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Geography (Total Marks - 200)

PAPER - I (Marks- 100)


  1. Elements of Weather and Climate
    Insolation and Atmospheric Temperature. Global Radiation and Heat Balance. Atmospheric Pressure and Winds. Humidity and Precipitation. Air Masses. Fronts and Atmospheric Disturbances. Classification of Climate and Climatic Regions.

  2. Landforms
    Major landforms, Rocks : origin, formation and classification. Internal Structure of the Earth. Earth quakes and Volcancity. Weathering. Mass Wasting. Erosion and Deposition. Cycle of Erosion. Landforms produced by Underground and Ground Water. Wind and Glaciers.

  3. Oceans
    Continental Margins and the Sea Floor. Distribution of Temperature and Salinity. Movements of the Ocean Water: Waves. Currents and Tides.

  4. Study of Maps
    Types of maps: Topographical Maps, Aerial Photographs. Weather Maps. Map Projections: classification and choice of projections. Merits and Demerits of Cylindrical. Conical and Zenithal Projections. Diagrams. graphs and Distribution Maps based on Statistical Data.

(Marks- 100)


  1. Human Geography
    Man and his Habitat : Concepts of Environmentalism and Possibilism. World Population-distribution, structure and growth (natural increase and migration). World, Society and Culture: races, languages and religions. levels of education and welfare. Settlements-rural and urban. characteristics and problems of urban places. Population/Resource Regions.

  2. Economic Geography
    Economic Activities : primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary Activity: agricultural systems subsistence, intensive, extensive, mechanized and mixed farming. Production. Distribution and Trade of Major Cereal and Non-Cereal Crops. Forests and Fisheries. Power Resources. Major Industries iron and steel, textiles and chemical industries. Politico-economic Relationship between the More Developed and Less Developed countries.

  3. Regional Geography
    Economic and Social Roegions of the world. Regional Geography of South Asia with special reference to Pakistan under the following heads: Resource base (Human Physical and Economic) Transport. Trade and International Relations.

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Suggested Readings

  Title Author
Physical Geography Lake, P.
Physical Geography Strahler, A.N.
An Introduction to Climate Trewartha, G.T.
An Introduction to Map work and Practical Bygott J.
Maps and Diagrams Monkhouse, F.J. & Wilkinson, H.R.
Human Geography Deblij, H.J.
Human Geography Bradford, M.G. & Kent, W.A.
Population Geography Jones, H.R.
Population Geography Clarke, J.I.
Economic Geography Pounds, N.
South Asia Jonson, B.L.C.
An Introduction to South Asia Farmer, B.H.
A Geography of Pakistan Kureshy, K.U.

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