believed that excess body fat plays a role in the insulin resistance that characterizes the disease.
• In recent years the rising prevalence of this type of diabetes in children played a crucial role in increasing rates of obesity among children and teens. The symptoms and possible complications of type 2 are the same as those of type 1.
Some children and teens can control their blood sugar level with:
O Dietary changes
O Exercise
O Oral medications
O But many have need to take insulin injections like patients with type 1 diabetes.
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PERSONALITY
Definition of Personality
Personality can be defined and understood in a number of ways:
• Personality is the sum total of characteristics on the basis of which people can be differentiated from each other.
• Personality is the stability in a person’s behavior across different situations.
• It can also be seen as the characteristic ways in which people behave.
• Personality consists of characteristics that are relatively enduring, and that make us behave in a consistent and predictable way.
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY• Also known as approaches to personality
• These are the approaches to understanding the “WHAT”, “HOW”, and “WHEN” of characteristics and features that make up an individual’s personality.
[COLOR="seagreen"]1. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH[/COLOR]
Approach that focuses upon the unconscious determinants of personality i.e., psychologists belonging to this approach believe that unconscious forces determine our personality.
Unconscious
• The part of personality, which we are not aware of.
• Unconscious contains instinctual drives:
• Infantile wishes,
• Desires,
• Demands, and
• Needs
These instinctual drives are hidden in the unconscious, and do not surface at the conscious level. At the same time the person seeks satisfaction and fulfillment of these drives, as they can be a source of pleasure and satisfaction.
Why are these drives hidden then?
Because they can cause conflict and pain if they became an obvious or overt part of our lives. Therefore, they are pushed into the depths of our unconscious.
Sigmund Freud, the most influential figure in the history of psychology, founded psychodynamic Approach. According to this approach the basis of motivation and behavior lies in inner forces: forces that are predetermined…forces over which humans have little control. Which the person is not aware of i.e., these are the unconscious determinants of behavior.
Significance of Psychodynamic Approach
It was the most influential theory of the 20th century.
• It affected psychology and related disciplines in a revolutionary manner.
• It gave an entirely new perspective to the understanding of behavior and mental processes, as well as mental illness.
• It was the first theory to raise the awareness that not all behavior is rational, well thought of, and planned.
• Besides giving an impressive, broad based, therapeutic approach, it provided a basis for understanding everyday life phenomena e.g. interpersonal relationships, aggression, and prejudice.
• Many other approaches built their paradigms on this approach, some by refining it, some by deviating from it.
Foundations of Psychodynamic Approach
Psychic Determinism
All behavior is determined i.e., it has a cause that lies in the mind/psyche.
Role of Unconscious
A significant part of our behavior is generated by unconscious forces.
Structure of Consciousness
Conscious
Contains thoughts and feelings which one is immediately aware of
Subconscious
Mind level below the level of conscious awareness
Preconscious
Part of the sub conscious that can be accessed by deliberate choice.
Unconscious
Part of the sub conscious that cannot be accessed directly, although impulses, ideas, and feelings may permeate out through other sources e.g. dreams, slips of tongue etc.
Dreams in Freudian Approach
Dreams reflect unconscious needs, desires, and impulses.
Symbolism
• Dreams have two levels or types of content: manifest content and latent content.
• The manifest content is in a symbolic form, converted into this form by the ‘dream censor, a mechanism that ensures that sleep is not disturbed by unconscious desires, and those desires are presented in a socially acceptable form.
Psychodynamic Model of Personality
The structure of personality consists of Id. Ego, and super ego.
ID
The source of basic drives; operates under the ‘pleasure principle’ i.e., wants immediate gratification of needs.
EGO
Mediates the link of the self with the outside world, the ‘ real world’, as well as between the id and superego; ego operates under the “reality principle’ or the demands of the environment.
SUPER EGO
• Governed by the moral constraints
• Opposes the id and represents the moral
• Demands of the family and society; it is the ‘ moral self’ or the ‘conscience’ of a person.
Oedipal Conflict and Electra complex
Oedipal conflict
(Also known as Oedipus complex). During the phallic stage, the male child begins to develop love and positive feelings for the mother: whereas negative feelings for the father since he is seen as a rival. But as the father is seen as too strong and powerful, the child fears retaliation and ultimately begins to develop ‘identification’ with the father.
Electra complex
The female child feels the same way toward the father, as the male felt for mother in Oedipal conflict, but ultimately chooses ‘identification’ with the mother.
Anxiety
• An emotional state experienced as a result of felt threat to the self.
• Anxiety arises when ego cannot cope too much of:
• Demands of the id,
• Demands of the ego,
• External danger
• In order to protect itself against anxiety and threat, ego uses defense mechanism.
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
Ego defense system that may be distorting reality. A number of defense mechanisms may be used by us for coping with anxiety:
I. Repression
Blocking unpleasant/ unacceptable thoughts by pushing them into the unconscious e.g. forgetting events of the painful childhood.
ii. Regression
Reverting back to a stage that was satisfying e.g. a boss showing temper tantrums like a child; or acting like a baby.
iii. Displacement
Redirecting the expression of unwanted desires or impulses to a substitute rather than the actual target e.g. beating children when a wife cannot express anger toward husband
iv. Rationalization
In order to justify one’s behavior, one develops a socially acceptable explanation or reasoning e.g. going for a second marriage saying that the first wife was quarrelsome.
v. Denial
Refusing to acknowledge or accept anxiety provoking thoughts or impulses e.g. being a heavy smoker but saying ‘I am an occasional smoker’.
vi. Projection
Attributing one’s unwanted thoughts and impulses to others e.g. a person takes bribe and blames the organization for paying him not enough salary.
vii. Sublimation
Converting unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings and actions e.g. disliking the in-laws but behaving in a very friendly manner, or becoming a stamp collector to overcome the impulse to steal
Criticism against Freudian Psychodynamic Theory
1. There is no scientific proof that many psychodynamic constructs, e.g. unconscious, exist.
2. Psychic Determinism: Freudian approach is deterministic and leaves not much room for conscious, rational, decision making or personal will to act.
3. It emphasizes the early childhood experiences too much.
4. It ignores the external variables and the environment.
5. Mostly criticized for its interpretation of the relationship between the two genders.
6. The therapy based upon this theory is too time consuming and therefore expensive.

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH AFTER FREUD

THE NEO FREUDIAN
The theorists who belonged to the Freudian school and supported it, but later digressed on some issues and differed from Freud
Basis of Neo-Freudian’s disagreement with Freud
• Their emphasis on the functions of ego, and the control that it had over routine-life activities.
• The impact of social variables.
• Their emphasis on the role of society and culture on personality development.
• Freud’s idea of the primary importance of sexual urges.
The neo-Freudians emphasized, more than Freud, the following:
1. The role of current social environment.
2. Life experiences have a continuing influence and childhood alone should not be of prime importance.
3. Positive interpersonal relations of love, and social motivation have a significant role.
4. Ego functioning is more significant rather than id.
5. Development of self-concept is important.
6. Self-esteem is important. Significant neo Freudians
CARL GUSTAV JUNG
The founder of the analytical school of psychology, Jung was mystical in his understanding and description of personality. He had a positive approach toward one’s ability to control one’s destiny.
Jung’s disagreements with Freud
He disagreed with Fred on:
• The understanding and description of the genders.
• The nature of unconscious.
Major Goal of Life
Unification of all aspect of our personality:
Main concepts
Conscious and Unconscious
Introversion (inner directed), extroverted (outer directed).
Libido
Energy for personal growth and development
Types of Unconscious
Personal: Similar to Freudian view
Collective: ideas, and influences beyond personal experience, inherited from all generations of our ancestors and common to all humanity.
Archetypes
Part of collective unconscious; universal forms and patterns of thought. These include themes that can be seen in myths e.g. masculinity, femininity, good, evil opposites, motherhood. Archetypes are the universal representations of a particular person, object, or experience, e.g. archetypes of mother, good, or evil.
ADLER’S APPROACH
Disagreed with Freud’s emphasis on the significance of sexual needs
Main concepts: Esteem, inferiority complex, birth order, will to power and style of life.
i. We are a product of the social influences on our personality.
ii. Goals and incentives drive us more than drives and instincts.
iii. Our goal in life is to achieve success and superiority.
Primary human motivation
• Striving for superiority; achievement of self-improvement, and perfection, and not superiority over others.
• Inferiority complex, on the other hand, is the state when people feel that they have not been able to conquer, as adults, the feelings of inferiority that they developed as children.
• Inferiority complex: the feeling of being less able than others.
Motivating Forces of Human Life
i. Feeling of inferiority, and a desire to overcome it through striving for superiority.
ii. People are primarily motivated to overcome inherent feelings of inferiority.
Birth Order
Has effect on personality.
Sibling Rivalry
KAREN HORNEY 1885-1952
She agreed with Freud on the levels of unconscious, anxiety, and repression. She emphasized childhood experiences, social interaction and personal growth.
Disagreement with Freud
Differed from Freud on primary impulses; impulses are not the main motivating force Disagreed on Freudian position regarding the biological basis of differences between the males and females.
Horney’s Main Concepts
Basic Anxiety
A major concept: if the environment is hostile and the child feels lonely and isolated, then this type of anxiety develops. It can be overcome by proper parental nurturing
Basic Hostility
Children develop such hostility if parents are over strict, punishing, indifferent, or inconsistent.
Children feel very aggressive and hostile but cannot express it. Repressed hostility leads to anxiety.
Social Interaction and Interpersonal Styles
The ways in which people interact with each other is important. There can be three consequences:
•Moving away from others: seeking self-sufficiency and independence.
•Moving toward others: being compliant and dependant.
•Moving against others: trying to gain control, power, and independence.
Neuroses Arise from emotional conflicts that arise from childhood experiences, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships in later life
ERIK ERICKSON’S THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT• Student and follower of Sigmund Freud.
• Broke with his teacher over the fundamental view of what motivates/ drives human behavior.
• For Freud, it was ‘biology’ or more specifically the biological instincts of life and aggression (Eros and Thanatos)
• For Erikson, the most important force that drives human behavior and which helps in the development of personality was “social interaction”
• His developmental theory of the "Eight Stages of Man" (Erikson, 1950) was unique and different in the sense that it covered the entire lifespan rather than ‘childhood’ and ‘adolescent development’
• He believed that social environment combined with biological maturation results in a set of "crises" that must be resolved
• The individual passes through the “sensitive period" in different stages, which has to be resolved successfully before a new crisis is presented. The results of the resolution, whether successful or not, passed on to the next crisis and provide the foundation for its resolution
• He proposed eight stages of psychosocial development that have been discussed in detail in the section on cognitive development.
2. TRAIT APPROACHES• Approaches that propose that there are certain traits that form the basis of an individual’s personality.
• These approaches seek to identify the basic traits necessary to describe and understand personality.
Traits
• Enduring dimensions of personality characteristics that differentiate a person from others.
• Trait theories do not imply the absence or presence of different traits in different people i.e., either/or situation. These do not say that if one trait exists the other does not.
• These theories assume that some people are relatively high on some traits whereas, some are low on the same traits.
• The difference in people in terms of these traits is a matter of degree or extent to which the traits exist and manifest them. Some people have more of one trait and less of other ones.
• The degree to which a trait is present can be quantified e.g. “depression” is a tendency found in people; some have it more and some less
• Similarly “friendliness”; some are more friendly and some less
• The point to remember is that all traits may exist in all but these vary in the degree of impact
ALLPORTS’ TRAIT THEORY• After skimming an unabridged dictionary, Gordon Allport identified 18000 separate terms that could be used to describe personality.
• After eliminating synonyms he came up with a list of 4500 descriptions
But the important question was that: WHAT WERE THE MOST BASIC TRAITS?
Allports’ Basic Traits Categories
There are three classic categories of traits:
• Cardinal traits
• Central traits
• Secondary traits
Cardinal Traits
• A single personality trait directing most of the person’s behaviors and activities e.g. affection, affiliation, kindness, greed.
• The person’s whole life, or behavior, is influenced by this trait. A person who served the poor and the weak all his life may have a very high degree of “kindness” or “nurturance”.
•Or a person who likes to hoard things, people, and wealth may be ruled by a high degree of “greed”, or perhaps “inferiority”.
Central Traits
• Do all people possess cardinal traits that encompass all aspects of their being?
• PERHAPS NOT!!!
• Most people develop a group or set of traits rather than a single one, that form the core of their personality.
• Central traits are those major characteristics that make up the core of someone’s personality.
• Central traits usually number from 5- 10 in a person. e.g., affection, love for humanity, and nurturance will form one type of personality.
• Inferiority, need for control, and greed may give a different shape to personality.
Trait Theories Based Upon Factor Analysis
A number of trait theories are based upon factor analysis.
Factor analysis: a statistical method whereby relationships between a large number of variables are summarized into fewer patterns. These patterns are more general in nature... The extensive list is
For example: A researcher prepares a list of traits that people may like in an ideal man then administered to a large number of people, who are asked to choose traits that may describe an ideal man.
Through the factor analysis, the responses are statistically combined and the traits associated with one another in the same set (or person) are computed. Thus the most fundamental patterns are identified. These patterns are called factors.
Psychologists Raymond B Cattell, and Hans Eysenck presented trait theories based upon factor analysis

RAYMOND CATTELL’S SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTORS
After using factor analysis Cattell proposed that two types of characteristics form our personality:
• Surface traits, and
• Source traits
Surface traits
• Cattell’s factor analysis showed that there are 46 surface traits or clusters of related behavior.
• These traits are the characteristics that we can observe in a given situation.
• The frequently quoted example in this regard is that of a friendly, gregarious librarian, who is so helpful that he might go out of his way to help you; as a result of your interaction with him it can be decided that he possesses the trait of sociability.
His sociability is a surface trait in Cattell’s terms.
• BUT surface traits may not necessarily represent the traits that actually underlie the personality of a person; Surface traits are what we directly observe, and these are based upon our perceptions and representations of personality. These may not be the true descriptions of the actual underlying dimensions of someone’s personality.
• The characteristics that form the actual roots and basis of all behavior may be different, and fewer in number.
Source Traits
• In order to go beyond the surface traits, Cattell carried out further factor analysis.
• He could identify 16 traits that that represent basic dimensions of personality.
• He called these traits, source traits.

EYSENCK’S DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY
According to Eysenck, personality can be understood and described in terms of just two major dimensions:
• Introversion-extroversion,
• Neuroticism-stability.
On the first dimension, people can be rated ranging from introverts to extroverts: the rest of the traits fall in between.
The second dimension is independent of the first one, and ranges from being neurotic to being stable.
Introversion-extroversion
Introvert; Quiet, passive, and careful people.
Extroverts; Outgoing, sociable, and active people.
Neuroticism-stability
Neurotics; Moody, touchy, and anxious people. Stable, Calm, carefree, and even-tempered people
Eysenck evaluated a number of people along these dimensions. Using the information thus obtained, he could accurately predict people’s behavior in a variety of situations.
The Recent Approach to Understanding Personality Traits The “Big Five”:
Five broad trait factors lie at the core of personality:
1. Surgency: Extroversion and sociability
2. Neuroticism: Emotional stability
3. Intellect
4. Agreeableness
5. Conscientiousness
3. LEARNING APPROACHES TO PERSONALIT• Approaches that focus upon the “observable” person rather than the inner dives, instincts, motives, thoughts, or traits.
• For the learning theorists:
Personality is the aggregate of a person’s learned responses to the external environment.
• Variables considered most important by the learning theorist are the features of a person’s environment.
Learning approaches are primarily based upon the principles of:
• Classical Conditioning
• Operant Conditioning
• Cognitive Learning
B. F. SKINNER’S APPROACH• Personality is a collection of learned behavioral patterns.
• Patterns of reinforcement that have been received in various situations in the past cause similarities in responses across different situations, when same or similar situations are encountered.
• For example a student tries to make a good presentation every time he has to present because he has been receiving positive reinforcement for good presentations in the past…not because of an inborn drive or a trait of being a hard working or industrious person. Similarly, a person who
is never aggressive may be so because he was always punished for aggressiveness and rewarded for being polite.
For learning theorists
• Consistencies in behavior across different situations are not as important as the strategies for modifying behavior are.
Learning theorists are more optimistic in their approach, as compared to the psychodynamic theorists; they believe in the potential for change, and do not believe in the passivity of psychic determinism.

4. SOCIAL COGNITIVE APPROACH TO PERSONALITY• The approaches that lay emphasis upon the role of people’s cognitions in determining their personalities.
• Cognitions include: people’s thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values.
• These approaches consider the “inner” variables to be important in determining one’s personality.
These approaches emphasize the reciprocity between individuals and their environment.
There exists a web of reciprocity, consisting of the interaction of environment and people’s behavior. Our environment affects our behavior, and our behavior in turn influences our environment and causes modifications in the environment. The modified environment in turn, affects our behavior.
ALBERT BANDURA
According to him, we possess the ability to foresee the probable consequences of certain of our behaviors in a given setting, without actually having carried out those behaviors or actually being in those settings. This so happens primarily as a result of “observational learning” i.e., having seen the outcomes of others (models) performing the same behaviors in same or similar situations.
For example, this is how we learn to be aggressive, sociable, or industrious.
Bandura also emphasized
Self-efficacy, and
Reciprocal determinism
Self-efficacy
• Self-efficacy consists of learned expectations that one is capable of performing a certain behavior, or producing a desired outcome.
• Self-efficacy is the underlying variable in people’s faith in their ability to carry out a particular behavior.
• The higher the sense of self-efficacy in a person the greater will be the persistence in his behavior, and also the greater will be the likelihood of his success.
Reciprocal Determinism
• According to Bandura, the key to understanding behavior lies in reciprocal determinism.
• We can understand the personality and behavior of a person by understanding the interaction between the environment, behavior, and the individual; and how this interaction causes people to behave in the manner they do.
• Environment affects behavior and the behavior in turn affects the environmental factors.
For example
• A woman likes to make friends. She gets an opportunity to make friends at parties. She in turn arranges parties herself and invites people she likes, or those she thinks are potential friends.
Her desire for finding friends is satisfied as a result, at the same time she becomes confident that she can achieve what she wants by working on it. This causes persistence in her behavior.
5. Humanistic approach to Personality
• The humanistic approach stresses that people possess a basic goodness, and have a natural tendency to grow to higher levels of functioning.
• They have a conscious, self-motivated ability to change and improve.
• The basic goodness, and the natural tendency to grow, along with their unique creative impulses form the core of personality.
CARL ROGERS• All people required loving and respecting. This is a universal phenomenon that is reflected in their need for positive regard.
• This love and regard comes to us from other people. When other people provide for this basic need, we become dependent on them. We begin to rely on others’ values and evaluate and judge ourselves through the eyes of others.
Self-concept and conflicts
• Our self-concept and others’ opinions are related.
• At times there may be discrepancies or conflicts between our self-concept (self-impression) and our actual experiences.
• Minor discrepancies lead to minor problems, whereas deeper conflicts lead to psychological disturbances in daily functioning e.g. frequent obsessions or anxiety.
Unconditional positive regard
• A person’s conflicts can be resolved if he receives unconditional positive regard from another person.
• Unconditional positive regard means an attitude of total acceptance and respect from another person without any conditions. No matter what you say or do, the person accepts it.
• As a result of this acceptance, a person gets an opportunity to evolve and grow cognitively as well as emotionally, and to develop a more realistic self-concept.
Self-actualization
• According to the humanistic approach, self-actualization is the ultimate goal of personality growth (see Rogers and Maslow).
• Self-actualization is a state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their optimal potential.
• Self-actualization occurs when our everyday life experiences and our self-concept match closely.
• Self-actualized people accept themselves the way they are in reality. This enables them to achieve happiness and a feeling of fulfillment.
6. Biological Approaches to Personality
• Approaches that emphasize the significance of biological variables and inherited personality
Characteristics
• These approaches propose that important components that constitute our personality are inherited or genetically determined e.g. temperament.
Temperament
• Temperament is one of the main ingredients of personality.
• Temperament is the basic, innate disposition that emerges early in life.
• Even very young infants show signs of different dispositions e.g. some smile, some frown even when otherwise at ease, some are irritable, some calm, some shy, and some restless.
• Such behaviors persist and at an early stage in their life the children are labeled as stubborn, shy, restless etc.
Inhibited children
• According to Jerome Kagan children who are unusually fearful of the sight of unfamiliar adults, and fret when confronted with unfamiliar objects or new settings are the inhibited children.
• Such children are labeled as “shy’ by their parents and teachers by the age of 3-4 years.
• They are consistently shy and emotionally restrained and noticeably quite in unfamiliar situations.
• They constitute around 10% of all children.
There are biological differences between the inhibited and uninhibited children:
• At age 5 muscle tensions (especially in the vocal cords and the larynx) is higher in inhibited children.
• They differ in the heart beat pattern too. They experience more of rapid resting heartbeat. In case of confronting a new situation their heart beat increases more.
• Hormonal differences and variations in the excitability of the limbic system of the brain have also been seen to be different in the two groups.
Kagan concluded that these differences can be explained in terms of an inborn characteristic of the inhibited children i.e., their greater physiological reactivity.
Twin studies supporting the genetic argument
• A number of studies on twins reared together and reared apart have supported the biological approach to understanding personality.
• Study by Auke Telegen and colleagues (1988):

ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY
1. Interview
2. Observation and behavioral assessment
3. Psychological tests
4. Self-report measures
5. Projective tests
1-Interview
• Interview refers to direct face-to-face encounter and interaction.
• Verbal as well as non-verbal information is available to the psychologist.
• Interviews are usually used to supplement information gathered through other sources.
• Skill of the interviewer is very important since the worth and utility of the interview depends on how well he can draw relevant information from the interviewee.
2-Behavioral Assessment
•Direct observation measure for studying and describing personality characteristics.
3-Psychological Tests•In order to objectively assess personality and behavior standard measures are devised. These measures are called psychological tests.
•Psychological tests have to be valid and reliable. Besides they need to be based on norms.
4-Self- report measures
• Measures wherein the subjects are asked questions about a sample of their behavior. These are paper and pencil tools or tests.

MMPI (Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory)•The most frequently used personality test. It was initially developed to identify people having specific sorts of psychological difficulties. But it can predict a variety of other behaviors too.
•It can identify problems and tendencies like Depression, Hysteria, Paranoia, and Schizophrenia for example.
•At the same time it has been used to predict if college students will marry within 10 years, and whether the will get an advanced degree.
5-PROJECTIVE TESTS/ TECHNIQUES
Tests in which the subject is first shown an ambiguous stimulus and then he has to describe it or tell a story about it
The most famous and frequently used projective tests are:
i. Rorschach test, and
ii. TAT or Thematic Apperception Test
1-Rorschach test
The test consists of Inkblot presses. These have no definite shape.
The shapes are symmetrical, and are presented to the subject on separate cards.
Some cards are black and white and some colored.
Procedure of Rorschach administration
The subject is shown the stimulus card and then asked as to what the figures represent to them?
The responses are recorded.
Using a complex set of clinical judgments, the subjects are classified into different personality types.
The skill and the clinical judgment of the psychologist or the examiner are very important.
2-Thematic Apperception Test/ TAT
A series of ambiguous pictures is shown to the subject, who has to write a story. This story is considered as a reflection of the subject’s personality.
The subject is asked to describe whatever is happening in it just like forming a story.
The subject has to tell what is happening in the scene, what the antecedent conditions were, who the characters are, what are their thoughts and wishes, and what is going to happen next.
In short the subject describes the past, present and future along with the description of characters and their thinking and motivation.
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PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

Psychological illness, psychological disorders, or mental illness are referred to as psychopathology.
•The term is used to describe abnormal behavior.
Psychopathology is the area of study in psychology that primarily focuses upon the origin, development and manifestation of behavioral and mental disorders.
Abnormal psychology is that branch of psychology that studies, describes, explains, and identifies abnormal behavior.
•The observable behavior and mental experiences of an individual may be indicative of a mental or psychological disorder. The overt behavior and other experiences provide cues to the development of mental or psychological disorders.
•Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists treat mental disorders.
•Besides, they are also interested in studying and conducting research on the nature and role of the events that cause these disorders e.g. past history of a person and other variables that contribute to mental illness.
DEFINING ABNORMALITY
What is abnormal behavior?
Abnormality can be defined in a number of ways.
People identify, understand and explain abnormality according to their past experience, common information, cultural tradition, societal attitude, and/or professional knowledge. Definitions of Abnormal
Behavior
1. Statistical definition
People deviating from the norm are considered “abnormal”.
•BUT what if majority of people indulge into erratic behavior?
•What about the creative artists who did not go along the norm?
2. Abnormality as deviation from “Ideal” Ideal refers to the standard toward which most people strive.
• Abnormality, according to this definition, is not striving toward the ideal.
• BUT what about those for whom the ‘ideal’ is not the ‘ideal’?
• For example a student who is a very good painter and does not want to pursue conventional education.
3. A Sense of Personal Discomfort Seen As Abnormality
• A person is seen as abnormal if his thoughts and behavior are a source of discomfort for him.
• Discomfort can be in the form of anxiety, distress, or guilt.
4. Inability to function effectively
• People, who cannot function and perform as effectively as they ought to, are seen as abnormal.
• This definition includes adjusting, and adapting to the social requirements.
5. The Legal Definition of Abnormality
• Laws in different countries define abnormality according to their legal standards.
• It is primarily needed for differentiating sanity from insanity.
• Abnormality may be viewed as not being able to foresee and understand the consequences of the criminal act.
• Or it can be taken as inability to control one’s own thoughts and behaviors.
• Or it can be the ability to see right as different from wrong.
Perspectives on Abnormality
• Approaches to studying, describing, and understanding, explaining, and predicting abnormality.
• These approaches affect the way a mental patient will be treated.
PERSPECTIVES OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR
1. MEDICAL PERSPECTIVE
• Psychological problems are caused by physiological factors.
• These can be the biological processes and systems, genetic factors, the nervous system and the neurotransmitters, hormonal changes, or external variables affecting the biology of a person.
2. PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE• Childhood experiences are the root cause of mental disorders.
• Unconscious determinants are significant.
3. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE• Abnormal behavior is learned.
• Abnormality is a learned response.
• It results from our interaction with the external world.
4. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE• The factors causing mental disorders are a person’s cognitions, thoughts, and beliefs.
5. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE• People’s need to self-actualize, and their responsibility for their own actions, play a central role in abnormality behavior.
6. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE• The social milieu in which one lives, the family and the people around, the society, and the culture at large are of primary importance in the onset, and later treatment, of mental illness

CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL DISORDERS• Kraepelin gave the first classification system of mental disorders.
• A number of classification systems followed afterwards.
• The purpose was to assist the clinicians diagnose mental disorders, as well as to determine the extent of the problem.
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS• DSM- IV- TR
• ICD
DSM-IV-TR
• Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders is the classification system compiled by the American Psychiatric Association.
• This is the most widely used classification system all over the world.
ICD: INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION• For decades, mental health professionals in Western Europe and a major part of the world used this classification system.
• The World Health Organization developed ICD.
• ICD is a comprehensive classification system of all kinds of diseases, including psychological or psychiatric illnesses.
• For a number of years ICD9 remained a popular diagnostic system.
• Research, in the last more than a decade, reflected that the revised and improved versions of
DSM had an edge over ICD in many respects.
• Besides, there were no major differences as such in the two systems.
• Also, the need for a single universally accepted system was intensely felt.
• Therefore today DSM-IV-TR is recognized as a universally accepted diagnostic system.

DSM-IV-TR• The first DSM was published in 1917.
• It originated from a project of the American Medico-Psychological Association, now known as American psychiatric Association and United States Bureau of the Census.
• In order to collect uniform data on hospitalized mental patients, they developed a list of 59 mental illnesses.
• The list was further expanded with the publication of the first DSM in 1952.
• The first DSM included a list of 106 mental illnesses.
• DSM-II was published in 1968.
• DSM-III was published in 1980.
• DSM-III-R was published in 1987.
• DSM-IV was published in 1994.
• DSM-IV was developed after a special 27-member task force of experts worked for five years.
• More than 1000 psychiatrists contributed and advised in deciding about the diseases and other information to be included in DSM-IV.
• DSM-IV-TR was published in 2000.
DSM-IV-TR contains definitions of more than 200 mental disorders.
These disorders are organized into 17 major categories.
MULTI AXIAL SYSTEM OF DSM-IV-TR• DSM-IV-R also contains five axes, or five types of information, that have to be considered in the diagnosis of a patient.
Axes of DSM-IV-TR
• Axis I: Clinical disorders
• Axis II: Long standing problems that are frequently overlooked in the presence of disorders listed in axis mental retardation, personality disorder & I.
• Axis III: General medical conditions that may be relevant to a psychological disorder.
• Axis IV: Psychosocial or environmental problems that a person is facing.
• These problems may affect the diagnosis, treatment, or the course of the mental disorder.
• Axis V: Global Assessment Of Functioning.
MAJOR CATEGORIES OF DISORDERS IN DSM-IV-TR
1. Anxiety disorders
2. Somatoform disorders
3. Dissociative disorders
4. Mood disorders
5. Schizophrenia
6. Personality disorders
7. Sexual disorders
8. Substance-related disorders
9. Delirium, dementia, amnesia, and other cognitive disorders.
ANXIETY DISORDERS• Disorders in which anxiety becomes an impediment in a person’s routine functioning.
• Anxiety is a reaction to real or imagined threat that may hamper the daily functioning and results in uneasiness, worry, and apprehension.
• In anxiety disorders, anxiety occurs without an obvious external cause, to an extent that it affects routine functioning of the person.
•Stress is the part of daily routine in a person’s life but the reactions to stress vary from individual to individual.
•Anxiety is one of the various reactions to stress.
•Whether or not one will develop anxiety, and to what extent, will depend on the nature of stress faced, family history, and fatigue or over work, and the person’s coping strategies.
Major symptoms of stress include
• Sleeplessness
• Headaches
• Twitching and trembling
• Dry mouth
• Memory problems
• Nightmares
• Irritability
• Fatigue
• Sweating
• Muscle tension
• Insomnia
Common causes are
• Imagined threat
• Grief
• Physical or emotional stress
• Use of drugs
• Withdrawal from drugs.

SUBCATEGORIES OF ANXIETY DISORDERS• Generalized anxiety disorder
• Panic disorder
• Phobic disorder
• Obsessive compulsive disorder
• Post- traumatic stress disorder
Treatment can be done through
• Finding the actual cause of anxiety.
• Avoid becoming dependent on mood altering drugs.
• Avoid stimulants such as caffeine, nicotine, alcohol etc.
• Biofeedback and relaxation therapy.
• Aerobic exercises.
• Avoid the effects that have been produced due to anxiety, if anxiety is cured, the other symptoms will be resolved automatically.
1- GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDERS
• The disorder marked by long-term, persistent, anxiety and worry.
• It refers to the long- term anxiety in which there is continual and exaggerated state within the person due to which he/ she is continually tense, apprehensive and in automatic nervous system arousal.
• Chronic form of anxiety disorders.
Causes include
• Hereditary causes,
• Or this disorder begins at very early age and the revealing of the symptoms is gradual not burst.
Treatment involves
• Medications and use of psychotherapy,
• Exposure therapy,
• Behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy.
Symptoms involve
• People with this disorder are unable to relax,
• Insomnia
• Trembling,
• Muscle tension,
• Head aches, sweating,
• Twitching,
• Trembling,
• Feel tiredness,
• Depression etc.
2- PANIC DISORDER• Disorder in which anxiety is manifested in the form of panic attacks lasting from a few seconds to many hours.
• Panic attacks are unpredictable; resulting from vague anxiety and that may accompany physiological manifestations.
Symptoms include
• Dizziness and/or fainting
• Sweating
• Trembling
• Palpitation
• Nausea
• Choking
• Fear of dying
• Fear of being out of control
• Skin blushing or flushing
• Chest pain and discomfort
• Sleep disturbances
• Agitation
• Facial paralysis etc.
Causes involve
• Use of drugs and stimulants.
• As a result of some incident or risk factor.
• The exact cause of panic attacks is still not known; may result due to temporal dysfunction of the brain or may have been learnt through past experiences.
• More frequent in women than men.
Prognosis: The disorder is difficult to treat and long- lasting as well, but behavioral therapies and use of drugs can minimize the symptoms.
3- PHOBIAS
Phobias are the particular, persistent, irrational and intense paralyzing fear of some objects and situations that they are unable to explain and overcome; and that may occur without any actual cause.
Symptoms include
• Perspiration
• Frustration,
• Rapid heart beat
• Headaches etc.
Causes of Phobias may include:
• Result of some traumatic event or disaster
• Hereditary component,
• Prevalent equally in men and women,
• Anxiety,
• Panic attacks.
Treatment of Phobias includes
• Use of behavior therapy especially behavioral- modification therapy.
• Procedure of systematic desensitization is used.
• Biofeedback is also helpful.
4- OBSESSIVE- COMPULSIVE DISORDER
Obsession is an unwanted, recurrent and persistent thought that continuously recurs, and that can be intrusive and inappropriate
A compulsion is the uncontrollable urge to perform an apparently strange and unreasonable act repeatedly.
Symptoms include
• Distress,
• Frustration,
• Anxiety etc
Causes include:
• Risk factor,
• Stereotype behaviors,
• Brain abnormalities,
• Unpleasant thoughts,
• Some incident etc.
Prognosis: It is a chronic illness in which total removal of symptoms is not possible, but improvement through medication and therapy is possible

2. SOMATOFORM DISORDERS

A disorder in which psychological problems take the physical (somatic) form without any apparent physical cause; a state where there are physical symptoms present but no medical cause.
Symptoms include
• Blurred vision,
• Dizziness,
• Vomiting,
• Difficulty in swallowing etc
There are two types of somatoform disorders.
1) Hypochondriasis
2) Conversion disorders
1. Hypochondriasis
Type of somatoform disorder in which the person experiences a persistent fear of illness, and is preoccupied by health concerns even minor pains and aches may be interpreted as a symptom of some serious disease.
Symptoms involve
• In this disorder doctor shopping is very frequent.
• Sympathy may exaggerate these complaints.
• Patient undergoes surgery and regularly takes medication.
• Patient focuses closely on normal physiological states such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, palpitations etc; patient interprets it as some severe disease.
• Minor health problems may become severe as a result of persistent stress and discomfort
2. Conversion Disorders
Disorder in which the person undergoes an actual, genuine and specific, physical problem and disturbance, the problem has a purely psychological reason and there is no biological cause involved. The problem manifests itself suddenly, without any prior indication.
Unexplainable neurological symptoms appear at once when no testable cause is present.
Symptoms include
• Partial blindness.
• Loss of voluntary control over motor and sensory functions.
• Inability to hear and talk.
• Sudden display of emotions: and at times there is no emotion.
• Symptoms may be exaggerated by stress.
The sufferers frequently do not show a natural concern about the symptoms.
Causes include
• Hereditary component and observational learning.
• A state of severe stress
• People who have other organic problems may develop conversion disorder
• A prior knowledge of the disease and symptoms is there.

3. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER
A disorder in which critical personality facets, that is normally integrated and working together, become separate.
This allows stress avoidance and anxiety reduction by way of escape.
The person uses defense mechanisms for avoiding stress and to deal with traumatic experiences
At a time, two or more personalities, may exist within the person
Symptoms include
1. Auditory or visual illusion,
2. Feeling of confusion and disorientation,
3. Severe anxiety attacks,
4. Suicidal attempts,
5. Inflicting self-injuries
Causes involves
•High state of stress
Treatment includes
•Psychotherapy
•Self- induced trance
•Minimize stress
TYPES OF DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER
1- Dissociative Amnesia
A state when a selective loss of memory occurs.
The person is unable to recall specific events often as a result of extreme stress.
Significant memory loss occurs about personal information that is not due to an organic cause.
This disorder vanishes abruptly as it begins and rarely re-occurs.
2- Dissociative Fugue:
Fugue means, “Flight”
Fugue is a form of amnesia.
The sufferer takes sudden impulsive trips, at times assuming a new identity.
Dissociative fugue includes forgetting as well as fleeing from one’s home for days and weeks, also being unable to remember one’s identity.
Unconscious wandering in which the person has limited social contacts.
In some instances, person may take over another personality that is more sociable than the previous one.
3- Dissociative identity disorder/Multiple personality• Rare disorder in which the person may take over two or more personalities that are entirely different from one another
• The first one is usually restrained, restricted and dull but the other one is entirely different from the previous one; one’s mannerisms, vocal, movements are entirely different from one another

4. MOOD DISORDERS
Psychological and affective disturbances characterized by emotional extremes that are enough to produce troubles in daily living
The emotional response is disturbed and so strong that it disturbs everyday living.
Mood disorders mainly include:
1. Major depression
2. Mania
3. Bipolar disorder
I. Major Depression
Previously known as “melancholia”
Major depression is a severe form of depression.
Common form of mood disorders
A disorder characterized by lack of concentration, decision- making, sociability, withdrawal from others,
and a feeling of worthlessness and inadequacy.
Depression is labeled as depressive disorder when it persists for long and hampers daily life.
Symptoms include
1. Concentration problems,
2. Irritability and restlessness,
3. Persistent sadness, anxious and empty mood
4. Fatigue,
5. Appetite changes
6. Feeling of agitation
7. Sleep disturbances
8. Hopelessness and pessimism
9. Loss of interest in activities, which are pleasurable
10. Suicidal thoughts.
Causes include
1. Hereditary cause,
2. Stress,
3. Chemical imbalances in the brain; the sufferer however has the belief that it is a medical illness rather than a psychological one
4. Most commonly occurs in people with low self- esteem
5. Women are twice as likely to develop major depression as men.
6. Learning experiences may contribute to the development of depression
7. Serious loss in business or some other disaster,
8. Relationship problems, financial setbacks etc
Treatment includes
Use of medication,
Psychotherapy,
Behavioral therapy
2. Mania
Mania is the opposite state of depression.
It is an extended state of intense wild elation.
iii. Bipolar Disorder:
• Bipolar disorder is a combination of depression and mania.
• The sufferer alternates between periods of extreme euphoria and elation i.e., mania, and bouts of
depression.
• Side Effects of Mood Disorders
• The height of elation may lead to high creative output, although it does not ensure high quality of
the creative output.
• The manics are often reckless and end up with self-injury.
Causes
Psychodynamic explanation: Feeling of loss that can be real or potential.
Hereditary factor: These disorders appear to be running in families.
The role of neurotransmitters: Serotonin and nor epinephrine have been found to be related to these
disorders.
Alterations in the level of these chemicals have a role to play in mood disorders
Behavioral explanation: Lack of, or reduction in, positive reinforcement leads to mood disorders.
Cognitive explanation: the sufferers of depression believe that they are life’s losers; they are failures,
inadequate, and not meant to be the ‘winners’ in life. They have a pessimistic view of life.
Evolutionary psychology explanation: Considering the impact of the genetic factors, it states that depression is an adaptive response to unattainable goals.

5. SCHIZOPHRENIA
Schizophrenia is a category of mental disorders marked by severe distortion of reality.
• There is a deep division between the real world and the schizophrenic’s world.
• What makes schizophrenia different from other disorders?
• Significant decline from a previous level of functioning.
• Disturbances of thought and language
Symptoms in Schizophrenia
Delusions,
Hallucinations,
Emotional disturbances, Withdrawal
Delusions
Unshakable, firm, and deeply believed in beliefs are held by the schizophrenic.
Delusions can be about one’s being grand, or being persecuted by others, or others planning against him, or one’s thoughts being relayed to others who are out of physical reach.
Hallucinations and Perceptual Disorders
The schizophrenic has sensory experiences that ordinary people do not have.
They may hear voices, see people or objects, and/or smell things that others find to be non-existent.
The hallucinations mean reality to the schizophrenic.
Hallucinations are usually based on the delusions.
The sense of own body is also affected in schizophrenia.
Emotional Disturbances
Overall the schizophrenics show a flat, blank, and bland emotional response.
Also, their emotional responses are inappropriate.
Withdrawal
Schizophrenics live in an isolated world of their own.
Schizophrenics withdraw from others.
They avoid socializing.
They are not interested in others.
In extreme cases they are oblivious of the presence of others.
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
1. Disorganized or hebephrenic type
Marked by inappropriate emotion: inappropriate giggling, laughter, silliness, incoherent speech, infantile behavior, and strange and at times obscene behavior.
2. Paranoid Schizophrenia
• The patient experiences delusions and hallucinations of his own greatness.
• Behavior is unpredictable, and erratic.
• Sense of judgment is lost.
3. Catatonic Schizophrenia
• Catatonic schizophrenia is marked by disturbances in the motor activity and muscular control.
• Major disturbances occur in movement.
• At times all motion stops and the patient just freezes in one position.
• This frozen posture may last for hours and even days.
• In some phases the patient exhibits wild, free floating, and even violent movement.
4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
This variety of schizophrenia involves a combination of the major symptoms found in other varieties.
This diagnosis is used when patients do not fit into any one of the major categories of schizophrenia.
5. Residual Schizophrenia
Residual schizophrenia consists of minor signs of schizophrenia after a major, more serious, episode.
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Dear Sarfarz its a wonderful job done it would have took a lot of time.
I would be requiring your help regarding paper II of psycology.
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mr mayo its very good effort. im getting inspiration from u.
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