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Old Saturday, December 30, 2006
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Default Marketing- as a motive of social change

Off course Marketing has been playing a vital role (someone action in the particular situation) in order to change the social life of the human being. As the time passed the social life of a common man is change with the change of its needs and basic requirements i.e. Bread & Butter, Shelter, Clothes etc. Social Change: • Change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behavior or the social relations of the society, community of people, or other social structures.

• Acts of advocacy for the cause of changing society in a normative way (Subjective).

The term is used in the study of history, economies and politics, and includes topics such as the success or failure of different political systems, globalization, democratization, development and economic growth. The term can encompass concepts as broad as revolution and paradigm shift, to narrow changes such as a particular cause within small town government.

Social change could be:

• Slow, gradual, incremental, and evolutionary; in this it might be barely noticeable.
• Fast, radical, sudden and revolutionary; it might even take people by surprise.
• Wide in scope, affecting almost all people in a society.
• Limited in scope, affecting only a small number of people.

Social Marketing Ad Campaigns Examples of Social Marketing Ads:
Social Marketing utilizes commercial marketing techniques to create advertising that promotes the adoption of healthy behavior changes and social justice issues.

Social Norms and Social Marketing

What are Social Norms and Social Marketing?

Social Norms are people's beliefs about the attitudes and behaviors that are normal, acceptable, or even expected in a particular social context. In many situations, people's perception of these norms will greatly influence their behavior.

Therefore, when people misperceive the norms of their group - that is, when they inaccurately think an attitude or behaviors is more (or less) common than is actually the case - they may choose to engage in behaviors that are in sync with those false norms. For example, many studies have shown that college students overestimate how much their peers drink. Prevention experts have argued that this misperception of the norm drives greater alcohol consumption.
Environmental management is a comprehensive prevention approach, which is grounded in the principle that student decisions about AOD use are shaped by the physical, social, economic, and legal environment in which that behavior occurs. The environment can be shaped by committed prevention advocates, higher education and government officials, and others. Environmental management articulates the need to broaden prevention approaches beyond traditional educational programs to include a range of strategies for changing the campus and community environment.

Student perceptions of drinking norms are part of that campus environment and correcting student misperceptions about their peers' drinking is an important part of ensuring that inaccurate perceptions about the environment are not negatively influencing student behavior. A growing body of evidence suggests that providing information to students about accurate drinking norms is associated with decreased drinking on campus.

One method frequently used to correct misperceptions is "Social Marketing," a method of using mass marketing techniques to disseminate information. When college conduct marketing campaigns to correct misperceptions of social norms, these campaigns are referred to as "social norms marketing" campaigns.

Prevention and Wellness Services defines Social Marketing as the use of commercial marketing techniques to promote health and wellness to the individual and to the community as a whole. This is used on WWU's campus to advertise services, promote outreach programs, and influence health behaviors of Western's students. Examples of social marketing campaigns include: tobacco cessation, stress management, fitness tips; advertising for HIV testing, sexual health education, and free self healthcare; and promotion of rubber wear parties, Tea Time, Western Men Against Violence, and Women's Empowerment and Violence Education.

Social Marketing

Social marketing is the planning and implementation of programs designed to bring about social change using concepts from commercial marketing.

Among the important marketing concepts are:

• The ultimate objective of marketing is to influence action;
• Action is undertaken whenever target audiences believe that the benefits they receive will be greater than the costs they incur;
• Programs to influence action will be more effective if they are based on an understanding of the target audience's own perceptions of the proposed exchange;
• Target audiences are seldom uniform in their perceptions and/or likely responses to marketing efforts and so should be partitioned into segments;
• Marketing efforts must incorporate all of the "4 Ps," i.e.:
o Create an enticing "Product" (i.e., the package of benefits associated with the desired action);
o Minimize the "Price" the target audience believes it must pay in the exchange;
o Make the exchange and its opportunities available in "Places" that reach the audience and fit its lifestyles;
o Promote the exchange opportunity with creativity and through channels and tactics that maximize desired responses;
• Recommended behaviors always have competition which must be understood and addressed;
• The marketplace is constantly changing and so program effects must be regularly monitored and management must be prepared to rapidly alter strategies and tactics.
These key concepts can be abbreviated as follows:

Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing concepts and techniques to target populations to achieve the goal of positive social change. Social marketing began as a formal discipline in 1971, with the publication of the first edition of Social Marketing by marketing experts Philip Kotler and Eduardo L. Roberto. Speaking of what they termed "social change campaigns," Kotler and Roberto introduced the subject by writing, “A social change campaign is an organized effort conducted by one group (the change agent) which attempts to persuade others (the target adopters) to accept, modify, or abandon certain ideas, attitudes, practices or behavior." Their 1989 text was updated in 2002 by Philip Kotler, Ned Roberto and Nancy Lee.

Differences between Social and Commercial Marketing

Although social marketing is sometimes seen as the simple utilization of standard commercial marketing practices to unorthodox (because non-commercial) goals, this can be an over-simplification. It is true that monetary profit for the organization sponsoring the effort may not necessarily be a prime goal. Government sponsorship of public health initiatives, though maintaining an awareness of budget concerns, may not aim at commercial returns at all. But commercial returns may be a central aim, if the sponsor of the marketing effort is a non-profit organization intending to raise funds.

Also, whereas commercial marketing often aims at a comparatively simple influence over its target market, social marketing goals can be far more subtle and complex. A commercial marketer selling a product may only seek to influence a buyer to make a product purchase. Social marketers, dealing with goals such as reducing cigarette smoking or encouraging condom usage, have more difficult goals: to make potentially difficult and long-term behavioral change in target populations.

It is sometimes felt that social marketing is restricted to a particular spectrum of client -- the non-profit organization, the health services group, the government agency. Indeed, these often are the clients of social marketing agencies, but the goal of inducing social change is not restricted to governmental or non-profit charitable organizations; it may be argued that corporate public relations efforts such as funding for the arts are an example of social marketing.

Applications of social marketing:


Health promotion campaigns in the late 1980s started to apply social marketing in practice. Notable early developments took place in Australia. These included the Victoria Cancer Council developing its anti-tobacco campaign "Quit" (1988), and "SunSmart" (1988), its campaign against skin cancer which had the slogan Slip! Slap! Slop!.

Dancesafe followed the ideas of social marketing in its communication practices.
On a wider front, by 2004, Government in the United Kingdom announced the development of its first social marketing strategy for all aspects of health. Social marketing confusion
In 2006, Jupiter Media announced its "Social Marketing" service, with which it aims to enable website owners to profit from social media despite protests from the social marketing communities over the hijacking of the term, Jupiter decided to stick with the name. However, Jupiter's approach is more correctly (and commonly) referred to as
Social Marketing: Social Marketing: Improving the Quality Of life

Social marketing into a step-by-step process so that anyone can plan and execute an effective social marketing campaign. Actual cases and research efforts richly support each of the eight steps in the process. Included in the text are more than 25 in-depth cases, about 100 examples of social marketing campaigns, and ten research highlights to represent the scope of research methodologies. The appendix includes worksheets for each step to complete a marketing plan for students and practitioners. The methodologies in this text have been classroom tested and refined by students who prepared marketing campaigns using this eight step planning process. "As this book attests, social marketing is an extremely powerful set of concepts and tools that can accomplish much to relieve the pain and suffering of populations around the world and to address social problems that have their roots in undesirable behaviors. We are fortunate to have some of the best thinkers and writers in our field -- such as represented in this volume -- committed to making this happen." --From the Foreword" Alan R. Andresen," Georgetown University "This second edition of "Social Marketing "pulls it all together -- new science and new practice. Hopefully, this will become the standard on which we can all build a solid future for tomorrow's programs of social change."

Last edited by Xeric; Friday, May 15, 2009 at 08:24 PM.
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Old Saturday, December 30, 2006
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That topic may connected with Group A `Accounting & Auditing` optional paper.

Perfect competion is psycology which is directly connected with Producer and ultimate customers.

thanks

Last edited by Aarwaa; Saturday, April 19, 2008 at 11:35 PM.
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