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Main areas affected by corruption in defence and security are:

personnel and manpower management;
budgeting and financial management, procurement, offset arrangements;
outsourcing, privatisation, public-private partnerships;
utilisation of surplus equipment and infrastructure;
military operations, and the involvement of defence personnel and assets in economic activities[8]
Additionally, Transparency International (TI) identifies a political dimension of the security sector that is prone to corruption. In this sense, security policies; the nexus between defence and national assets; control of intelligence services and other planning and policy procedures, such as a National Security Strategy, can potentially become a source for corruption when conducted with no regard to legal boundaries.[9]

Corruption affects all levels of security and defence personnel and can take the form of: theft, extortion, bribery, and influence networks. Factors such as: lack of transparency (secrecy culture), operational urgency, lack of oversight mechanisms and absence of adequate rules and regulations can create an atmosphere prone to corrupt deviation of financial and other resources. In this context, whistle-blowers play a crucial role in signalling infractions. Oversight committees, ombuds institutions and inspectors are essential in combatting corruption. Their presence alone exercises a preventive effect. Parliament, the ministry of defence and other ministries, civil society, media and academia can all play an important role in fighting corruption. Additionally, international organisations and other states can provide guidance, best practices and international standards.
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